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LBS Research Series 2014 (Mobile Location-Based Services Market)

A complete set of five unique reports - offering in-depth analysis and unique insights into the mobile LBS market. This package offers more than 800 pages of excellent reading and comprises the following titles in Berg Insight's M2M Research Series:

  • Mobile Navigation Services and Devices
  • Mobile Location-Based Services
  • LBS Platforms and Technologies
  • Location-Based Advertising and Marketing
  • People Monitoring and Safety Solutions


Executive summary

Navigation solutions for car and pedestrian navigation can be divided into multiple categories. Car manufacturers offer factory installed in-dash navigation systems as standard or optional equipment on a majority of their models sold in developed markets. Drivers that want to add a navigation system to their existing vehicle can choose among numerous aftermarket solutions, including in-dash navigation and infotainment systems, Personal Navigation Devices (PNDs) and navigation apps for handsets. At the end of 2013, there were 180 million dedicated car navigation systems in use globally, including an estimated 70 million factory installed or aftermarket in-dash navigation systems and 110 million PNDs.

Even though the share of new cars fitted with factory installed in-dash navigation systems will grow fast as prices decline, the penetration among vehicles in use will grow slowly. The average age of vehicles in North America and Europe has grown to 9 years. Aftermarket navigation solutions will thus account for a majority of navigation systems in use in the foreseeable future. Since the different solutions are tailored for slightly different use-cases, multiple navigation-capable device solutions can be expected to co-exist in the future. Many consumers are also likely to own and use more than one navigation capable device.

The PND device category is facing increasing competition from low cost in-dash OEM navigation systems, as well as aftermarket products ranging from in-dash systems to navigation apps for smartphones and tablets. Moreover, the penetration rate for PNDs is already high in many markets. Global shipments of PNDs fell 21 percent to 22 million units in 2013, which marks the fourth year of decline from the peak of 40 million units sold in 2008 and 2009. Even though some emerging markets are still showing growth, this will not compensate for the decline in mature markets. Berg Insight forecasts global PND shipments to decline to 10 million units in 2019. However, there are signs that the rapid ASP declines experienced in the past few years are slowing down.

The intense competition in the PND segment has led to market consolidation. Several vendors have exited the market - either in the most competitive markets or altogether, while others have acquired competitors. On a global level, the PND market is now dominated by the three vendors - Garmin, TomTom and MiTAC - that together hold 75 percent market share globally and more than 90 percent market share in Western Europe and North America. These companies have highly integrated operations ranging from hardware and software development to distribution. There are also some vendors that hold strong positions on a local or regional level such as United Navigation in Germany, Prestigio in Eastern Europe and Panasonic in Japan. As the market is declining, the leading PND vendors Garmin, TomTom and MiTAC, as well as the leading white-label PND software developers Elektrobit and NNG are increasingly focusing on developing in-dash navigation systems for the automotive industry.

Navigation services for mobile phones have been available since 2002, but have only become a serious threat to PNDs in the last few years as smartphone performance has improved and device adoption accelerated. The global active installed base of smartphones grew to 1.9 billion units at the end of 2013. Smartphone adoption - i.e. the share of all handsets in use - had reached about 35 percent worldwide, 67 percent in North America and about 58 percent in the EU27+2. Berg Insight estimates that the number of monthly active users of navigation apps for mobile phones was 180 million worldwide at the end of 2013.

The growing usage of mobile navigation apps has largely been driven by broader availability of free services. Starting in late 2009, all the leading smartphone platform and device vendors have introduced free navigation apps for end-users. Apple, Google and Nokia have developed their navigation apps in-house, while other device vendors such as BlackBerry, LG, Samsung and Sony Mobile cooperate with navigation app developers like Appello, Navmii, NDrive, ROUTE 66 and TeleCommunication Systems. Besides handset vendors, app developers also use distribution channels including app stores and mobile operators. As competition from free apps has intensified, app developers are increasingly focusing on freemium business models where the core turn-by-turn navigation service is free and users have the option to purchase additional content and features. Advertising is also gradually becoming a source of revenues for developers with large active user bases.


Executive summary

Mobile location-based services (LBS) are gradually achieving mainstream market acceptance along with increasing usage of smartphone apps. At the end of 2013, smartphone adoption had reached 67 percent in North America and 58 percent in the EU27+2. Berg Insight estimates that about 50 percent of all mobile subscribers in Europe were frequent users of at least one location-based service at the end of 2013. In North America where adoption of GPSenabled handsets is still somewhat higher, an estimated 60 percent of all handset users now access location-based services regularly. The increase in usage of LBS and the number of active users has finally resulted in significant revenue growth, especially for leading companies like Google and Facebook. In 2013, total LBS service revenues in the EU 27+2 reached an estimated € 735 million and Berg Insight forecasts LBS revenues in the region to grow to € 2.3 billion by 2018. In North America, revenues are forecasted to grow from almost US$ 1.8 billion in 2013 to nearly US$ 3.8 billion by 2018. The main growth will come from increasing ad revenues in the social networking and local search segments. However, various enterprise and B2B services such as mobile analytics and location-based advertising are also forecasted to grow fast in both Europe and North America in the next few years.

There are many alternative ways to categorise LBS. In this report, LBS are divided into eight service categories based on primary function: mapping and navigation, local search and information, social networking and entertainment, recreation and fitness, family and people locator services, mobile resource management, mobile advertising, as well as other enterprise and B2B services. The social networking and entertainment category is now the largest LBS segment in terms of number of users and revenues. It comprises a broad set of services that can be segmented into general social networking, chat and messaging apps, friendfinders and location-enhanced games. The mobile channel has become a priority for the leading social networks that see rapid growth in access from mobile devices. Many of these services have various forms of location support ranging from sharing geo-tagged content to location sharing and check-in features. Mapping and navigation is the second largest segment in terms of revenues and the third largest in terms of number of active users.

Although the number of active users of mapping and navigation services is still growing, revenues are only increasing slowly as competition from free and low cost services has intensified. More navigation service providers are now focusing on freemium apps where the core navigation service is free and users have the option to purchase additional content and features. Local search and information services is now the second largest LBS category in terms of unique users, driven by the adoption of handsets with improved capabilities and changing user habits. The recreation and fitness segment is also growing in terms of active users and revenues along with current trends of increasing attention to personal wellness. Recreation and fitness apps that turn smartphones into convenient substitutes for GPS devices and sports watches can cater to the needs of many outdoor and sports enthusiasts. Family locator services have been part of mobile operators' LBS portfolios for many years - especially in the US - but are now facing competition from app developers.

Broader availability and declining costs of smartphones is also enabling increasing adoption of workforce management services that aim to improve operational efficiency for businesses. Many businesses are now adopting more standardised workforce management apps, even large companies that have previously used customised solutions, in order to reduce cost of IT system procurement and maintenance. Mobile advertising and enabling various forms of enterprise and B2B services still remains a focus area for many mobile network operators. Besides working directly with major customers, operators are also exploring opportunities to leverage their assets, for instance by opening their location platforms to third party developers and location aggregators that play an important role as intermediaries between mobile operators and developers. Network-based location data is valuable for developers and third parties that need to locate any device, not only GPS-enabled smartphones. Mobile operators can provide network-based location data for a wide range of services such as fraud management, secure authentication and location-based advertising. Some mobile operators have now started to use anonymous bulk location data to improve the performance of their networks or to support internal marketing campaigns, for instance to upsell mobile broadband services, as well as support external customers in the mobile advertising industry. Location analytics data is also being adopted for diverse purposes such as site selection in the retail industry, as well as for urban planning and traffic monitoring by public authorities and private companies.


Executive summary

The mobile channel is gradually strengthening its position in the marketing media mix as smartphones are becoming ubiquitous and drive mobile media usage. One of the key developments in mobile advertising is the increasing integration of location-sensitivity, which releases the full potential of the mobile channel. A notable divide can be made between static and real-time location-based advertising (LBA). Targeting by static variables involves using information which is part of user profiles such as place of residence and work. Real-time location targeting instead uses location information which is gathered when an ad is delivered to a mobile user. Such LBA campaigns leverage the same type of technologies to determine user location as other location-based services (LBS). Common methods include GPS, Cell-ID and Wi-Fi positioning which are all based on real-time information.

Targeting by location in combination with other contextual and behavioural segmentation greatly enhances the relevance of mobile advertising. It has been demonstrated that locationtargeted ads generate considerably higher returns than conventional mobile advertising. The associated eCPM and CTR levels are several times higher. Berg Insight estimates that the total value of the real-time mobile LBA market worldwide was € 1.2 billion in 2013, representing 14.5 percent of the total mobile ad spend. Growing at a compound annual growth rate of 54.0 percent, the real-time LBA market is forecasted to be worth € 10.7 billion in 2018, corresponding to 38.6 percent of all mobile advertising and marketing. This means that location-based advertising and marketing will represent around 7 percent of digital advertising, or 2 percent of the total global ad spend for all media. Asia-Pacific is estimated to be the largest LBA market in 2018, followed by North America and Europe.

