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LED Lamp General Lighting in the U.S.A. Market Forecast and Analysis (2012-2017)

ElectroniCast Consultants provides the research findings of their study of the United States consumption of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps (also known as “consumer-level bulbs”), which are used in luminaires in stationary/fixed location (non-vehicle/non-portable) solid-state lighting (SSL) General Lighting applications. The lamps are used in new fittings, as well as retrofitting/replacement of existing (installed-based) lamps.

General Lighting provides the main illumination of an area. In this study, we provide a market review for the year 2012 plus our forecast and analysis (2013-2017) of LED lamps used for general lighting, including interior and exterior decorative and functional lighting for residential, commercial and government areas.

For the purposes of this study, ElectroniCast Consultants includes Directional Lighting, Supplementary Lighting and Architectural Lighting in the General Lighting category. Lighting used in theaters, photography, newsgathering (TV broadcasts, film, similar) and even lighting used in nightclubs on the dance floor are considered general Lighting; however, lamps used in signage, displays and signal lighting are not included in the market forecast data for this study.

LEDs are used in both functional and decorative light fixtures, with an advantage of energy savings. Compared to incandescent lighting, LED-based lighting delivers visible light with reduced heat. In addition, its solid-state nature provides for greater resistance to shock, vibration, and wear, thereby significantly increasing its lifespan.

LED Level Quantified in the ElectroniCast Study

Below, are four levels (or “food chain”) pertaining to the LED marketplace. For the purposes of this ElectroniCast study, we quantify and provide a market forecast for “Level 3”

    Level 1 - The chip or die

    Level 2 - The Packaged LED

    Level 3 - Lamp (Consumer-Level Bulb, Globe, Linear Tube, Panel)

    Level 4 - Luminaire (lamp(s), light fixture/lamp holder/fitting)

This report provides market data review by the following functions:

  • Consumption Value (US$)
  • Quantity (number/units)
  • Average Selling Prices ($, each)

The average selling prices (ASP) are based on the price of the LED lamp at the initial factory level (prior to FOB - Free On Board). The value is then based on the end-use application in the United States.

Forecast Lighting Demand Growth

Based on primary research (interviews and evaluations) with engineers and product planners, ElectroniCast Consultants can see ideas and then (eventually) concepts about 3-7 years before innovation solutions (products) are announced in the public domain. Once we feel confident that these ideas and concepts will become innovative solutions (new products), we set anticipated usage into the market forecast. Therefore, as we are looking as several years, many of the future products may not even be at the idea-stage yet. ElectroniCast Consultants, in effect, forecast lighting demand growth, which will drive demand for increased capability/capacity LEDs; therefore, we have expertise of what to look for. We help our clients find the next window of opportunity.

Increasingly, the automatic assembly and test manufacturing process for LED solid-state lighting products allow for mass-production capability. In addition, over the next few years, the average selling prices of the SSL general lighting products will be driven lower, as a result of production efficiencies, yield improvements (aided by quality controls), competition (both market competition and technology competition), marketing/sales distribution improvements, and other factors.

Market Forecast Product Categories

This market forecast of United States consumption is presented for eight major lamp-type categories. The lamp categories, in turn, may have multiple sub-categories, which are determined by physical size of the lamp (also Watt equivalency in the Type-A category).

Note: lower-level products, which are indented in the list shown in Table 1, are summed-up to the higher-level product category stated above it.

Table 1
Market Forecast Data Base Hierachy Structure
U.S.A. General Lighting LED Lamp Product Category List

  • Total Consumption: LED Lamps
    • Parabolic aluminized reflector (PAR)
      • PAR16
      • PAR20
      • PAR30
      • PAR38
      • PAR56
      • PAR64
      • PAR-Types: Other (Miscellaneous) Sizes
    • General Service (Type - A)
      • A15
      • A19 / Other Type A (sizes)
        • A19
          • A19 (60W equivalent)
          • A19 (75W equivalent)
          • A19 (100W equivalent)
        • Other A19 and Other Type A Sizes
    • Decorative Types: Globe, Other (Candle, Fancy Round, Other)
      • Globe Shape
      • Other Decorative (Candle, Fancy Round, Other)
    • Multifaceted reflector (MR) Compatible
      • MR16
      • MR11 / Other MR
    • Linear / Tube
      • < 1200mm
      • > 1200mm (1200mm and longer)
    • Street / Parking-lot / Campus / Similar (Parks, Walkways)
    • Specialty High Bay/Flood (>=2500Lm)
    • Specialty Flood/Miscellaneous (<2500Lm)

