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Professional Production LED Lighting United States of America Market Forecast

This is the ElectroniCast 2013-2020 forecast of the use of light emitting diode (LED) professional production lighting in broadcast/TV, motion pictures, videography and photography in the United States. The light emitting diode (LED) market, despite exciting innovative devices driven by technological advances and ecological/energy- saving concerns, still face challenges in overcoming marketing challenges from well- excepted incumbent lighting solutions before to attract widespread consumption.

The consumption value of LED lighting is currently increasing in the applications covered in this ElectroniCast market study, especially with "double-digit" annual growth in the broadcast/TV and motion picture categories. The videography and professional photography industry sectors are forecast for slower annual growth due to already having acceptance or at least a stronger presence in use, especially with the smaller light units that attach to the camera.

The use of LED-based lights in the motion picture/film category is driven by requirements for lighting effects and set lighting, mainly because of its flexibility. A single light source can generate a great variety of colors. Additionally, continuous cost/performance improvements driven by technological advancements are driving the LED lighting fixture market from a niche-only solution to a general use solution.

Another benefit, directly related to the use of lighting in studios and sets, is the consumption of less electrical power, since LEDs use less energy and also less air conditioning is required since heat generated by LED lights is negligible. Also, television broadcasters and to some extent the film studios are proud to publicize that they are good corporate citizens by incorporating LEDs in their operations and thereby embracing "Green Technology," such as the "Green is Universal" initiative by NBCUniversal.

The market forecast data are presented for LED lighting fixture (including the factory- installed lamp/panel), segmented by the following functions:

  • Consumption Value (US$, million)
  • Quantity (number/units)
  • Average Selling Prices (ASP $, each)

Note: LED professional production lighting, which used for General Lighting or for Entertainment lighting (concerts, live theater, sporting/other live event) purposes and not directly for the production purpose for broadcast/TV, motion pictures, videography or photography illumination is not covered in the market forecast.

Below, are five levels (or "food chain") pertaining to the LED marketplace. For the purposes of THIS ElectroniCast study, we quantify and provide a market forecast for Level 5.

  • Level 1 - The chip or die
  • Level 2 - The LED component (component-level bulb)
  • Level 3 - LED array; may include optics, heat sink and/or power supply
  • Level 4 - Lamp
  • Level 5 - Light Fixture (complete with Lamps)

Note: Only the LED lamp/light source and immediate fixture is included in values; therefore, racks, stands, carry bags/boxes, external cables, electronic control gear (ECG), transformers, service, etc are not included. The light fixture values include the light source (lamps) for the first (initial) deployment of the fixture. Replacement lamps/bulbs are not included in this market data. Lights integrated (built into) the camera are not included in this market forecast.

Note: Moving head-types of LED-based fixtures are common in TV studios and increasing in film productions. This study from ElectroniCast does include the moving-heads in the quantity (number of units) data count; however, the price of the fixture does not include this "added" feature (motor, mechanism and brackets for the moving-head).

The consumption value is determined by multiplying the number of units by the average selling price. The average selling prices are based on the price of the LED light fixture at the initial factory level. The consumption values are based on the end-user application. The market data are segmented into the following professional end-user groups (applications):

  • Broadcast/Television
  • Motion Pictures (Cinematography)
  • Videography
  • Photography

In 2014, the broadcast/television, motion pictures and videography industry sectors employ over 50,000 camera operators in the United States. Independent television stations, local affiliate stations of television networks or broadcast groups, large cable and television networks, or smaller, independent production companies, employ camera operators. There also are a large number of self-employed camera operators and film editors. Some self-employed camera operators contract with television networks, documentary or independent filmmakers, advertising agencies, or trade show or convention sponsors to work on individual projects for a set fee, often at a daily rate.

The LED is forecast to be the light source of the next generation in the professional production lighting sector studied in the ElectroniCast market research project. Current LED technology already competes favorably with Hydrargyrum medium-arc iodide (HMI), fluorescent and tungsten sources and is powerful enough for the new crossover photographers/videographers. Additionally, the increasing power output of LED technology is challenging the electronic flash in terms of popularity.