Key drivers for LBA include the growing adoption of both outdoor and indoor location technologies, as well as the increasing consumer acceptance of LBS in general. The market is favoured by the recent entry of a number of major enterprise players. Big-box retailers can leverage LBA to combat both online and physical competitors. LBA further opens up the mobile channel for new advertisers such as local merchants. The fact that LBA has higher performance has moreover translated into premium rates. The main barriers to adoption are related to the inherently limited reach of LBA which acts as a mental hurdle for advertisers. Education of advertisers and new methods for campaign performance evaluation are thus called for. Privacy issues can further not be ignored, but can be beneficially handled by privacy control options beyond simple opt-in mechanisms. The demand for geo-targeting remains comparably limited, but is bound to increase given the proven results such campaigns generate. The quality of location data is moreover expected to gradually improve.

The LBA value chain is still forming and there are a large number of players involved in the ecosystem. The industry remains fragmented and far from mature. Many different companies are involved, ranging from LBA specialists such as Verve, Placecast and xAd, to LBS players including Intersec, Telenav and Waze, and operators such as AT&T, SFR and the UK joint venture Weve. There is furthermore an abundance of location-aware applications and media which serve geo-targeted ads, with examples such as Foursquare and Shopkick. Other stakeholders include coupons and deals providers including Yowza!! and COUPIES, search solutions such as YP, Hibu and Yelp, and proximity marketing providers like Proxama, NeoMedia and Scanbuy. A number of traditional mobile advertising players are also active in the LBA space, for example Millennial Media, Madvertise and Smaato, as well as major digital and telecom players such as Google, Facebook and Apple. The latter is together with a range of other players pushing for BLE beacon adoption which is expected to take off this year.

There are a number of key takeaways from the current trends in LBA. Geo-targeting improves the performance of mobile marketing and greater shares of ad budgets are devoted to LBA. High-precision real-time geo-targeting is still sparsely used but is expected to get a boost in the near term. Best practices for LBA furthermore include the use of sound opt-in procedures and individual privacy measures, as well as ensuring that location data is combined with additional contextual and behavioural data to increase relevance. Current important highvolume LBA formats include mobile search and SMS campaigns. New developments moreover include real-world retargeting and mobile attribution solutions. The latter can prove the effectiveness of LBA by quantifying the impact on in-store visits and purchases. Berg Insight anticipates that geo-targeting gradually will become ubiquitous and available across the entire mobile channel.


Executive summary

People monitoring solutions that enable third parties to locate a person were introduced in the late 1990s. Today, most people monitoring solutions rely on GNSS and mobile communication technologies to determine the location of a person and transmit the data to a third party. Technological advancements have enabled dedicated battery powered GPS locator devices suitable for the mass market to become a reality. There are also a vast number of people locator apps that leverage the growing installed base of GPS-enabled smartphones.

Consumer-oriented people locator solutions range from family locator services that provide peace of mind for parents of children and teenagers, to solutions that assist caregivers of seniors and people suffering from various medical conditions. Family locator services that have been part of mobile operators' LBS portfolios for many years - especially in the US - are now facing competition from free apps. The willingness to pay for operator services is declining as consumers' awareness of free people locator apps has increased significantly in the past few years. Operators are therefore looking for additional revenues from related services, such as device management apps that monitor voice, data and app usage on children's handsets. Besides family locator services, there are many location sharing services that have similar functionality but focus on slightly different needs and use cases by enabling the user to control exactly when the location is shared, with whom and for how long. There were an estimated 35 million active users of family locator and location sharing apps in Europe and North America at the end of 2013.

Over the years, many companies have launched GPS-based locator devices for parents that want to locate their children and teenagers. The market has been slow to take off, initially due to low awareness, poor performance and high cost. Today, a handful companies have launched locator devices for small children that do not yet use mobile phones. Several of the new devices focus on ease of use and are designed to appeal to children. Another consumeroriented segment with large potential is pet monitoring. There are more than twice as many pets in Europe and North America as there are children aged 0-18 years old. Most pet owners are very passionate about their animals and consider them as part of the family. There are now a handful companies that develop GPS-based locators aimed at creating peace of mind for owners of dogs and other larger pets. Many of these locator devices in addition measure the pet's activity to enable health monitoring. The product category still suffers from lack of awareness among potential customers. The number of active users in Europe and North America reached about 100,000 at the end of 2013.

Several device vendors have started to address the needs of people caring for persons of all ages suffering from various medical conditions such as autism and other cognitive limitations, epilepsy and cardiac problems. Many of these companies are also addressing the market for systems that assist seniors living at home or in care homes. The assistance systems are commonly called telecare systems or social alarms in Europe and Personal Emergency Response Systems (PERS) in the US. Berg Insight estimates that there are already 6.7 million users of the first generation telecare systems in Europe and North America. The addressable market for the next generation mobile telecare systems is therefore large, even though the number of mobile telecare systems in use in Europe and North America had only reached an estimated 200,000 units in Q2-2014.

People locator solutions addressing the needs of business customers are available from companies in industries such as fleet and asset tracking, as well as IT and LBS specialists. Mobile workforce management services aim to improve operational efficiency and focus on managing individual employees. Cost savings can be achieved through better routing of employees as well as more efficient time verification and data collection in the field. Mobile workforce management is frequently part of fleet management solutions for commercial vehicles. However, many companies now adopt more or less standardised workforce management apps and services for smartphones. Industry sectors leading the adoption of workforce management solutions include construction, distribution and field services. Lone worker protection services primarily focus on ensuring the security of employees. Many lone worker protection services rely on dedicated GPS location devices featuring alarm buttons and man down detection sensors. Berg Insight forecasts that the number of users of workforce management and lone worker protection services in Europe and North America will grow from 1.6 million in 2013 to 5.2 million in 2020.


Executive summary

Mobile location platforms enable three categories of location-based services (LBS): public safety, national security and law enforcement, as well as commercial services. About 70 percent of all emergency calls are placed from mobile phones and it can often be difficult for callers to convey their location to first responders. Location platforms can not only reduce the time to find the location of the caller, but also enable more efficient handling of simultaneous calls from people reporting the same incident to distinguish single accidents from multiple events. Another use case is public warning systems that locate and send messages to all handsets within a geo-fenced area. Government agencies can use location platforms and data mining systems for infrastructure protection and location-enhanced lawful intercept.

Location technologies can be divided into handset-based technologies (such as GPS) with intelligence mainly in the handset, network-based technologies (for instance Cell-ID, RF Pattern Matching and U-TDOA) with intelligence mainly in the network, as well as hybrid technologies (for instance A-GPS and OTDOA) with intelligence in both the handset and the network. Several new hybrid location technologies are in development, aiming to improve the performance of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in difficult environments. In pure indoor environments where GNSS is unavailable, the most common location technologies rely on Wi-Fi location using RF Pattern Matching or multilateration, augmented with data from sensors in the handset such as accelerometer, gyroscope, compass and barometer.

The Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) E911 mandates for location of mobile emergency calls released in 1996 was a major driver behind the development of location platforms for the North American market. In Europe, as well as in other developed countries such as Japan and South Korea, early deployments of location platforms focused on supporting commercial services due to the lack of a clear mandate for emergency services. In the first deployment phase, lasting from 2000 to 2003, operators invested in platforms and services. Overall, the results did not live up to the expectations in terms of uptake or usage and many operators therefore lost interest in LBS as a mass-market proposition. In developed countries, most commercial LBS - especially consumer-oriented services - are now provided by third party app developers and handset platform vendors that rely on GPS and Wi-Fi location data obtained directly from handsets. Instead, mobile operators are showing a growing interest in using location data as an enabler for numerous enterprise and B2B services. Network-based location data can for instance support various forms of fraud management and secure authentication services. Operators are also starting to leverage location data for advertising and analytics applications. Government mandates continue to drive deployments of location platforms and new technologies. In most parts of the world, governments and telecom regulators are gradually introducing emergency call and lawful intercept mandates that require at least basic location platforms. Although most regulators have not yet imposed any specific location accuracy requirements as part of the mandates, more stringent location accuracy may well be demanded in the future as technologies mature and costs decrease. For instance, in the US, the FCC is considering updated mandates that would introduce accuracy requirements also for emergency calls made indoors.

In addition to supporting emergency services, a diverse set of players are also developing indoor location technologies to enable various commercial use-cases ranging from navigation, to marketing and analytics. The established location platform vendors and chipset vendors are extending their offerings to enable indoor location. At the same time, a growing number of technology specialists and start-up companies launch software or infrastructure solutions that enable handset vendors, app developers, enterprises and venue owners to add indoor location capabilities to apps and handsets that are already in use.

