• Japanese
  • Korean
  • Chinese
Cover Image

Location-Based Advertising and Marketing - 3rd Edition

The mobile channel is gradually strengthening its position in the marketing media mix as smartphones are becoming ubiquitous and drive mobile media usage. One of the key developments in mobile advertising is the increasing integration of location-sensitivity, which releases the full potential of the mobile channel. A notable divide can be made between static and real-time location-based advertising (LBA). Targeting by static variables involves using information which is part of user profiles such as place of residence and work. Real-time location targeting instead uses location information which is gathered when an ad is delivered to a mobile user. Such LBA campaigns leverage the same type of technologies to determine user location as other location-based services (LBS). Common methods include GPS, Cell-ID and Wi-Fi positioning which are all based on real-time information.

Targeting by location in combination with other contextual and behavioural segmentation greatly enhances the relevance of mobile advertising. It has been demonstrated that locationtargeted ads generate considerably higher returns than conventional mobile advertising. The associated eCPM and CTR levels are several times higher. Berg Insight estimates that the total value of the real-time mobile LBA market worldwide was € 1.2 billion in 2013, representing 14.5 percent of the total mobile ad spend. Growing at a compound annual growth rate of 54.0 percent, the real-time LBA market is forecasted to be worth € 10.7 billion in 2018, corresponding to 38.6 percent of all mobile advertising and marketing. This means that location-based advertising and marketing will represent around 7 percent of digital advertising, or 2 percent of the total global ad spend for all media. Asia-Pacific is estimated to be the largest LBA market in 2018, followed by North America and Europe.

Key drivers for LBA include the growing adoption of both outdoor and indoor location technologies, as well as the increasing consumer acceptance of LBS in general. The market is favoured by the recent entry of a number of major enterprise players. Big-box retailers can leverage LBA to combat both online and physical competitors. LBA further opens up the mobile channel for new advertisers such as local merchants. The fact that LBA has higher performance has moreover translated into premium rates. The main barriers to adoption are related to the inherently limited reach of LBA which acts as a mental hurdle for advertisers. Education of advertisers and new methods for campaign performance evaluation are thus called for. Privacy issues can further not be ignored, but can be beneficially handled by privacy control options beyond simple opt-in mechanisms. The demand for geo-targeting remains comparably limited, but is bound to increase given the proven results such campaigns generate. The quality of location data is moreover expected to gradually improve.

The LBA value chain is still forming and there are a large number of players involved in the ecosystem. The industry remains fragmented and far from mature. Many different companies are involved, ranging from LBA specialists such as Verve, Placecast and xAd, to LBS players including Intersec, Telenav and Waze, and operators such as AT&T, SFR and the UK joint venture Weve. There is furthermore an abundance of location-aware applications and media which serve geo-targeted ads, with examples such as Foursquare and Shopkick. Other stakeholders include coupons and deals providers including Yowza!! and COUPIES, search solutions such as YP, Hibu and Yelp, and proximity marketing providers like Proxama, NeoMedia and Scanbuy. A number of traditional mobile advertising players are also active in the LBA space, for example Millennial Media, Madvertise and Smaato, as well as major digital and telecom players such as Google, Facebook and Apple. The latter is together with a range of other players pushing for BLE beacon adoption which is expected to take off this year.

There are a number of key takeaways from the current trends in LBA. Geo-targeting improves the performance of mobile marketing and greater shares of ad budgets are devoted to LBA. High-precision real-time geo-targeting is still sparsely used but is expected to get a boost in the near term. Best practices for LBA furthermore include the use of sound opt-in procedures and individual privacy measures, as well as ensuring that location data is combined with additional contextual and behavioural data to increase relevance. Current important highvolume LBA formats include mobile search and SMS campaigns. New developments moreover include real-world retargeting and mobile attribution solutions. The latter can prove the effectiveness of LBA by quantifying the impact on in-store visits and purchases. Berg Insight anticipates that geo-targeting gradually will become ubiquitous and available across the entire mobile channel.

LBA revenue forecast, € million (Worldwide 2012-2018)

This report will allow you to:

  • Identify tomorrow's most profitable LBA opportunities in the mobile space.
  • Understand the fundamentals of the ad-based mobile media revenue models.
  • Recognise the key enablers of growth in the LBA market.
  • Comprehend the relative importance of digital channels compared to other advertising media.
  • Learn about the experiences of LBA campaigns by top global brands.
  • Profit from valuable insights about LBA business models.

This report answers the following questions:

  • How can location technology improve the relevancy of mobile advertising?
  • What are the experiences from mobile LBA campaigns so far?
  • How should mobile LBA be integrated in the marketing media mix?
  • Which categories of companies can leverage mobile location-based advertising?
  • Which are the LBA specialists that stand out of the crowd?
  • How are mobile operators such as AT&T, Orange and SFR approaching LBA?
  • How are traditional mobile advertising players and major digital and telecom players positioning themselves in this market?
  • How well suited for LBA are the existing and future mobile media channels?
  • Which are the main drivers and barriers on the market?