LED lighting for videography and photography is a relatively new technology; however, it is widely used in Hollywood and TV and movie studios Worldwide and is a cool running, energy efficient, light source with a beautiful quality of light giving excellent color rendition and natural skin tones. This LED technology is not just limited to large panels of light, but is also available in small, portable, battery operated units that sit on video cameras or many other Digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLRs) or mirrorless cameras that are currently available.

New professional LED lights are designed to meet the needs of demanding videographers and photographers. LED technology is a strong competitor to other light source technologies, due to its reliability and light quality, as well several other benefits of LED lighting in professional production applications.

Videographers film or videotape private ceremonies and special events, such as weddings. Some record and post short videos on Web sites for businesses. Studio camera operators work in a broadcast studio and usually videotape their subjects from a fixed position. News camera operators, also called electronic news gathering (ENG) operators, work as part of a reporting team, following newsworthy events as they unfold. To capture live events, they must anticipate the action and act quickly.

Camera operators employed in the entertainment field use motion picture cameras to film movies, television programs, and commercials. Those who film motion pictures also are known as cinematographers. Some specialize in filming cartoons or special effects. Cinematographers may be an integral part of the action, using cameras in any of several different mounts. Camera operators who work in the entertainment field often meet with a director of photography to discuss ways of filming, lighting, editing, and improving scenes.

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators usually acquire their skills through formal postsecondary training at film schools, colleges, universities, or photographic institutes; therefore, LED lighting manufacturers should consider these institutions in the marketing efforts. (Note: consumption of lighting equipment in the education sector is not included in this study report).

Most of the salaried camera operators and editors were employed by television broadcasting stations or motion picture studios; 37 percent of the salaried camera operators and editors worked for motion picture and video industry while 18 percent worked in television broadcasting. Most camera operators and editors worked in large metropolitan areas.

Camera operators will be needed to film made-for-Internet broadcasts, such as music videos, digital movies, sports features, and general entertainment programming. As the market for professional Internet video grows, camera operators may see increases in employment. Growth will be tempered, however, by the increased offshore production of motion pictures.

Job growth for studio camera operators in television broadcasting will be slowed by the use of automated cameras under the control of a single person working either on the studio floor or in a director's booth. For ENG camera operators and editors, growth may be tempered by the combination of roles and other cost-cutting measures at broadcast stations. For videographers, computer and Internet services will provide new outlets for interactive productions.

Market Forecast by Application

The consumption (use) of LED professional production lights in broadcast/television, videography, motion pictures and photography applications, during the 2013-2020 time-line is forecast to increase at an average annual growth rate of 11.3 percent.

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is studying the new LED lamps for suitability in motion pictures. Their research has discussed that LED lighting is currently a poor choice for getting good color, most particularly for getting good skin tones, which are particularly harmed. The example tests show skin looking more green and sickly instead of having a healthy ruddy glow. The tests show also that makeup looks inconsistent under LED lighting, and does not blend as well with bare skin. Tans, light browns, and reds tend to be harmed significantly, while some blues are enhanced. Colors in general appear to be less differentiated under LED lighting, and complex fabrics tend to 'flatten' and have less pronounced shading and texture. The use of these lights could impose greater costs, requiring color checks before filming.

The Motion Picture industry segment is forecast to grow at the fastest pace in consumption value. The Broadcast/Television industry sector continues to struggle with across the board expenditure reduction, due mainly to the decline in advertisement revenue. The professional Videographer and the Photography sectors, on a relative-basis, tend to use the smaller and the less expensive lighting.

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Market Forecast, By Light Shape and Size

his report provides an independent examination and analysis of the changing market dynamics for the major types of LED-based lighting fixtures, segmented by shape/size:

  • Small LED Light
    • Square or Rectangle (less than 12 x 12-inch)
    • Circular/Ring/Fresnel (less than 12-inch Outer Diameter)

Large LED Light Square or Rectangle (12 x 12-inch and Larger) Circular/Ring/Fresnel (12-inch Outer Diameter and Larger)

Market Forecast by Shape/Size

Market forecast data in this study report refers to consumption (use) for a particular calendar year; therefore, this data is not cumulative data. ElectroniCast estimates that larger LED lights lead in consumption value this year (2014) in relative market share versus the smaller LED lights. The average selling prices (ASPs) for smaller devices are significantly less than the larger fixtures.