Berg Insight estimates that approximately 40 percent of the mobile network operators worldwide have deployed at least some type of basic location platform. Additional deployments as well as updates of existing platforms to support new location technologies and features can be expected in most markets in the coming years. The primary driver remains government mandates, but growing operator interest in advertising and analytics services will also play an important role in future growth. Berg Insight forecasts that total global annual revenues for GMLC/MPC, SMLC/PDE, SUPL A-GNSS and passive location systems will grow from € 190 million in 2012 to € 275 million in 2018. These revenues comprise licenses for new platform deployments, as well as capacity and technology upgrades, maintenance and support services for existing platforms.

Table of Contents


Table of contents

List of figures

Executive summary

1. Personal navigation solutions

  • 1.1. Overview of personal navigation solutions
    • 1.1.1. Car OEM in-dash navigation and telematics solutions
    • 1.1.2. Aftermarket in-dash infotainment and navigation systems
    • 1.1.3. Personal Navigation Devices
    • 1.1.4. Smartphones and mobile phones
    • 1.1.5. Tablets, phablets and wearable devices
  • 1.2. PND categories and segments
    • 1.2.1. Car navigation PNDs
    • 1.2.2. Embedded PNDs
    • 1.2.3. Multimode and rugged PNDs
    • 1.2.4. Truck and recreational vehicle PNDs
  • 1.3. Navigation app distribution channels and business models
    • 1.3.1. Navigation app distribution channels
    • 1.3.2. Active monthly navigation app users by distribution channel
    • 1.3.3. Evolution of handset navigation app business models
    • 1.3.4. App store strategies
  • 1.4. Vehicle fleets and navigation system penetration
    • 1.4.1. The European passenger car market
    • 1.4.2. The North American passenger car and light truck market

2. Map data and content providers

  • 2.1. Digital map data and image suppliers
    • 2.1.1. Nokia HERE
    • 2.1.2. TomTom Licensing
    • 2.1.3. AND
    • 2.1.4. AutoNavi
    • 2.1.5. Blom
    • 2.1.6. CE Info Systems - MapmyIndia
    • 2.1.7. DigitalGloble
    • 2.1.8. Intermap Technologies
    • 2.1.9. OpenStreetMap
    • 2.1.10. ZENRIN
  • 2.2. Traffic information services
    • 2.2.1. Traffic information systems
    • 2.2.2. RDS-TMC services
    • 2.2.3. The TPEG standard
    • 2.2.4. The VICS traffic information system
    • 2.2.5. Market developments
    • 2.2.6. Be-Mobile
    • 2.2.7. CE-Traffic
    • 2.2.8. Clear Channel Radio's Total Traffic and Weather Network
    • 2.2.9. Decell
    • 2.2.10. INRIX
    • 2.2.11. Mediamobile
    • 2.2.12. TrafficCast
    • 2.2.13. Trafficmaster
  • 2.3. Speed camera warning devices and database providers
    • 2.3.1. Coyote Systems
    • 2.3.2. Cyclops
    • 2.3.3. FoxyTag
    • 2.3.4. Road Angel
    • 2.3.5. Wikango
  • 2.4. Travel guide, POI data and weather information providers
    • 2.4.1. CustomWeather
    • 2.4.2. Foreca
    • 2.4.3. Fodor's Travel
    • 2.4.4. Langenscheidt
    • 2.4.5. Mairdumont
    • 2.4.6. NavX
    • 2.4.7. Solocal Group
    • 2.4.8. ViaMichelin
    • 2.4.9. Wcities

3. Navigation software developers

  • 3.1. Technology overview
    • 3.1.1. On-board, off-board and hybrid navigation apps
    • 3.1.2. Evolution of navigation app features
  • 3.2. Vendor market shares
    • 3.2.1. Handset navigation app market shares in Europe
    • 3.2.2. Handset navigation app market shares in North America
  • 3.3. Company profiles and strategies
    • 3.3.1. ALK Technologies
    • 3.3.2. Aponia Software
    • 3.3.3. Appello Systems
    • 3.3.4. deCarta
    • 3.3.5. Elektrobit
    • 3.3.6. Fullpower Technologies
    • 3.3.7. Google
    • 3.3.8. Intrinsyc Software
    • 3.3.9. MapQuest
    • 3.3.10. Mireo
    • 3.3.11. NaviExpert
    • 3.3.12. Navitel
    • 3.3.13. NAVITIME
    • 3.3.14. Navmii
    • 3.3.15. NDrive
    • 3.3.16. NNG
    • 3.3.17. Nokia
    • 3.3.18. ROUTE 66
    • 3.3.19. Sygic
    • 3.3.20. TeleCommunication Systems
    • 3.3.21. Telenav
    • 3.3.22. UbiEst
    • 3.3.23. Yandex

4. Mobile operator service offerings

  • 4.1. Navigation services from mobile operators in North America
    • 4.1.1. AT&T Mobility
    • 4.1.2. Bell Mobility
    • 4.1.3. Rogers Wireless
    • 4.1.4. Sprint
    • 4.1.5. Verizon Wireless
  • 4.2. Navigation services from mobile operators in Europe
    • 4.2.1. Deutsche Telekom Group
    • 4.2.2. Orange Group
    • 4.2.3. Telekom Austria Group
    • 4.2.4. TeliaSonera Group
    • 4.2.5. Vodafone Group
  • 4.3. Navigation services from mobile operators in APAC and the MEA
    • 4.3.1. Country profile: Japan
    • 4.3.2. Country profile: South Korea
    • 4.3.3. Bharti Airtel
    • 4.3.4. Mobile TeleSystems
    • 4.3.5. Telstra
  • 4.4. Navigation services in Latin America
    • 4.4.1. América Móvil
    • 4.4.2. NII Holdings
    • 4.4.3. Telefónica
    • 4.4.4. Oi Brazil

5. Device vendor profiles

  • 5.1. PND market developments
    • 5.1.1. PND feature evolution
    • 5.1.2. Market consolidation
  • 5.2. PND shipments and vendor market shares
    • 5.2.1. Shipments by geographical region
    • 5.2.2. PND hardware revenues
    • 5.2.3. Vendor market shares
  • 5.3. PND vendor profiles and strategies
    • 5.3.1. Garmin
    • 5.3.2. TomTom
    • 5.3.3. MiTAC
    • 5.3.4. Mappy / Logicom
    • 5.3.5. MEDION
    • 5.3.6. Panasonic
    • 5.3.7. Prestigio
    • 5.3.8. Thinkware Systems
    • 5.3.9. UniStrong
    • 5.3.10. United Navigation
  • 5.4. Handset market developments
    • 5.4.1. Smartphone platform market shares
    • 5.4.2. Smartphone vendor market shares
    • 5.4.3. Handset vendors and operators start to back new smartphone platforms
    • 5.4.4. Towards complete LBS offerings
    • 5.4.5. Handset vendor navigation service strategies

6. Market analysis and forecasts

  • 6.1. Navigation industry trends
    • 6.1.1. PND sales continue to decline in developed markets
    • 6.1.2. Low cost in-dash navigation systems drive take rates
    • 6.1.3. Free navigation apps now available for all smartphone platforms
  • 6.2. Regional markets
    • 6.2.1. Total navigation system penetration rate by region
    • 6.2.2. The European mobile navigation market
    • 6.2.3. The European PND market
    • 6.2.4. The North American mobile navigation market
    • 6.2.5. The North American PND market
    • 6.2.6. The Rest of World mobile navigation market
    • 6.2.7. The Rest of World PND market