About the Author

Rickard Andersson is a Senior Analyst with a Master's degree in Industrial Engineering and Management from Chalmers University of Technology. He joined Berg Insight in 2010 and his areas of expertise include Mobile Advertising, mobile VAS and commercial vehicle telematics.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

List of Figures

Executive summary

1. Advertising and the mobile channel

  • 1.1. Advertising and digital media
    • 1.1.1. The marketing and advertising industry
    • 1.1.2. The Internet media channel
    • 1.1.3. The mobile media channel
  • 1.2. Mobile advertising and marketing
    • 1.2.1. The mobile handset as an advertising platform
    • 1.2.2. Advertising on the mobile handset
    • 1.2.3. The mobile advertising ecosystem
  • 1.3. Mobile media channels and formats
    • 1.3.1. Messaging
    • 1.3.2. Mobile web
    • 1.3.3. Mobile applications
  • 1.4. Mobile marketing industry overview
    • 1.4.1. Factors influencing the potential market value of mobile advertising
    • 1.4.2. Current state and future trends

2. Mobile location technologies and services

  • 2.1. Mobile network location architectures and platforms
    • 2.1.1. Location architecture for GSM/UMTS networks
    • 2.1.2. Location architecture for LTE networks
    • 2.1.3. Control Plane and User Plane location platforms
    • 2.1.4. Probe-based and handset client-based location platforms
  • 2.2. Mobile location technologies and methods
    • 2.2.1. Cell-ID
    • 2.2.2. Enhanced Cell-ID
    • 2.2.3. RF Pattern Matching
    • 2.2.4. OTDOA and U-TDOA
    • 2.2.5. GNSS: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Compass/BeiDou 2
    • 2.2.6. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi positioning
    • 2.2.7. Hybrid and mixed mode location technologies
    • 2.2.8. Comparison of location technologies
  • 2.3. Overview of mobile location-based services
    • 2.3.1. Mapping and navigation
    • 2.3.2. Local search and information
    • 2.3.3. Social networking and entertainment
    • 2.3.4. Recreation and fitness
    • 2.3.5. People locator services

3. Mobile location-based advertising and marketing

  • 3.1. Definitions and variants of LBA
    • 3.1.1. Static versus real-time location targeting
    • 3.1.2. Push and pull LBA
    • 3.1.3. LBA formats
  • 3.2. Market receptiveness
    • 3.2.1. Adoption patterns among brands and merchants
    • 3.2.2. Outcomes of different LBA strategies
    • 3.2.3. Consumer attitudes
    • 3.2.4. Privacy concerns
  • 3.3. Case studies
    • 3.3.1. Philips introduces retail marketing solution using light-based communication
    • 3.3.2. Proxama's NFC technology is used to market Guinness stout
    • 3.3.3. iBeacons leveraged by publisher to grant magazine access at select locations73
    • 3.3.4. Tesco markets FIFA 13 game with innovative LBA campaign
    • 3.3.5. Thinknear helps Benadryl to target allergy sufferers through
    • 3.3.6. Disney markets video game platform via NFC-enabled OOH posters
    • 3.3.7. Plot Projects enables location-based notifications for apps
    • 3.3.8. Placecast teams with HARMAN to enable in-car LBA
    • 3.3.9. Meat Pack launches HiJack campaign to attract customers from competitors
    • 3.3.10. xAd's LBA technology used by Calvin Klein to drive awareness and traffic
    • 3.3.11. TAPTAP introduces a location-based mobile ad platform for retail clients
    • 3.3.12. McDonald's drives sales with LBA campaign powered by Todacell
    • 3.3.13. Heinz uses QR codes to create engagement and support causes

4. Market forecasts and trends

  • 4.1. LBA industry analysis
    • 4.1.1. Classification of LBA offerings
    • 4.1.2. LBA specialists
    • 4.1.3. Mobile operators
    • 4.1.4. LBS and navigation providers
    • 4.1.5. Location-aware applications and media
    • 4.1.6. Mobile coupons and deals providers
    • 4.1.7. Mobile search providers
    • 4.1.8. Proximity marketing providers
    • 4.1.9. Traditional mobile advertising players
    • 4.1.10. Major digital and telecom players
    • 4.1.11. Industry associations
    • 4.1.12. Mergers and acquisitions
  • 4.2. LBA landscape trends
    • 4.2.1. Drivers for success
    • 4.2.2. Barriers to adoption
    • 4.2.3. Overcoming the barriers
  • 4.3. Market forecasts
    • 4.3.1. Total, digital and mobile advertising market value forecasts
    • 4.3.2. LBA market value forecast
  • 4.4. Final conclusions
    • 4.4.1. Location filtering improves the effectiveness of mobile marketing campaigns
    • 4.4.2. Steadily increasing shares of ad budgets devoted to LBA
    • 4.4.3. LBA offers new possibilities for all categories of advertisers
    • 4.4.4. Real-time hyper-local targeting is expected to get a boost in the near term
    • 4.4.5. Best practices include sound opt-ins and combining location with other data
    • 4.4.6. Mobile search and SMS campaigns are important high-volume LBA formats
    • 4.4.7. Real-world retargeting and other innovations push the boundaries of LBA
    • 4.4.8. Mobile attribution promises to quantify the impact of LBA
    • 4.4.9. Location targeting will eventually become ubiquitous