In terms of volume (number of units), the smaller-sized units are forecast hold a substantial market share lead during the forecast period; however, because of their relatively low average selling price (ASP) compared to the larger-sized units, they have a (much) smaller market share in terms of value. ElectroniCast provides a detailed market forecast, in terms of volume (number of units in thousands) the price differences per size/type, as well as value ($ million), covering the years 2013-2020.

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International Trade Commission (Litepanels Case)

Market Analysis - Overview

This ElectroniCast report (sub-chapter 1.2) presents an analysis, ITC rulings and US Patent details addressing specifically allegations and actions by Litepanels (the market leader in this sector) regarding their claims of infringements of competitors, which obviously has an impact on the market forecast and analysis of LED-based professional production lights.

Announced in 2013, the International Trade Commission (ITC) in a large degree upheld the 2012 General Exclusion Order (GEO) recommended by the Administrative Law Judge that several companies had infringed Litepanels patents, which cover LED lights is certain applications. The ITC upheld the judge's ruling that the respondents infringed two Litepanels patents but reversed a finding of infringement of a third patent it found to be invalid.

The ITC's ruling said a broad general exclusion order was necessary to "prevent circumvention of an exclusion order limited to the products of the named respondents and because there is a pattern of [infringement] and it is difficult to identify the source of infringing products."

In most cases where it finds patent infringement, the ITC issues limited exclusion orders that apply only to the devices at issue in the investigation. The commission less frequently issues general exclusion orders applying to all products that infringe the patents, regardless of whether they were part of the investigation.

The Administrative Law Judge Essex made his decision based upon tens of thousands of pages of Exhibits, numerous Expert Opinions and voluminous testimony from the various Parties. The ITC noted that in the case of LED lighting, the cost of setting up a new company is relatively low, so it would be easy for the companies named as respondents to circumvent the order by shutting down and reopening as a different company.

Litepanels' initial complaint, filed in 2011, named numerous U.S. and Chinese companies as respondents, but many of them settled. The final ruling applied to four companies. Litepanels stated that of the fourteen (14) companies named in the complaint, all of the major manufacturers have taken the professional route and chosen to license its intellectual property to continue manufacturing LED lighting products for sale in the United States. The overwhelming adoption of licensing will ensure that the marketplace for LED lighting products remains as diverse, robust and competitive as ever. In fact, the licensing agreements now allow these companies to build on top of Litepanels' technology to create even more innovative products going forward.

In April (2014), ElectroniCast sees competition in the LED-based lighting applications covered in this ElectroniCast market forecast and analysis progressing, with new/ innovative product-line expansion.

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary, LED Production Lighting: Broadcast, Videography, Motion Picture

  • 1.1 Overview
  • 1.2 International Trade Commission (Litepanels Case)
    • 1.2.1 Market Analysis - Overview
    • 1.2.2 CASE HISTORY - Notices: International Trade Commission
      • 1.2.2.1 Request for Exclusion Order
      • 1.2.2.2 USITC - Notices of Investigation
      • 1.2.2.3 Initial Determinations
      • 1.2.2.4 Order - Nanguang: Litepanel's Claim
      • 1.2.2.5 Terminate Investigation: Visio Light, Inc.
      • 1.2.2.6 Announcement of Schedule
      • 1.2.2.7 Terminate Investigation: Elation Lighting
      • 1.2.2.8 Grants In Part Motion To Compel
      • 1.2.2.9 Grants Motion - Withdraw as Counsel
      • 1.2.2.10 Terminate Investigation: F&V and Nanguang
      • 1.2.2.11 ITC - Decides to Review
      • 1.2.2.12 Final Determination: Violation & General Exclusion Order
    • 1.2.3 Patent Briefs: Select Sections (Litepanels)
  • 1.3 Unpackaged and Packaged LEDs - Overview
  • 1.4 DMX512 Controllers
    • 1.4.1 DMX512 Hardware
    • 1.4.2 DMX512 Software

2 LED Production Lighting Market Forecast & Analysis, By Fixture Size and Shape

  • 2.1 Overview
  • 2.2 Square/Rectangle (<12x12-inch) Lighting Fixtures
  • 2.3 Circular/Ring/Fresnel (less than 12-inch Outer Diameter)
  • 2.4 Square/Rectangle (12 x 12-inch and Larger)
  • 2.5 Circular/Ring/Fresnel (12-inch Outer Diameter or Larger)