List of figures

  • Figure 1.1: Main car navigation system categories
  • Figure 1.2: Connected car services by car brand (Europe and North America 2014)
  • Figure 1.3: The Samsung Gear S smartwatch with Nokia HERE navigation app
  • Figure 1.4: Car navigation PND feature comparison by products segment
  • Figure 1.5: Garmin and TomTom PNDs
  • Figure 1.6: Leading mobile app stores (February 2014)
  • Figure 1.7: Active navigation users by distribution channel (World 2009-2013)
  • Figure 1.8: Business models for mobile navigation apps and services
  • Figure 1.9: The European passenger car market (2013)
  • Figure 1.10: Car navigation system shipments in Europe (2003-2013)
  • Figure 1.11: The North American passenger car and light truck market (2013)
  • Figure 1.12: Car navigation system shipments in North America (2003-2013)
  • Figure 2.1: Examples of content providers
  • Figure 2.2: Major international digital map data suppliers
  • Figure 2.3: Traffic information platform
  • Figure 2.4: Examples of TMC service providers (2014)
  • Figure 2.5: Speed camera warning device and database vendors (July 2014)
  • Figure 2.6: Travel guide publishers
  • Figure 3.1: Mapping and navigation server platform
  • Figure 3.2: Navigation app and service providers by active users (World Q4-2013)
  • Figure 3.3: Handset navigation app market shares (EU27+2 2009-2013)
  • Figure 3.4: Handset navigation app market shares (North America 2009-2013)
  • Figure 3.5: Handset navigation app developers
  • Figure 4.1: Navigation offerings from North American operators (July 2014)
  • Figure 4.2: Examples of navigation offerings from European operators (July 2014)
  • Figure 4.3: Examples of navigation offerings from APAC and MEA operators (July 2014)
  • Figure 5.1: PND feature penetration in Europe and North America (2008-2013)
  • Figure 5.2: PND brands by original industry
  • Figure 5.3: Global annual PND shipments and revenues (2006-2013)
  • Figure 5.4: PND shipments by region (2008-2013)
  • Figure 5.5: PND vendor market shares (World 2007-2013)
  • Figure 5.6: PND vendor market shares (Europe 2007-2013)
  • Figure 5.7: PND vendor market shares (North America 2007-2013)
  • Figure 5.8: Examples of Garmin nüvi PNDs
  • Figure 5.9: Garmin Víago screenshots
  • Figure 5.10: Examples of TomTom PNDs
  • Figure 5.11: Smartphone shipments by vendor and OS (World 2013)
  • Figure 6.1: Smartphone, GPS-enabled tablet and PND shipments (World 2012-2019)
  • Figure 6.2: PND and in-dash navigation system penetration (World 2008-2013)
  • Figure 6.3: Navigation app and service revenues (EU27+2 2012-2019)
  • Figure 6.4: Annual PND shipments in Europe (2006-2019)
  • Figure 6.5: PND ASP, device and service revenues in Europe (2012-2019)
  • Figure 6.6: Navigation app and service revenues (North America 2012-2019)
  • Figure 6.7: Annual PND shipments in North America (2006-2017)
  • Figure 6.8: PND ASP, device and service revenues in North America (2012-2019)
  • Figure 6.9: Navigation app and service revenues (ROW 2012-2019)
  • Figure 6.10: Annual PND shipments in ROW (2006-2019)
  • Figure 6.11: PND ASP, device and service revenues in ROW (2012-2019)


Table of Contents

List of Figures

Executive summary

1. Introduction to location-based services

  • 1.1. Definition of mobile location-based services
  • 1.2. Mobile communication services
    • 1.2.1. Mobile voice and SMS
    • 1.2.2. Mobile data and applications
    • 1.2.3. Smartphone adoption and platform market shares
    • 1.2.4. A brief history of location platforms and services
  • 1.3. Mobile LBS categories
    • 1.3.1. Mapping and navigation
    • 1.3.2. Local search and information
    • 1.3.3. Social networking and entertainment
    • 1.3.4. Recreation and fitness
    • 1.3.5. Family and people locator services
    • 1.3.6. Mobile resource management
    • 1.3.7. Mobile advertising
    • 1.3.8. Other enterprise services
  • 1.4. Mobile app monetisation strategies and business models
    • 1.4.1. Free apps
    • 1.4.2. Paid apps
    • 1.4.3. Freemium apps and in-app payments
    • 1.4.4. Ad-funding
    • 1.4.5. New channel to market
    • 1.4.6. Bundled products and services
    • 1.4.7. Mobile app business model trends
  • 1.5. Mobile location technologies and platforms
    • 1.5.1. Mobile network-based location technologies
    • 1.5.2. GNSS: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Compass/BeiDou 2
    • 1.5.3. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi positioning
    • 1.5.4. Hybrid and mixed mode location technologies
    • 1.5.5. Probe-based and handset client-based location platforms

2. Smartphone ecosystems

  • 2.1. Smartphone OS platforms
    • 2.1.1. Smartphone platform market shares
    • 2.1.2. Smartphone vendor market shares
  • 2.2. App stores
    • 2.2.1. Apple App Store
    • 2.2.2. BlackBerry App World
    • 2.2.3. Google Play
    • 2.2.4. Nokia Store
    • 2.2.5. Windows Phone Store
  • 2.3. Ad networks and in-app ad solutions
    • 2.3.1. Apple - iAd
    • 2.3.2. BlackBerry - BlackBerry Advertising Service
    • 2.3.3. Google - AdMob
    • 2.3.4. Microsoft - Microsoft Advertising
  • 2.4. Smartphone industry analysis
    • 2.4.1. Smartphone platforms are becoming new vertical silos
    • 2.4.2. Towards complete LBS offerings
    • 2.4.3. Handset vendors and operators start to back emerging smartphone platforms
    • 2.4.4. The mobile web, HTML5 web apps and native apps

3. Operator LBS offerings and strategies

  • 3.1. The European operator LBS market
    • 3.1.1. 3 Group
    • 3.1.2. Deutsche Telekom Group
    • 3.1.3. Orange Group
    • 3.1.4. SFR
    • 3.1.5. Telefónica Group
    • 3.1.6. Telenor Group
    • 3.1.7. TeliaSonera Group
    • 3.1.8. Vodafone Group
    • 3.2. The North American operator LBS market
    • 3.2.1. AT&T Mobility
    • 3.2.2. Bell Mobility
    • 3.2.3. Rogers Wireless
    • 3.2.4. Sprint
    • 3.2.5. TELUS
    • 3.2.6. T-Mobile USA
    • 3.2.7. US Cellular
    • 3.2.8. Verizon Wireless
  • 3.3. Industry analysis
    • 3.3.1. Organisational capabilities and goals limit operator's ability to provide LBS
    • 3.3.2. Smartphone platforms challenge operators' role as distribution channel
    • 3.3.3. Operators are no longer the central source of location data
    • 3.3.4. Emerging opportunities for operators to sell bulk location data

4. Consumer LBS categories

  • 4.1. Mapping and navigation
    • 4.1.1. Mapping and routing services
    • 4.1.2. Speed camera warning apps and services
    • 4.1.3. Traffic information services
    • 4.1.4. Turn-by-turn navigation services
    • 4.1.5. Navigation app distribution channels and business models
    • 4.1.6. Mobile operator navigation service offerings
    • 4.1.7. Key mapping and navigation app developers
  • 4.2. Local search and information
    • 4.2.1. Directory services
    • 4.2.2. Local discovery and review services
    • 4.2.3. Travel planning, guides and information services
    • 4.2.4. Shopping and coupon services
  • 4.3. Social networking and entertainment
    • 4.3.1. Social networking and community services
    • 4.3.2. Check-in services
    • 4.3.3. Friendfinder services
    • 4.3.4. Chat, instant messaging and VoIP services
    • 4.3.5. Location-based games
  • 4.4. Recreation and fitness
    • 4.4.1. Geocaching apps
    • 4.4.2. Outdoor navigation
    • 4.4.3. Sports tracking apps
  • 4.5. Family and people locator services
    • 4.5.1. Family locator services marketed by mobile operators
    • 4.5.2. Third party family and people locator apps and services

5. Enterprise LBS categories and LBA

  • 5.1. Mobile resource management
    • 5.1.1. Fleet management services
    • 5.1.2. Mobile workforce management services
    • 5.1.3. Lone worker protection services
  • 5.2. Mobile advertising
    • 5.2.1. The advertising and marketing industry
    • 5.2.2. Advertising on the mobile handset
    • 5.2.3. Definitions and variants of location-based advertising (LBA)
    • 5.2.4. LBA formats
    • 5.2.5. LBA industry analysis
  • 5.3. Mobile marketing and analytics
    • 5.3.1. Case studies
  • 5.4. Other B2B and enterprise services
    • 5.4.1. Location-enhanced call centre services
    • 5.4.2. Fraud management
    • 5.4.3. Secure authentication
  • 5.5. Location aggregators and Location-as-a-Service providers
    • 5.5.1. Deveryware
    • 5.5.2. Locaid
    • 5.5.3. LocationSmart
    • 5.5.4. Lociloci
    • 5.5.5. Mobile Commerce
    • 5.5.6. Skyhook Wireless

6. Market analysis and forecasts

  • 6.1. Summary of the LBS market
    • 6.1.1. The European LBS market
    • 6.1.2. The North American LBS market
  • 6.2. Mobile advertising and LBA
    • 6.2.1. Challenges and opportunities
    • 6.2.2. Location can improve ROI for advertisers
    • 6.2.3. LBA market value forecast
  • 6.3. Vertical market trends
    • 6.3.1. Navigation apps continue to transition from premium to freemium
    • 6.3.2. Mobile search and information service usage approach PC access levels
    • 6.3.3. Social networking and entertainment increasingly monetise mobile apps
    • 6.3.4. Smartphones are increasingly used as recreation and fitness devices
    • 6.3.5. Family and people locator service adoption is driven by free apps
    • 6.3.6. Corporate efficiency investments drive WFM service adoption
    • 6.3.7. Enterprise services, mobile analytics and LBA