Market Opportunity Analysis - Market Dynamics

The study process by ElectroniCast Consultants takes into account the following points:

  • Standards (including general regulations & standards, environmental issues, etc.)
  • Policies and schemes for promoting the penetration of LED lighting
  • Industry trends in LED lighting fixtures
  • Distribution Channel (DIY stores, other stores, Web-based, other)
  • LED Lighting industry competitive environment

The use of LED-based lamps in SSL General lighting is driven by promised savings in maintenance/ labor, as well as “Green-Tech” (ecology-oriented) issues. The lamps are lamps are used in new construction, as well as retrofitting/replacement of existing (installed-based) lamps. The Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) is a key marketing dynamic relative to LED Lamps, which typically have a premium price point versus other lighting solutions. Some of the key elements incorporated in the cost of ownership for LED-based lamps vehicle include:

  • Depreciation Costs (LEDs last longer)
  • Energy Costs (LEDs use less energy)
  • Repairs (Especially true as a comparison vs. Ballasts in fluorescent tubes)
  • Funding programs and other government-based financial incentives
  • Maintenance Costs (Lower labor costs/less lamp replacements)

Opportunity Costs are also in the TCO mix; since ElectroniCast takes into account that using LED (energy-efficient lighting and other carbon footprint/pollution issues) depicts the organization, which installs them, as a good corporate citizen.

Information Base

This study is based on analysis of information obtained continually since 2002, but updated through the middle of August 2013. During this period, ElectroniCast analysts performed interviews with authoritative and representative individuals in the LED manufacturing (materials, chips, packaging, devices, associated parts/pieces, lamps and fittings/fixtures) and building/facility management, local, state and federal government policy and management, LED driver IC and micro-controllers, product distributors, retail store management, import/export, and other. The interviews were conducted principally with:

  • Engineers, marketing personnel and management at manufacturers of LEDs (chips, packaged LEDs, lamps, fixtures, controls, systems) as well as other technologies.
  • Design group leaders, engineers, marketing personnel and market planners at major users and potential users of LED lamps.
  • Other industry experts, including those focused on standards activities, trade associations, and investments.

The interviews covered issues of technology, R&D support, pricing, contract size, reliability, documentation, installation/maintenance crafts, standards, supplier competition and other topics. Customers and distributors also were interviewed, to obtain their estimates of quantities received and average prices paid. Customer estimates of historical and expected near term future growth of their application are obtained. Their views of use of new technology products were obtained.

The analyst then considered customer expectations of near term growth in their application, plus forecasted economic payback of investment, technology trends and changes in government regulations in the United States, to derive estimated growth rates of quantity and price of each product subset in each application. These forecasted growth rates are combined with the estimated baseline data to obtain the long-range forecasts at the lowest detailed level of each product and application.

A full review of published information was also performed to supplement information obtained through interviews.

The following sources were reviewed:

  • Professional technical journals and papers
  • Trade press articles
  • Technical conference proceedings
  • Product literature
  • Company profile and financial information
  • Additional information based on previous ElectroniCast market studies
  • Personal knowledge of the research team

In analyzing and forecasting the complexities of the United States and other world region markets for light emitting diode products, it is essential that the market research team have a good and a deep understanding of the technology and of the industry. ElectroniCast members who participated in this report were qualified.

Nature of the Data

This report provides the consumption value, quantity and prices of LED consumer-level bulbs (LED Lamps) use in selected applications, in the United States of America.

The following details are important in interpreting the data presented in the study results/report:

  • Significant figures - rounding: The data have been rounded to an appropriate number of decimal places. In some instances, this may result in minor apparent inconsistencies at summary levels.
  • Current dollars: All values in the Market Analysis and Forecast are expressed in current US dollars. Therefore, growth rates and forecast values include inflation, forecast to average 5 percent per year, 2012-2017.

The quantitative forecasts and value calculations for the LED Lamp Market Forecast proceeded as follows:

  • 1) The values for each year were based on known raw data or calculated by formulae at the lowest data entry levels. The resulting values were summed by formulae to successively higher levels data.
  • 2) With the value forecasted for each LED lamp type in each application, average annual growth rates for 2012-2017 were then calculated from the forecast data.
  • 3) For each LED lamp-type, analysis was performed and breakdowns were forecast for consumption percentages for each year of the forecast. The same was done for end-user group pricing, down to each LED lamp product-type.