3 United States Market Forecast by Application: Broadcast, Videography and Motion Picture

  • Broadcast/Television Sector: Market Forecast
  • Motion Picture Sector: Market Forecast
  • Videography Sector: Market Forecast
  • Professional Photography Sector: Market Forecast

4 LED-Based Professional Production Lighting Competition

  • 4.1 Profile Briefs
    • Anton Bauer (Vitec Group)
    • ARRI Group
    • American DJ Group of Companies (ADJ)
    • Bescor Video Accessories Ltd.
    • Chimera
    • Cool Lights USA (Advanced Business Computer Services, LLC)
    • De Sisti Lighting
    • DiCon Lighting (Fiilex Brand)
    • Electronic Theatre Controls, Inc. (ETC)
    • Flolight LLC
    • Fotodiox Inc.
    • F&V Lighting USA (Fuzhou F&V Photographic Equipment Co., Ltd.)
    • ikan Corporation
    • Interfit Photographic Lighting, Ltd.
    • Kino Flo Lighting Systems
    • Konova Photo & Video
    • LEDZ
    • Litepanels Broadcast Lighting Division (Vitec Group)
    • Lowel-Light Manufacturing
    • Manfrotto (Lino Manfrotto + Co., S.p.A.) (Vitec Group)
    • Metz-Werke GmbH & Co KG
    • Mole Richardson
    • Nila, Incorporated
    • Photoflex®
    • Prism Projection, Inc.
    • Rosco Laboratories
    • Rotolight Inc.
    • Visio Light Inc.
    • Westcott (F.J. Westcott Co.)
    • Yuyao Lishuai Film & Televiosion Equipment Co., Ltd
    • Zabolight
    • Zylight LLC
  • 4.2 Competitor Market Share Estimates, by ElectroniCast

5 LEDs - Technology Overview

6 Definitions - Acronyms, Abbreviations, and General Terms

  • 6.1 Acronyms, Abbreviations, and General Terms
  • 6.2 Lighting Standards and Protocols

7 ElectroniCast Market Research Methodology

8 ElectroniCast Market Forecast Data Base

  • 8.1 Overview
  • 8.2 Tutorial

Addendum

  • Excel Data Base Spreadsheets (United States Market Forecast)
    • Detailed Data: ASP ($, each), Quantity (Million), Value ($, Million)
  • Power Point Market Data Figures (Unites States Market Forecast)
  • PDF File: U.S. International Trade Commission - General Exclusion Order (Litepanels Case)

List of Tables

  • 1.1.1 LED Professional Production Lighting Fixtures USA Forecast, By Application ($Million)
  • 1.1.2 LED Professional Production Lighting Fixtures USA Forecast, By Application (Quantity/Units)
  • 1.1.3 LED Professional Production Lighting Fixtures USA Forecast, By Size/Shape ($Million)
  • 1.1.4 LED Professional Production Lighting Fixtures USA Forecast, By Size/Shape (Quantity/Units)
  • 1.1.3 LED Professional Production Lighting Fixtures USA Forecast, By Size/Shape (ASP, $ Each)
  • 1.3.1 Typical Luminous Efficacies for Traditional and LED Sources
  • 3.1 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Broadcast, By Size/Shape ($Million)
  • 3.2 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Broadcast, By Size/Shape (Quantity/Units)
  • 3.3 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Broadcast, By Size/Shape (ASP, $ Each)
  • 3.4 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Motion Pictures, By Size/Shape ($Million)
  • 3.5 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Motion Pictures, By Size/Shape (Quantity/Units)
  • 3.6 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Motion Pictures, By Size/Shape (ASP, $ Each)
  • 3.7 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Videography, By Size/Shape ($Million)
  • 3.8 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Videography, By Size/Shape (Quantity/Units)
  • 3.9 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Videography, By Size/Shape (ASP, $ Each)
  • 3.1 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Photography, By Size/Shape ($Million)
  • 3.11 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Photography, By Size/Shape (Quantity/Units)
  • 3.12 USA Forecast of LED Fixtures Used in Photography, By Size/Shape (ASP, $ Each)
  • 4.1.1 Litepanels Patents
  • 4.2.1 LED Professional Production Light Panel/Fixture USA: Competitor Market Share (%)
  • 5.1 LED Color Variety - Selected Examples
  • 5.2 LED Color Chart