List of Figures

  • Figure 1.1: Mobile subscriptions by region (World 2013)
  • Figure 1.2: Wireless service revenues (World 2011-2013)
  • Figure 1.3: Smartphone adoption and market shares (EU27+2 2010-2013)
  • Figure 1.4: Smartphone adoption and market shares (North America 2010-2013)
  • Figure 1.5: Mobile location-based service categories
  • Figure 1.6: LBS system overview
  • Figure 2.1: Smartphone shipments by vendor and OS (World 2013)
  • Figure 2.2: Leading mobile app stores (February 2014)
  • Figure 2.3: Examples of mobile ad networks (World 2013)
  • Figure 3.1: Mobile operators by number of subscribers (EU27+2 Q4-2013)
  • Figure 3.2: Mobile operators by number of subscribers (North America Q4-2013)
  • Figure 4.1: Mapping apps and mobile websites
  • Figure 4.2: Speed camera warning apps (February 2014)
  • Figure 4.3: Traffic information platform
  • Figure 4.4: Traffic information apps and services
  • Figure 4.5: Android, BlackBerry, iPhone and WP 8 turn-by-turn navigation apps
  • Figure 4.6: Business models for mobile navigation apps and services
  • Figure 4.7: Navigation offerings from European operators (February 2014)
  • Figure 4.8: Navigation offerings from North American operators (February 2014)
  • Figure 4.9: Navigation app providers by active users (EU27+2 and North America 2013)
  • Figure 4.10: Leading directory service providers (2014)
  • Figure 4.11: Directory provider distribution channels and business models
  • Figure 4.12: Local discovery and review services
  • Figure 4.13: Online travel companies
  • Figure 4.14: Travel guide publishers
  • Figure 4.15: Shopping assistant and coupon services (2014)
  • Figure 4.16: Top ten social networks (World February 2014)
  • Figure 4.17: Mobile-originated social networking services (World 2013)
  • Figure 4.18: Examples of friendfinder services (2014)
  • Figure 4.19: Location-enhanced communication and chat services (2014)
  • Figure 4.20: Examples of location-based game developers and games (2014)
  • Figure 4.21: Examples of outdoor navigation app developers (2014)
  • Figure 4.22: Examples of sports tracking app developers (January 2014)
  • Figure 4.23: People locator services marketed by mobile operators (2014)
  • Figure 4.24: Third party people locator services using Cell-ID (EU27+2 2014)
  • Figure 4.25: People locator and location sharing apps (February 2014)
  • Figure 5.1: Examples of fleet management offerings by mobile operators (2014)
  • Figure 5.2: Workforce management services marketed by operators (2014)
  • Figure 5.3: Examples of mobile workforce management service providers (2014)
  • Figure 5.4: Mobile workforce management vendor segmentation
  • Figure 5.5: Lone worker protection service providers (EU27+2 and North America 2014)
  • Figure 5.6: Global advertising expenditure by media (World 2013)
  • Figure 5.7: Mobile marketing and analytics providers (2014)
  • Figure 6.1: LBS revenue forecast (EU27+2 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.2: LBS revenue forecast (North America 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.3: LBA revenue forecast (EU27+2 and North America 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.4: Mapping and navigation service revenues (EU27+2 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.5: Mapping and navigation service revenues (North America 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.6: Search and information service revenues (EU27+2 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.7: Search and information service revenues (North America 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.8: Social networking and entertainment revenues (EU27+2 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.9: Social networking and entertainment revenues (North America 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.10: Recreation and fitness revenues (EU27+2 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.11: Recreation and fitness revenues (North America 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.12: Family and people locator service revenues (EU27+2 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.13: Family and people locator service revenues (North America 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.14: Workforce management users and revenues (EU27+2 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.15: Workforce management users and revenues (North America 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.16: Enterprise services, B2B and LBA revenues (EU27+2 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.17: Enterprise services, B2B and LBA revenues (North America 2012-2018)


Table of Contents

List of Figures

Executive summary

1. Advertising and the mobile channel

  • 1.1. Advertising and digital media
    • 1.1.1. The marketing and advertising industry
    • 1.1.2. The Internet media channel
    • 1.1.3. The mobile media channel
  • 1.2. Mobile advertising and marketing
    • 1.2.1. The mobile handset as an advertising platform
    • 1.2.2. Advertising on the mobile handset
    • 1.2.3. The mobile advertising ecosystem
  • 1.3. Mobile media channels and formats
    • 1.3.1. Messaging
    • 1.3.2. Mobile web
    • 1.3.3. Mobile applications
  • 1.4. Mobile marketing industry overview
    • 1.4.1. Factors influencing the potential market value of mobile advertising
    • 1.4.2. Current state and future trends

2. Mobile location technologies and services

  • 2.1. Mobile network location architectures and platforms
    • 2.1.1. Location architecture for GSM/UMTS networks
    • 2.1.2. Location architecture for LTE networks
    • 2.1.3. Control Plane and User Plane location platforms
    • 2.1.4. Probe-based and handset client-based location platforms
  • 2.2. Mobile location technologies and methods
    • 2.2.1. Cell-ID
    • 2.2.2. Enhanced Cell-ID
    • 2.2.3. RF Pattern Matching
    • 2.2.4. OTDOA and U-TDOA
    • 2.2.5. GNSS: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Compass/BeiDou 2
    • 2.2.6. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi positioning
    • 2.2.7. Hybrid and mixed mode location technologies
    • 2.2.8. Comparison of location technologies
  • 2.3. Overview of mobile location-based services
    • 2.3.1. Mapping and navigation
    • 2.3.2. Local search and information
    • 2.3.3. Social networking and entertainment
    • 2.3.4. Recreation and fitness
    • 2.3.5. People locator services

3. Mobile location-based advertising and marketing

  • 3.1. Definitions and variants of LBA
    • 3.1.1. Static versus real-time location targeting
    • 3.1.2. Push and pull LBA
    • 3.1.3. LBA formats
  • 3.2. Market receptiveness
    • 3.2.1. Adoption patterns among brands and merchants
    • 3.2.2. Outcomes of different LBA strategies
    • 3.2.3. Consumer attitudes
    • 3.2.4. Privacy concerns
  • 3.3. Case studies
    • 3.3.1. Philips introduces retail marketing solution using light-based communication
    • 3.3.2. Proxama's NFC technology is used to market Guinness stout
    • 3.3.3. iBeacons leveraged by publisher to grant magazine access at select locations
    • 3.3.4. Tesco markets FIFA 13 game with innovative LBA campaign
    • 3.3.5. Thinknear helps Benadryl to target allergy sufferers through
    • 3.3.6. Disney markets video game platform via NFC-enabled OOH posters
    • 3.3.7. Plot Projects enables location-based notifications for apps
    • 3.3.8. Placecast teams with HARMAN to enable in-car LBA
    • 3.3.9. Meat Pack launches HiJack campaign to attract customers from competitors
    • 3.3.10. xAd's LBA technology used by Calvin Klein to drive awareness and traffic
    • 3.3.11. TAPTAP introduces a location-based mobile ad platform for retail clients
    • 3.3.12. McDonald's drives sales with LBA campaign powered by Todacell
    • 3.3.13. Heinz uses QR codes to create engagement and support causes

4. Market forecasts and trends

  • 4.1. LBA industry analysis
    • 4.1.1. Classification of LBA offerings
    • 4.1.2. LBA specialists
    • 4.1.3. Mobile operators
    • 4.1.4. LBS and navigation providers
    • 4.1.5. Location-aware applications and media
    • 4.1.6. Mobile coupons and deals providers
    • 4.1.7. Mobile search providers
    • 4.1.8. Proximity marketing providers
    • 4.1.9. Traditional mobile advertising players
    • 4.1.10. Major digital and telecom players
    • 4.1.11. Industry associations
    • 4.1.12. Mergers and acquisitions
  • 4.2. LBA landscape trends
    • 4.2.1. Drivers for success
    • 4.2.2. Barriers to adoption
    • 4.2.3. Overcoming the barriers
  • 4.3. Market forecasts
    • 4.3.1. Total, digital and mobile advertising market value forecasts
    • 4.3.2. LBA market value forecast
  • 4.4. Final conclusions
    • 4.4.1. Location filtering improves the effectiveness of mobile marketing campaigns
    • 4.4.2. Steadily increasing shares of ad budgets devoted to LBA
    • 4.4.3. LBA offers new possibilities for all categories of advertisers
    • 4.4.4. Real-time hyper-local targeting is expected to get a boost in the near term
    • 4.4.5. Best practices include sound opt-ins and combining location with other data
    • 4.4.6. Mobile search and SMS campaigns are important high-volume LBA formats
    • 4.4.7. Real-world retargeting and other innovations push the boundaries of LBA
    • 4.4.8. Mobile attribution promises to quantify the impact of LBA
    • 4.4.9. Location targeting will eventually become ubiquitous