5. Company profiles and strategies

  • 5.1. LBA specialists
    • 5.1.1. AdMoove
    • 5.1.2. CityGrid Media
    • 5.1.3. JiWire
    • 5.1.4. LEMON Mobile
    • 5.1.5. PayPal Media Network
    • 5.1.6. Placecast
    • 5.1.7. PlaceIQ
    • 5.1.8. Verve Mobile
    • 5.1.9. xAd
    • 5.1.10. Xtify (IBM)
    • 5.1.11. YOOSE
  • 5.2. Mobile operators
    • 5.2.1. AT&T Mobility
    • 5.2.2. Orange Group
    • 5.2.3. SFR
    • 5.2.4. Verizon Wireless
    • 5.2.5. Weve
  • 5.3. LBS and navigation providers
    • 5.3.1. Intersec
    • 5.3.2. mxData
    • 5.3.3. Sensewhere
    • 5.3.4. Telenav
    • 5.3.5. Telenity
    • 5.3.6. TomTom
    • 5.3.7. Waze
  • 5.4. Location-aware applications and media
    • 5.4.1. Foursquare
    • 5.4.2. Gbanga
    • 5.4.3. SCVNGR/LevelUp
    • 5.4.4. Shopkick
  • 5.5. Mobile coupons and deals providers
    • 5.5.1. COUPIES
    • 5.5.2. Groupon
    • 5.5.3. Vouchercloud
    • 5.5.4. Yowza!! (Spindle)
  • 5.6. Mobile search providers
    • 5.6.1. Hibu
    • 5.6.2. Mobile Commerce
    • 5.6.3. Poynt (Sprylogics)
    • 5.6.4. Yelp
    • 5.6.5. YP
  • 5.7. Proximity marketing providers
    • 5.7.1. NeoMedia
    • 5.7.2. Proxama
    • 5.7.3. Proximus Mobility (MobileBits)
    • 5.7.4. Scanbuy
  • 5.8. Traditional mobile advertising players
    • 5.8.1. InMobi
    • 5.8.2. Madvertise
    • 5.8.3. Millennial Media
    • 5.8.4. Nexage
    • 5.8.5. Smaato
    • 5.8.6. Sofialys
  • 5.9. Major digital and telecom players
    • 5.9.1. Apple
    • 5.9.2. Facebook
    • 5.9.3. Google
    • 5.9.4. Microsoft
    • 5.9.5. Yahoo!

Glossary

List of Figures

  • Figure 1.1: Global advertising expenditure by media (Worldwide 2012)
  • Figure 1.2: Top 20 advertisers (Worldwide 2010)
  • Figure 1.3: Online advertising expenditure by region (Worldwide 2012)
  • Figure 1.4: Mobile subscriptions and handset sales by region (Worldwide Q2-2013)
  • Figure 1.5: Stakeholders in the mobile marketing value chain
  • Figure 2.1: Location architecture overview
  • Figure 2.2: Cellular frequency reuse pattern
  • Figure 2.3: Cell-ID location methods
  • Figure 2.4: Performance and limiting factors for network-based location technologies
  • Figure 2.5: Performance and limiting factors for hybrid location technologies
  • Figure 3.1: Examples of location granularities suitable for LBA
  • Figure 4.1: Categorisation of LBA industry players
  • Figure 4.2: Acquisitions in the LBA ecosystem (2013-2014)
  • Figure 4.3: Total, digital and mobile ad expenditure by region (Worldwide 2012-2018)
  • Figure 4.4: Mobile advertising expenditure by format and region (Worldwide 2013)
  • Figure 4.5: LBA revenues and forecasts by region (Worldwide 2012-2018)
  • Figure 5.1: Overview of LBA industry players
  • Figure 5.2: Ads by CityGrid featured in the Nokia HERE Maps app
  • Figure 5.3: LevelUp app interface and Sweetgreen white-label solution
  • Figure 5.4: NFC-enabled bus stop powered by Proxama
Show More
Pricing
Get Notified
Email me when related reports are published