List of Figures

  • 1.1.1 Camera-Mountable LED Fixture
  • 1.1.2 Slim Profile, Small LED Rectangle Light
  • 1.1.3 Circular Camera-Mountable LED Fixture
  • 1.1.4 LED Fresnel Light Fixture
  • 1.1.5 12x12-inch Light Panel
  • 1.1.6 19-Inch LED Ring Light Fixture Set
  • 1.3.1 Diagram of a typical LED chip
  • 1.3.2 Diagram of a typical LED chip
  • 1.3.3 LED Chip Cross-Sectional Structure
  • 1.3.4 Chip On Glass Cross-Sectional Structure
  • 1.3.5 ESD Protection Diodes
  • 1.3.6 Electrostatic Discharge Example
  • 1.3.7 Chip-on-Board LED Technology
  • 1.3.8 Single-die LED: 1000 lm at 100 lm/W at 3A
  • 1.3.9 Four-die LED with Primary Optics
  • 1.3.10 LED Packaged Chip
  • 1.3.11 LED Packaged Chip
  • 1.3.12 LED Packaged Chip Surface Mount Variations
  • 1.3.13 LED Packaged Chip
  • 1.3.14 High Brightness LED Packaged Chip
  • 1.4.1.1 DMX512 HB-LED Implementation
  • 1.4.1.2 Discrete DMX512 Receiver Block Diagram
  • 1.4.1.3 DMX512 Receiver Block Diagram
  • 1.4.1.4 DMX Dimmer Pack
  • 1.4.1.5 Rack-Mount DMX & RDM Splitter
  • 1.4.1.6 USB - DMX512 Modules
  • 1.4.1.7 DMX-to-Analog Converter
  • 1.4.1.8 DMX Tester
  • 1.4.1.9 Lighting Playback & Integration Processor
  • 1.4.1.10 DIN Rail DMX512 Fail-Over Switch
  • 1.4.2.1 USB-DMX interface - Software Deliverables
  • 1.4.2.2 PC-DMX Controller - Software
  • 1.4.2.3 Lighting Control Software: Control Builder Screen Page View
  • 2.1.1 LED Production Lighting Panel/Fixtures
  • 2.1.2 LED Production Lighting Panels/Fixtures USA Forecast, By Size and Shape ($ Million)
  • 2.1.3 LED Production Lighting Panels/Fixtures USA Forecast, By Size and Shape (Quantity/Units)
  • 2.1.4 LED Production Lighting Panels/Fixtures USA Forecast, By Size and Shape (ASP, $ Each)
  • 2.2.1 Square or Rectangle LED Fixtures, Less than 12x12-inch in Size USA Forecast, ($ Million)
  • 2.2.2 Square or Rectangle LED Fixtures, Less than 12x12-inch in Size USA Forecast, (Quantity/Units)
  • 2.2.3 Square or Rectangle LED Fixtures, Less than 12x12-inch in Size USA Forecast, (ASP, $ Each)
  • 2.2.4 Small Rectangle LED Light Fixture
  • 2.2.5 Small Rectangle LED Light Fixture
  • 2.3.1 Circular/Ring/Fresnel LED Fixtures, Less than 12-inch in Diameter USA Forecast, ($ Million)
  • 2.3.2 Circular/Ring/Fresnel LED Fixtures, Less than 12-inch in Diameter USA Forecast, (Quantity/Units)
  • 2.3.3 Circular/Ring/Fresnel LED Fixtures, Less than 12-inch in Diameter USA Forecast, (ASP, $ Each)
  • 2.3.4 8.3-inch Diameter LED Circular Spot
  • 2.4.1 Square or Rectangle LED Fixtures, 12x12-inch in Size or Larger USA Forecast, ($ Million)
  • 2.4.2 Square or Rectangle LED Fixtures, 12x12-inch in Size or Larger USA Forecast, (Quantity/Units)
  • 2.4.3 Square or Rectangle LED Fixtures, 12x12-inch in Size or Larger USA Forecast, (ASP, $ Each)
  • 2.4.4 14x14-inch LED Light Panel
  • 2.5.1 Circular/Ring/Fresnel LED Fixtures, 12-inch in Diameter or Larger USA Forecast, ($ Million)
  • 2.5.2 Circular/Ring/Fresnel LED Fixtures, 12-inch in Diameter or Larger USA Forecast, (Quantity/Units)
  • 2.5.3 Circular/Ring/Fresnel LED Fixtures, 12-inch in Diameter or Larger USA Forecast, (ASP, $ Each)