5. Company profiles and strategies

  • 5.1. LBA specialists
    • 5.1.1. AdMoove
    • 5.1.2. CityGrid Media
    • 5.1.3. JiWire
    • 5.1.4. LEMON Mobile
    • 5.1.5. PayPal Media Network
    • 5.1.6. Placecast
    • 5.1.7. PlaceIQ
    • 5.1.8. Verve Mobile
    • 5.1.9. xAd
    • 5.1.10. Xtify (IBM)
    • 5.1.11. YOOSE
  • 5.2. Mobile operators
    • 5.2.1. AT&T Mobility
    • 5.2.2. Orange Group
    • 5.2.3. SFR
    • 5.2.4. Verizon Wireless
    • 5.2.5. Weve
  • 5.3. LBS and navigation providers
    • 5.3.1. Intersec
    • 5.3.2. mxData
    • 5.3.3. Sensewhere
    • 5.3.4. Telenav
    • 5.3.5. Telenity
    • 5.3.6. TomTom
    • 5.3.7. Waze
  • 5.4. Location-aware applications and media
    • 5.4.1. Foursquare
    • 5.4.2. Gbanga
    • 5.4.3. SCVNGR/LevelUp
    • 5.4.4. Shopkick
  • 5.5. Mobile coupons and deals providers
    • 5.5.1. COUPIES
    • 5.5.2. Groupon
    • 5.5.3. Vouchercloud
    • 5.5.4. Yowza!! (Spindle)
  • 5.6. Mobile search providers
    • 5.6.1. Hibu
    • 5.6.2. Mobile Commerce
    • 5.6.3. Poynt (Sprylogics)
    • 5.6.4. Yelp
    • 5.6.5. YP
  • 5.7. Proximity marketing providers
    • 5.7.1. NeoMedia
    • 5.7.2. Proxama
    • 5.7.3. Proximus Mobility (MobileBits)
    • 5.7.4. Scanbuy
  • 5.8. Traditional mobile advertising players
    • 5.8.1. InMobi
    • 5.8.2. Madvertise
    • 5.8.3. Millennial Media
    • 5.8.4. Nexage
    • 5.8.5. Smaato
    • 5.8.6. Sofialys
  • 5.9. Major digital and telecom players
    • 5.9.1. Apple
    • 5.9.2. Facebook
    • 5.9.3. Google
    • 5.9.4. Microsoft
    • 5.9.5. Yahoo!


List of Figures

  • Figure 1.1: Global advertising expenditure by media (Worldwide 2012)
  • Figure 1.2: Top 20 advertisers (Worldwide 2010)
  • Figure 1.3: Online advertising expenditure by region (Worldwide 2012)
  • Figure 1.4: Mobile subscriptions and handset sales by region (Worldwide Q2-2013)
  • Figure 1.5: Stakeholders in the mobile marketing value chain
  • Figure 2.1: Location architecture overview
  • Figure 2.2: Cellular frequency reuse pattern
  • Figure 2.3: Cell-ID location methods
  • Figure 2.4: Performance and limiting factors for network-based location technologies
  • Figure 2.5: Performance and limiting factors for hybrid location technologies
  • Figure 3.1: Examples of location granularities suitable for LBA
  • Figure 4.1: Categorisation of LBA industry players
  • Figure 4.2: Acquisitions in the LBA ecosystem (2013-2014)
  • Figure 4.3: Total, digital and mobile ad expenditure by region (Worldwide 2012-2018)
  • Figure 4.4: Mobile advertising expenditure by format and region (Worldwide 2013)
  • Figure 4.5: LBA revenues and forecasts by region (Worldwide 2012-2018)
  • Figure 5.1: Overview of LBA industry players
  • Figure 5.2: Ads by CityGrid featured in the Nokia HERE Maps app
  • Figure 5.3: LevelUp app interface and Sweetgreen white-label solution
  • Figure 5.4: NFC-enabled bus stop powered by Proxama


Table of Contents

List of Figures

Executive summary

1. Overview of people location solutions

  • 1.1. Handsets and dedicated locator devices
    • 1.1.1. Mobile phones and smartphones
    • 1.1.2. Dedicated people locator devices
  • 1.2. Market segmentation
    • 1.2.1. Mobile workforce management
    • 1.2.2. Lone worker protection
    • 1.2.3. Family locator services
    • 1.2.4. Pet locator devices
    • 1.2.5. Medical and telecare location solutions

2. Mobile location technologies

  • 2.1. Mobile network location architectures and platforms
    • 2.1.1. Location architecture for GSM/UMTS networks
    • 2.1.2. Location architecture for LTE networks
    • 2.1.3. Control plane and user plane location platforms
    • 2.1.4. Handset client and probe-based location platforms
  • 2.2. Mobile location technologies and methods
    • 2.2.1. Cell-ID
    • 2.2.2. Enhanced Cell-ID
    • 2.2.3. RF Pattern Matching
    • 2.2.4. OTDOA and U-TDOA
    • 2.2.5. GNSS: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou 2
    • 2.2.6. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi positioning
    • 2.2.7. Hybrid and mixed mode location technologies
    • 2.2.8. Comparison of location technologies

3. Family locator and consumer oriented locator solutions

  • 3.1. Family locator services marketed by mobile operators
    • 3.1.1. The European market
    • 3.1.2. The North American market
  • 3.2. Handset location apps and services
    • 3.2.1. Network-based handset location services
    • 3.2.2. People locator apps for smartphones
  • 3.3. Consumer oriented locator devices
    • 3.3.1. General purpose locator devices
    • 3.3.2. Pet locator devices
    • 3.3.3. Child locator devices
  • 3.4. Company profiles and strategies
    • 3.4.1. Amber Alert GPS: Specialises in locator devices for children
    • 3.4.2. Bipper: Develops the bSafe safety app for consumers
    • 3.4.3. CareWhere: UK-based developer of the Retrieva and Dog Tracker Plus collars
    • 3.4.4. dondeEsta: Family locator developer focusing on Spain and Latin America
    • 3.4.5. Filip Technologies: Developer of the Filip child locator wristwatch
    • 3.4.6. Garmin: Navigation device vendor entering the personal location market
    • 3.4.7. Glympse: Leading cross-platform location sharing service
    • 3.4.8. GTX Corp: GPS device and app developer for asset and people location
    • 3.4.9. hereO: Start-up set to launch the hereO family locator watch and app
    • 3.4.10. Kippy: Developer of the Kippy pet locator device
    • 3.4.11. Life360: Leading family locator app developer adds broader utility functions
    • 3.4.12. Loc8tor: Tagging and tracking devices for locating assets, pets and people
    • 3.4.13. Location Based Technologies: Creator of the PocketFinder locators
    • 3.4.14. Location Labs: Leading white-label safety app developer in the US
    • 3.4.15. PFO Tech: Fashion accessories featuring integrated personal alarms
    • 3.4.16. Securus: Focusing on the US personal safety and security device market
    • 3.4.17. Snaptracs: Developer of the market leading Tagg pet locator
    • 3.4.18. SPOT: GPS locator and satellite messenger devices from Globalstar
    • 3.4.19. Sygic: Leading navigation provider entering family locator and WFM markets
    • 3.4.20. TeleCommunication Systems: Leading provider of end-to-end LBS solutions
    • 3.4.21. Tractive: Austrian start-up specialising in devices and apps for pet owners
    • 3.4.22. Tramigo: TLD landmarks facilitates people location without using maps
    • 3.4.23. Whistle Labs: Pet activity monitoring vendor entering pet locator market
    • 3.4.24. WTS: Developer of the Trax locator device for children and pets
    • 3.4.25. Xh Mobile Solutions: WalkMeHome location sharing app for personal safety

4. Medical alarm, mobile telecare and mPERS devices

  • 4.1. Overview of demographics and common medical conditions
    • 4.1.1. The ageing population
    • 4.1.2. Medical conditions
  • 4.2. Telecare and PERS solutions
    • 4.2.1. The telecare service value chain
    • 4.2.2. Telecare and PERS services in Europe and North America
    • 4.2.3. Mobile telecare and mPERS devices
  • 4.3. Company profiles and strategies
    • 4.3.1. Doro: Leading vendor of handsets for seniors increases focus on telecare
    • 4.3.2. Emporia: Emporia4CARE enables positioning of handsets for seniors
    • 4.3.3. Everon: Developer of GPS wristwatches for telecare and lone workers
    • 4.3.4. GreatCall: Leading vendor of mPERS and handsets for seniors in the US
    • 4.3.5. KMS Solutions: Develops wristbands for vulnerable children and adults
    • 4.3.6. Limmex: Swiss telecare watch vendor ramping up sales globally
    • 4.3.7. LoJack: Leading SVR provider enters the telecare market
    • 4.3.8. Lok8u: Specialises in GPS wristwatches for seniors and children
    • 4.3.9. LOSTnFOUND: Swiss asset tracking vendor entering the telecare segment
    • 4.3.10. MobileHelp: PERS technology provider serving customers in 50 US states
    • 4.3.11. Numera: Developer of emergency response and connected care solutions
    • 4.3.12. Numerex: Enters people monitoring markets through acquisition of Omnilink