Bottom-up Methodology

ElectroniCast forecasts, as illustrated in the forecast data structure, are developed initially at the lowest detail level, then summed to successively higher levels. The background market research focuses on the amount of each type of product used in each application in the base year (last year: 2012), and the prices paid at the first transaction from the manufacturer. This forms the base year data.

ElectroniCast analysts then forecast the growth rates in component quantity use in each application, along with price trends, based on competitive, economic and technology forecast trends, and apply these to derive long term forecasts at the lowest application levels. The usage growth rate forecasts depend heavily on analysis of overall end user trends toward equipment usage and economic payback.

Figure 1 further illustrates the research methodology regarding this study.

Figure 1
Market Research & Forecasting Methodology

Source: ElectroniCast Consultants

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Overview
  • 1.2. LED Lamps & Light Fixtures Used in General Lighting
  • 1.3. LED Chips Used in General Solid-State Lighting (SSL)

2. LEDs - Technology Overview

3. LED Lamp General lighting Consumption Forecast

  • 3.1. Overview
  • 3.2. Parabolic Aluminized Reflector (PAR) LED Lamps
  • 3.3. General Service (A-Type): LED lamps
  • 3.4. Decorative LED Lamps (Globe, Fancy Round, Candle, other-Types)
  • 3.5. Multifaceted reflector (MR) Compatible LED Lamps
  • 3.6. Linear/Tube LED Lamps
  • 3.7. LED Lamps: Street-lighting/Parking-Lots/Campus/Parks/Similar
  • 3.8. Specialty High Bay and Flood (>= 2500Lm) LED Lamps
  • 3.9. Specialty Flood & Miscellaneous (<2500Lm) LED Lamps

4. Company Profiles of LED and Related Companies

5. Market Research Methodology

6. Definitions and Standards

  • 6.1. Acronyms, Abbreviations, and General Terms
  • 6.2. Lighting Standards and Protocols

7. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Data Base - Introduction/Explanation of Excel Worksheets

  • 7.1. Overview
  • 7.2. Tutorial of the Excel Worksheets

List of Tables -

  • 1.1.1. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Hierarchy Structure: LED Lamp Product Category List
  • 1.1.2. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category ($ Million)
  • 1.1.3. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (Quantity/Units)
  • 1.1.4. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (ASP, $ Each)
  • 1.1.5. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast, By End-User Category ($ Million)
  • 1.1.6. Typical Luminous Efficacies for Traditional and LED Sources
  • 1.1.7. Current Members of NGLIA
  • 1.1.8. Members - CERC Building Energy Efficiency Consortium
  • 2.1. LED Color Variety - Selected Examples
  • 2.1. LED Color Chart
  • 3.1.1. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Hierarchy Structure: LED Lamp Product Category List
  • 3.1.2. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category ($ Million)
  • 3.1.3. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (Quantity/Units)
  • 3.1.4. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (ASP, $ Each)
  • 3.1.5. Calculation of the Cost of Manufacturing Facility Downtime
  • 3.1.6. Comparison of Lighting Technologies
  • 3.2.1. PAR Lamp Designation and Nominal Diameter
  • 3.2.2. PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category ($ Million)
  • 3.2.3. PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product (Quantity/Units)
  • 3.2.4. PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product (ASP, $ Each)
  • 3.2.5. PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (all functions)
  • 3.2.6. PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User Category ($ Million)
  • 3.3.1. General Service LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast (all functions)
  • 3.3.2. General Service LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.4.1. Decorative LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast (all functions)
  • 3.4.2. Decorative LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.5.1. MR-Compatible LED Lamps in General Lighting Australia Forecast, by Product (all functions)
  • 3.5.2. MR-Compatible LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.6.1. Linear/Tube LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, by Product (all functions)
  • 3.6.2. Linear/Tube LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.7.1. LED Street Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.8.1. LED-Based Specialty Lamps: High Bay and Flood (>=2500Lm), Value Basis ($ Million)
  • 3.9.1. LED-Based Specialty Lamps: Small Flood and Miscellaneous (<2500Lm), Value Basis, ($ Million)
  • 7.1.1. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Database Product Category Hierarchy List
  • 7.2.1. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Database Application Category Hierarchy List

