Poland, Romania, and Ukraine have by far the largest populations in Central and Eastern Europe, and their pharmaceutical markets are experiencing strong growth. To succeed in these markets, however, multinational companies must overcome some daunting obstacles, including underinvestment in healthcare, deficient healthcare infrastructures, limited patient access to health insurance and drug benefits, weak intellectual property protection, and competition from local manufacturers of inexpensive generic drugs.
Socioeconomic and demographic background: projections of total population, senior population, and life expectancy at birth to 2030; key economic indicators; investment in healthcare.
Organization and funding of the healthcare system: healthcare provision in the communist era; key reforms in the last two decades; access to health insurance and prescription drug coverage.
Intellectual property protection: reforms adopted in recent years; duration of exclusivity periods; challenges facing international brands.
Pharmaceutical pricing: procedure for setting prices; pharmacy and wholesaler margins; use of external reference pricing.
Admission to reimbursement: bodies involved in reimbursement decision making; reimbursement procedures; data requirements for manufacturer dossiers; reimbursement rates.
Cost containment: reference pricing; pharmaceutical budgets; prescription monitoring; measures to promote greater use of generics; patient copayments.
Outlook and implications for the pharmaceutical industry: need for increased investment in healthcare; implications of low drug prices in Poland, Romania, and Ukraine for these three markets and for other European markets; challenges in securing reimbursement; prospects for increased cost-containment activity.