5. Workforce management and lone worker safety services

  • 5.1. Employment statistics
    • 5.1.1. Employment by industry
    • 5.1.2. Vehicle fleets, mobile workers and lone workers
  • 5.2. Mobile resource management solutions
    • 5.2.1. Mobile workforce management services
    • 5.2.2. Workforce management business models
    • 5.2.3. Market segmentation and key market players
  • 5.3. Lone worker protection devices and services
    • 5.3.1. Lone worker legislation and standards
    • 5.3.2. Lone worker protection services
  • 5.4. Company profiles and strategies
    • 5.4.1. Actsoft: MRM pioneer expanding sales through app stores
    • 5.4.2. Airclic: Specialises in software for logistics and field service companies
    • 5.4.3. Blackline GPS: Moving from consumer to business location services
    • 5.4.4. ClickSoftware: Expanding to the SMB segment through Xora acquisition
    • 5.4.5. CommonTime: Offers a platform for customisable enterprise mobility apps
    • 5.4.6. Contigo: Provides a hosted platform for tracking and safety applications
    • 5.4.7. Econz Wireless: Specialises in hosted WFM for the SME segment
    • 5.4.8. FleetCor: Enters WFM through Telenav business unit acquisition
    • 5.4.9. Genasys: LBS platform developer and provider of MRM solutions
    • 5.4.10. Guardian24: Pioneering lone worker service company enters the US market
    • 5.4.11. Kings III: Expanding lone worker services through Connexion2 acquisition
    • 5.4.12. Laipac Technology: Expanding from asset tracking to people tracking
    • 5.4.13. Oysta Technology: GPS vendor focusing on lone workers and telecare
    • 5.4.14. Peoplesafe: Managed lone worker services for the private sector
    • 5.4.15. PocketMobile: Customisable WFM for medium and large organisations
    • 5.4.16. Reach-U: LBS platform vendor offering a WFM service for all handsets
    • 5.4.17. Scandinavian Radio Technology: Leading GPS locator vendor in Sweden
    • 5.4.18. SecuraTrac: New focus on lone worker, mPERS and healthcare solutions
    • 5.4.19. Skyguard: Provider of end-to-end lone worker safety solutions
    • 5.4.20. Sonim Technologies: Manufactures the world's most rugged handsets
    • 5.4.21. TrackaPhone: Device agnostic platform for WFM and lone worker services
    • 5.4.22. Tsunami Solutions: Leading lone worker safety company in Canada
    • 5.4.23. Twig Com: Complementing TWIG devices with RF alarms, tags and beacons
    • 5.4.24. ViryaNet: WFM solutions for field service companies
    • 5.4.25. Vismo: Developer of security apps for international workers and travellers

6. Market trends and forecasts

  • 6.1. Market trends
    • 6.1.1. Family locator services shifting to free apps
    • 6.1.2. Low market awareness is now the main barrier for pet locator devices
    • 6.1.3. Ageing population will drive sales of mobile telecare solutions
    • 6.1.4. Rise of smartphones boosts workforce management service adoption
    • 6.1.5. Legislations and corporate policies drive the lone worker protection market
  • 6.2. Market forecasts
    • 6.2.1. Family locator services and consumer oriented people locator devices
    • 6.2.2. Pet locator devices and services
    • 6.2.3. Mobile telecare, mPERS and medical alarm devices
    • 6.2.4. Enterprise workforce management services
    • 6.2.5. Lone worker protection services


List of Figures

  • Figure 1.1: GPS handset shipments (World 2008-2013)
  • Figure 1.2: Smartphone shipments by vendor and OS (World 2013 and H1-2014)
  • Figure 1.3: Bracelet and watch locator devices
  • Figure 1.4: Tracking device infrastructure overview
  • Figure 1.5: Lone worker protection devices
  • Figure 2.1: Location architecture overview
  • Figure 2.2: Cellular frequency reuse pattern
  • Figure 2.3: Cell-ID location methods
  • Figure 2.4: Performance and limiting factors for network-based location technologies
  • Figure 2.5: Performance and limiting factors for hybrid location technologies
  • Figure 3.1: People locator services marketed by mobile operators (EU28+2 2014)
  • Figure 3.2: Family locator services marketed by US mobile operators (2014)
  • Figure 3.3: Third party people locator services using Cell-ID (EU28+2 2014)
  • Figure 3.4: People locator and location sharing apps (September 2014)
  • Figure 3.5: Consumer oriented people locator devices
  • Figure 3.6: Examples of consumer people locator device vendors (2014)
  • Figure 3.7: Examples of pet locator device vendors (2014)
  • Figure 3.8: Child population by age group (EU28+2 and North America 2013)
  • Figure 3.9: Examples of child locator device vendors (2014)
  • Figure 3.10: Wearable child locator devices
  • Figure 4.1: Population by age group (EU28+2 and North America 2013-2025)
  • Figure 4.2: Number of people suffering from various medical conditions (EU/US 2013)
  • Figure 4.3: Leading telecare solution providers (EU 28+2 and North America 2013)
  • Figure 4.4: Telecare value chain
  • Figure 4.5: Telecare users by country (EU27+2 and North America 2013)
  • Figure 4.6: Mobile phones for seniors
  • Figure 4.7: Examples of mobile PERS and medical alarm devices (2014)
  • Figure 4.8: Mobile telecare and mobile PERS devices
  • Figure 5.1: Employment by industry (EU28+2 and North America June 2014)
  • Figure 5.2: Workforce management services marketed by operators (2014)
  • Figure 5.3: Examples of mobile workforce management service providers (2014)
  • Figure 5.4: Mobile workforce management vendor segmentation
  • Figure 5.5: Lone worker categories
  • Figure 5.6: Examples of dedicated lone worker protection devices (2014)
  • Figure 5.7: Alarm receiving centres capable of monitoring lone worker alarms (UK 2013)
  • Figure 5.8: Lone worker protection service providers in the UK (2014)
  • Figure 5.9: Lone worker protection service providers (EU28+2 and North America 2014)
  • Figure 6.1: Unique smartphone users and penetration by region (2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.2: Family and people locator service revenues (EU28+2 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.3: Family and people locator service revenues (North America 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.4: Child locator device shipments (EU and North America 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.5: Pet locator device shipments and subscribers (EU28+2 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.6: Pet locator device shipments and subscribers (North America 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.7: Mobile telecare device shipments, users and revenues (EU28+2 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.8: mPERS device shipments, users and revenues (North America 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.9: Workforce management users and revenues (EU27+2 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.10: Workforce management users and revenues (North America 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.11: Lone worker protection devices and services (EU28+2 2013-2020)
  • Figure 6.12: Lone worker protection devices and services (North America 2013-2020)


Table of Contents

List of Figures

Executive summary

1. Introduction to location platforms

  • 1.1. Location platforms and location-based services
    • 1.1.1. Overview of mobile location platforms
    • 1.1.2. A brief history of location platforms and services
  • 1.2. Mobile communication services
    • 1.2.1. Mobile voice and data subscribers
    • 1.2.2. Mobile voice and SMS revenues
    • 1.2.3. Mobile data and application revenues
    • 1.2.4. Location apps and service revenues
  • 1.3. Mobile location platforms and technologies
    • 1.3.1. Mobile location platforms
    • 1.3.2. Mobile location technologies
    • 1.3.3. Location middleware
  • 1.4. The mobile LBS value chain
    • 1.4.1. Location technology developers and platform vendors
    • 1.4.2. Connectivity chipset vendors
    • 1.4.3. LBS middleware vendors
    • 1.4.4. Indoor location solution providers
    • 1.4.5. Mobile network operators
    • 1.4.6. Location aggregators and database providers
    • 1.4.7. Smartphone platform and handset vendors
    • 1.4.8. Mobile application developers and service providers
  • 1.5. Telecoms regulations drive location platform deployments
    • 1.5.1. European emergency call and privacy regulations
    • 1.5.2. LBS regulatory environment in the US
    • 1.5.3. Emergency call regulations in Australia
    • 1.5.4. Emergency call regulations in Canada
    • 1.5.5. The Indian Department of Telecommunications location mandate
    • 1.5.6. Emergency call regulations in Japan

2. Technology overview

  • 2.1. Mobile network location platforms
    • 2.1.1. Location architecture for GSM/UMTS networks
    • 2.1.2. Location architecture for LTE networks
    • 2.1.3. Location architecture and technologies in 3GPP2 networks
    • 2.1.4. Control Plane and User Plane location platforms
    • 2.1.5. OMA SUPL 1.0
    • 2.1.6. OMA SUPL 2.0 and SUPL 2.1
    • 2.1.7. OMA SUPL 3.0
    • 2.1.8. Handset client-based and probe-based location platforms
    • 2.1.9. Location in converged IP networks
  • 2.2. Network-based positioning technologies
    • 2.2.1. Cell-ID
    • 2.2.2. Enhanced Cell-ID and RF Pattern Matching methods
    • 2.2.3. E-OTD and OTDOA
    • 2.2.4. Uplink Time Difference of Arrival (U-TDOA)
    • 2.2.5. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi positioning
  • 2.3. GNSS and hybrid location technologies
    • 2.3.1. GNSS: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Compass/BeiDou 2
    • 2.3.2. Assisted GPS and A-GNSS
    • 2.3.3. Hybrid, mixed mode and indoor location technologies
  • 2.4. Comparison of location technologies
    • 2.4.1. Network-based location technologies
    • 2.4.2. Handset-based and hybrid location technologies
    • 2.4.3. Location technologies in development