List of Figures -

  • 1.1.1. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Value Basis, $ Million)
  • 1.1.2. LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity Basis, Million/Units)
  • 1.1.3. Single-die LED: 1000 lm at 100 lm/W at 3A
  • 1.1.4. Four-die LED with Primary Optics
  • 1.1.5. LED Packaged Chip/Bulb
  • 1.1.6. LED Packaged Chip/Bulb
  • 1.1.7. LED Packaged Chip/Bulb Surface Mount Variations
  • 1.1.8. LED Packaged Chip/Bulb
  • 1.1.9. High Brightness LED Packaged Chip/Bulb
  • 1.1.10. Campus at Night with LED Lighting
  • 1.2.1. A19 Bulbs (Consumer-Level Bulb/LED Lamp)
  • 1.2.2. Obstruction Bulbs (Lamps) - Flashing - 138 red or amber LEDs
  • 1.2.3. LED Lamp - Down-light Retrofit Module
  • 1.2.4. Miscellaneous LED Lamps
  • 1.2.5. LED Light Bulb (Cool White)
  • 1.2.6. Complete Fixture and Replacement Bulb - Streetlight (Lamp)
  • 1.2.7. Samples of Lighting Fixture Types
  • 1.3.1. Diagram of a typical LED chip
  • 1.3.2. Diagram of a typical LED chip
  • 1.3.3. LED Chip Cross-Sectional Structure
  • 1.3.4. ESD Protection Diodes
  • 1.3.5. Electrostatic Discharge Example
  • 1.3.6. Improvement of Efficacy of Warm-White Light
  • 2.1. RPCVD Process Equipment
  • 2.2. LED Chromatic Chart
  • 2.3. Evolution of Research Emphasis During Technology Life Cycle
  • 2.4. LED Chip: Metal Layer (Thin Film Technology)
  • 2.5. Vertical LED Chip
  • 2.6. AC LED Technology on a Wafer
  • 2.7. Ultra High Bright LED Chip
  • 2.8. LED Chip Design with Copper Alloy Thermal Conductivity
  • 2.9. LED Chip Design - Sapphire vs. Copper Alloy
  • 2.10. Ultra-Thin LED
  • 2.11. Solid-State Lighting LED
  • 2.12. LED Module with High Light Quality
  • 2.13. Lumiramic Phosphor Technology: Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC) technology
  • 2.14. Next-Generation Light Emitting Diode Module
  • 2.15. 4-Leaded RGB LED
  • 2.16. Basic Structure of a Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diode
  • 2.17. Vertically Conducting Advanced LED Structure
  • 2.18. AlGaInP LED Efficacy
  • 2.19. Red Nitride Phosphors
  • 3.1.1. World Map - Cooperation on Reducing GHG Emissions
  • 3.1.2. L Prize Target
  • 3.1.3. LED-Based Operating Theater Lighting
  • 3.1.4. LED-Based Operating Theater Lighting
  • 3.1.5. LED-Based Operating Theater Lighting
  • 3.1.6. LED-Based Airfield Runway Edge Lighting (Solar Powered)
  • 3.1.7. LED-Based Solar Powered Airfield Light
  • 3.1.8. LED-Based Lighting: Coffee Shop
  • 3.1.9. Retail Outlets
  • 3.1.10. LED Technology for Stage Lighting
  • 3.1.11. Entertainment & Architectural Lighting: Multiple Color LED in a Surface-Mount (SMT) Package
  • 3.1.12. Color Mixer Reflector for LED Technology Lighting
  • 3.1.13. Production-Lighting: Small Rectangle LED Light Fixture
  • 3.1.14. Production Lighting: 8.3-inch LED Circular Spot
  • 3.1.15. Production Lighting: 14x14-inch LED Light Panel
  • 3.1.16. Production Lighting: LED Circular Fresnel Spot Fixtures
  • 3.1.17. LED Technology for Under-Cabinet Lighting
  • 3.1.18. LED-Based Linear Lamps used in Warehousing Application
  • 3.1.19. 48-inch Fluorescent Replacement Style LED Light Fixture
  • 3.1.20. DIP T8 - Linear Tube Lamps With Plastic End-Caps
  • 3.1.21 SMD T8 and T5 - LED Linear Tube Lamps With Plastic End-Caps
  • 3.1.22. DIP-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Plastic End-Caps
  • 3.1.23. DIP-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Metal End-Caps
  • 3.1.24. SMD-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Metal End-Caps
  • 3.1.25. SMD-Type High-Output LED Linear Tube Lamps with Plastic End-Caps
  • 3.1.26. LED Based High Bay Luminaire
  • 3.1.27. LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lighting in Cold Storage Area Facility
  • 3.1.28. Small LED-Based Specialized Flood Lighting
  • 3.2.1. LED-Based PAR 30 Lamp
  • 3.2.2. LED PAR56 Underwater Illuminator
  • 3.3.1. General Service LED-based Lamp (A-Style Bulb Category)
  • 3.3.2. General Service/Globe LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.3.3. General Service/Globe LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.3.4. General Service/Globe LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ ea)