  • 2.5.4 LED Circular Fresnel Spot Fixtures
  • 3.1 LED Professional Production Lighting Fixtures USA Forecast, By Application ($ Million)
  • 3.2 LED Professional Production Lighting Fixtures USA Forecast, By Application (Quantity/Units)
  • 4.1.1 Compact Base Foundation for Quick Change Head Module System
  • 4.1.2 LED Fresnel Light: L-Series
  • 4.1.3 LED Fresnel Light
  • 4.1.4 LED-Based Lighting - Photography
  • 4.1.5 LED-Based Lighting for Music Video
  • 4.1.6 LED Daylight Panel
  • 4.1.7 Fresnel Lens Spotlight Using a LED array
  • 4.1.8 4-inch x 4.7-inch Round Light/Fixture
  • 4.1.9 Dense Matrix LED / LED-Based Light Source
  • 4.1.10 LED-Based Spotlight
  • 4.1.11 LED-Based Production Lamp/Fixtures with Stands and Carry Bags
  • 4.1.12 High-Intensity LED Fresnel Light for Film & Television
  • 4.1.13 Daylight Studio Panel Light with 400 LEDs
  • 4.1.14 Powerful Compact LED Light
  • 4.1.15 500 LED Studio Light
  • 4.1.16 LED-based Photographic Panel Lighting
  • 4.1.17 DMX LED Light Fixture
  • 4.1.18 LED Light Fixture System
  • 4.1.19 LED-Based Fresnel Light Fixtures
  • 4.1.20 LED-Based Fresnel Light Fixtures
  • 4.1.21 LED-Based Fresnel Light Fixture (12-inches)
  • 4.1.22 LED Module for Fresnel Light
  • 4.1.23 LED-Based Production Lamp/Fixture (Front and Rear view)
  • 4.1.24 Portable LED-Based Light
  • 4.1.25 Professional LED Light designed for Videographers and Photographers
  • 4.1.26 Manufacturing Plant in Germany
  • 4.1.27 LED-Based 4.5" (114mm) Fresnel
  • 4.1.28 LED-Based Production Lamp/Fixture (Front and Rear view)
  • 4.1.29 LED-Based Lamps/Fixtures
  • 4.1.30 LED-Based Lamps/Fixtures
  • 4.1.31 100watt Single LED Light Unit
  • 4.1.32 LED-Based Photography Lights
  • 4.1.33 Light with 144 LEDs
  • 4.1.34 LED Light for Motion and Still Capture
  • 4.1.35 LED-Based Photography Light
  • 4.1.36 LED-Based Production Lamp/Fixture
  • 4.1.37 LED-Based Production Lamp/Fixture (Front and Rear view)
  • 4.1.38 LED-Based Production Panel Light
  • 4.2.1 LED Professional Production Light Panel/Fixture USA: Competitor Market Share (%)
  • 5.1 RPCVD Process Equipment
  • 5.2 LED Chromatic Chart
  • 5.3 Evolution of Research Emphasis During Technology Life Cycle
  • 5.4 LED Chip: Metal Layer (Thin Film Technology)
  • 5.5 Vertical LED Chip
  • 5.6 AC LED Technology on a Wafer
  • 5.7 Ultra High Bright LED Chip
  • 5.8 LED Chip Design with Copper Alloy Thermal Conductivity
  • 5.9 LED Chip Design - Sapphire vs. Copper Alloy
  • 5.1 Ultra-Thin LED
  • 5.11 Solid-State Lighting LED
  • 5.12 LED Module with High Light Quality
  • 5.13 Lumiramic Phosphor Technology: Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC) technology
  • 5.14 Next-Generation Light Emitting Diode Module
  • 5.15 4-Leaded RGB LED
  • 5.16 Basic Structure of a Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diode
  • 5.17 Vertically Conducting Advanced LED Structure
  • 5.18 AlGaInP LED Efficacy
  • 5.19 A Plate of Red Nitride Phosphors
  • 7.1 Market Research & Forecasting Methodology
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