3. Location technology market trends

  • 3.1. Multiple parallel efforts drive location technology development
    • 3.1.1. Emergency call location and public safety
    • 3.1.2. Location-enhanced lawful intercept and national security
    • 3.1.3. Consumer and enterprise LBS and apps
    • 3.1.4. Commercial indoor location services
    • 3.1.5. Mobile marketing and advertising
    • 3.1.6. Fraud management and secure authentication
  • 3.2. Smartphone ecosystems
    • 3.2.1. Smartphone platform market shares
    • 3.2.2. Handset vendors and operators start to back new smartphone platforms
    • 3.2.3. Smartphone platforms transform into new vertical silos
    • 3.2.4. Towards a complete LBS offerings

4. Commercial deployments

  • 4.1. Platform deployments in Europe
    • 4.1.1. 3 Group
    • 4.1.2. Deutsche Telekom Group
    • 4.1.3. KPN Group
    • 4.1.4. Orange Group
    • 4.1.5. SFR
    • 4.1.6. Telecom Italia Mobile
    • 4.1.7. Telefónica Group
    • 4.1.8. Telenor Group
    • 4.1.9. TeliaSonera Group
    • 4.1.10. Vodafone Group
  • 4.2. Platform deployments in the Americas
    • 4.2.1. AT&T Mobility
    • 4.2.2. Bell Mobility
    • 4.2.3. Rogers Wireless
    • 4.2.4. Sprint
    • 4.2.5. Verizon Wireless
  • 4.3. Platform deployments in Asia-Pacific
    • 4.3.1. BSNL
    • 4.3.2. China Mobile
    • 4.3.3. NTT DoCoMo
    • 4.3.4. Telstra
    • 4.3.5. Telkomsel
  • 4.4. Platform deployments in ROW

5. Market forecasts and trends

  • 5.1. LBS market trends
    • 5.1.1. Emergency call mandates remain a key driver for platform deployments
    • 5.1.2. Location-enabled lawful intercept
    • 5.1.3. Location-based services revenue forecast
    • 5.1.4. Smartphone shipment forecast
  • 5.2. Location platform deployments
    • 5.2.1. Vendor market shares
    • 5.2.2. GMLC/MPC and SMLC/PDE platform deployment forecasts
    • 5.2.3. A-GPS and SUPL A-GPS server deployment forecast
    • 5.2.4. Location middleware deployment forecast
    • 5.2.5. Indoor location platform deployment forecast

6. Location platform and technology vendor profiles

  • 6.1. GMLC and SMLC location platform vendors
    • 6.1.1. Alcatel-Lucent
    • 6.1.2. Creativity Software
    • 6.1.3. Ericsson
    • 6.1.4. GBSD Technologies
    • 6.1.5. Intersec
    • 6.1.6. Mobile Arts
    • 6.1.7. Oksijen
    • 6.1.8. Persistent Systems
    • 6.1.9. Polaris Wireless
    • 6.1.10. Redknee
    • 6.1.11. Septier Communication
    • 6.1.12. TeleCommunication Systems
    • 6.1.13. TruePosition
  • 6.2. Location middleware vendors
    • 6.2.1. Aepona
    • 6.2.2. CellVision
    • 6.2.3. Genasys
    • 6.2.4. Mobilaris
    • 6.2.5. Reach-U
    • 6.2.6. Telenity
  • 6.3. GNSS chipset and assistance server vendors
    • 6.3.1. Broadcom
    • 6.3.2. CSR
    • 6.3.3. Qualcomm
    • 6.3.4. Rx Networks
  • 6.4. Handset-client location platforms and location data aggregators
    • 6.4.1. Apigee: API management services for enterprises and developers
    • 6.4.2. Combain Mobile: Provider of global Cell-ID and Wi-Fi location database
    • 6.4.3. Esri: Leading GIS vendor acquires location platform developer Geoloqi
    • 6.4.4. Locaid: The leading Location-as-a-Service company
    • 6.4.5. Navizon: Expanding location database with Wi-Fi RTLS and analytics
    • 6.4.6. Skyhook: Hybrid location engine for device vendors and app developers
    • 6.4.7. TechnoCom: LBS compliance testing and location aggregation services
  • 6.5. Indoor location technology developers
    • 6.5.1. Aisle411: Indoor location services for retailers
    • 6.5.2. Apple: iBeacon Bluetooth LE for indoor location and proximity detection
    • 6.5.3. Aruba Networks: Wi-Fi vendor acquires LBS software company Meridian
    • 6.5.4. Boeing: Boeing Timing & Location using Iridium satellite signals
    • 6.5.5. ByteLight: Location and presence verification based on LED lighting
    • 6.5.6. Cisco Systems: Acquires location analytics developer ThinkSmart
    • 6.5.7. Estimote: Analytics and engagement platform using BLE beacons
    • 6.5.8. GloPos: Software-based indoor positioning using mobile network signals
    • 6.5.9. iInside: Bluetooth-based location platform and analytics for retailers
    • 6.5.10. Complementing Wi-Fi fingerprinting with Bluetooth LE beacons
    • 6.5.11. IndoorAtlas: Indoor location using magnetic field measurements
    • 6.5.12. Insiteo: End-to-end indoor location platform solution for venue owners
    • 6.5.13. Lighthouse Signal Systems: Indoor location service with open API
    • 6.5.14. Locata Corporation: Extends GPS coverage with ground-based LocataNets
    • 6.5.15. Loctronix: Software defined radio and sensor fusion developer
    • 6.5.16. Movea: Motion sensing and data fusion technologies for consumer devices
    • 6.5.17. Nearbuy Systems: Wi-Fi and video analytics systems for retailers
    • 6.5.18. NextNav: Developer of the Metropolitan Beacon System
    • 6.5.19. Nokia: Transitioning from device sales to technology and content licensing
    • 6.5.20. Point Inside: Shopper engagement platform for retailers
    • 6.5.21. Pole Star: Launching crowd-sourcing for global indoor location coverage
    • 6.5.22. Ruckus Wireless: Wi-Fi equipment vendor acquires YFind
    • 6.5.23. SenionLab: MEMS and Wi-Fi signal fusion software developer
    • 6.5.24. Sensewhere: Geo-fencing platform with crowd-sourced location database
    • 6.5.25. Trusted Positioning: Location software using MEMS and wireless networks
    • 6.5.26. Walkbase: New focus on retail analytics using Wi-Fi infrastructure
    • 6.5.27. Wifarer: Indoor location and content management system for venue owners


List of Figures

  • Figure 1.1: Mobile subscriptions and handset sales by standard (World Q2-2013)
  • Figure 1.2: Mobile subscriptions and handset sales by region (World Q2-2013)
  • Figure 1.3: Wireless service revenues (World 2012)
  • Figure 1.4: Mobile location system overview
  • Figure 1.5: Overview of the LBS value chain
  • Figure 2.1: Location architecture overview
  • Figure 2.2: Location Information Server in converged IP networks
  • Figure 2.3: Cellular frequency reuse pattern
  • Figure 2.4: Cell-ID location methods
  • Figure 2.5: U-TDOA location
  • Figure 2.6: Assisted GNSS technologies
  • Figure 2.7: Performance and limiting factors for network-based location technologies
  • Figure 2.8: Performance and limiting factors for hybrid location technologies
  • Figure 3.1: Smartphone adoption by region (World 2010-2013)
  • Figure 3.2: Smartphone shipments by vendor and OS (World Q2-2013)
  • Figure 4.1: Location infrastructure and technology vendor customer references
  • Figure 4.2: Location infrastructure deployments in Europe
  • Figure 4.3: Location infrastructure deployments in the Americas
  • Figure 4.4: Location infrastructure deployments in Asia-Pacific
  • Figure 4.5: Location infrastructure deployments in ROW
  • Figure 5.1: Emergency and commercial LBS revenue forecast (World 2012-2018)
  • Figure 5.2: Handset shipments by segment and price range (World 2012-2018)
  • Figure 5.3: Location infrastructure vendor market shares (World 2013)
  • Figure 5.4: Location platform revenues by region (World 2012-2018)
  • Figure 5.5: Indoor location platform revenues (World 2012-2018)
  • Figure 6.1: Location infrastructure and technology vendors
  • Figure 6.2: Location infrastructure and technology product offerings by vendor
  • Figure 6.3: Major location middleware vendors
  • Figure 6.4: Examples of GNSS chipset and assistance server developers
  • Figure 6.5: Location aggregators and client-based location platform developers
  • Figure 6.6: Overview of indoor location technologies by vendor
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