  • 3.3.5. General Service A19 & “Other” Type-A LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.3.6. General Service A19 & “Other” Type-A LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.3.7. General Service A19 & “Other” Type-A LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast (ASP,$ea)
  • 3.4.1. Decorative (Candle-Style) LED-based Lamp (C-Style Bulb Category)
  • 3.4.2. Decorative LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.4.3. Decorative LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.4.4. Decorative Service/Globe LED Lamps SSL General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ ea)
  • 3.5.1. 1W 12V GU5.3 / 2 Pin MR16 LED Replacement Lamp
  • 3.5.2. MR Compatible LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.5.3. MR Compatible LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.5.4. MR Compatible LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 3.6.1. Linear/Tube LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.6.2. Linear/Tube LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.6.3. Linear/Tube LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 3.7.1. LED Street Lamps Undergoing Test Operations
  • 3.7.2. LED-Based Street Lights
  • 3.7.3. LED Street Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.7.4. LED Street Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.7.5. LED Street Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 3.8.1. LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lighting
  • 3.8.2. LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lighting at Warehouse Facility
  • 3.8.3a. LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lamp
  • 3.8.3b. LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lamp and Fixture
  • 3.8.3c. LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lighting in Facilities
  • 3.8.4a. LED-Based Specialty (Type) Flood Lighting
  • 3.8.4b. LED-Based Specialty (Type) Flood Lighting
  • 3.8.5. LED- High Bay and Flood (>=2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (Value Basis, US$ Million)
  • 3.8.6. LED- High Bay and Flood (>=2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.8.7. LED- High Bay and Flood (>=2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 3.9.1. Small LED-Based Specialized Flood Lighting
  • 3.9.2a. Other Type (Miscellaneous) of LED Lamp LED Round Panel Lights
  • 3.9.2b. Other Type (Miscellaneous) Downlight
  • 3.9.3. LED- Small Flood and Miscellaneous (<2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (Value Basis, $ Million)
  • 3.9.4. LED- Small Flood and Miscellaneous (<2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.9.5. LED- Small Flood and Miscellaneous (<2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 4.1. PCB Assembly
  • 4.2. LED Backlit Display
  • 4.3. Rugged Touch Screen with NVIS Capability
  • 4.4. LED Down light with 102 Lumens per Watt Fixture
  • 4.5. LED Lighting Military Solutions
  • 4.6. LED Lighting in Railway Station
  • 4.7. LED Technology Safelight Design
  • 4.8. LED Lighting (water flow stream)
  • 4.9. NVIS/LED Control Panel
  • 4.10. Integrated Weapons Delivery System
  • 4.11. Cockpit Modular Display/Panel
  • 4.12. Cockpit Large Area Display
  • 4.13. Traffic Lamp LED
  • 4.14. High Power LED Lamp
  • 4.15. Surface Mount Type LED
  • 4.16. Surface Mount Type LED
  • 4.17. Exterior Aircraft LED Lighting
  • 4.18. LED/CCD Barcode Readers
  • 4.19. Surface-Mount Multi-layer Ceramic Packages
  • 4.20. LED Linear Optical Array
  • 4.21. Solid-State NVIS Lamps
  • 4.22. LED Escalator Light
  • 4.23. Nanostructures Designed for Different Color Emission
  • 4.24. LED Array Lighting - Lamp
  • 4.25. Light-Measurement Device
  • 4.26. SSL LED: Replacement for Halogen Lamp in Spotlights
  • 4.27. LED-Based Digital Billboard (Signage/Display)
  • 4.28. Diagram of Backlight LED Drivers
  • 4.29. Diagram of Multifunction Backlight LED Drivers
  • 4.30. Diagram of White Backlight LED Drivers
  • 4.31. Diagram White Backlight LED Drivers
  • 4.32. Rotary Wing Aircraft Cockpit Display
  • 4.33. Ultra-Thin LED
  • 4.34. Quality Management System in LED Manufacturing
  • 4.35. Military and Harsh-Environment LEDs
  • 4.36. LED-Based Marine Biology Lighting Device
  • 4.37. LED Street Lights
  • 5.1. Market Research & Forecasting Methodology
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