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LED Lamp General Lighting in the U.S.A. Market Forecast and Analysis February 2015

This is the ElectroniCast forecast of the consumption of light emitting diode-based bulbs (also known as LED lamps) in stationary (non-vehicle/non-portable) General Lighting applications in the United States of America. The lamps are used in new construction, as well as retrofitting/replacement of existing (installed-based) lamps.

This market forecast presented for the major lamp-type categories. The lamp categories, in turn, may have multiple sub-categories, which are determined by lamp the physical size of the lamp and/or primary use.

This study report also provides an overview of Standards related to LED lighting; policies and schemes for promoting the penetration of LED lighting; industry trends in LED lighting; sales/distribution channels; and company profiles of LED lighting industry manufacturers are provided.

The information is presented in easy-to-follow illustrations and text. LED technology overviews, trends and analysis are presented. Terms, acronyms, and abbreviations used are defined.

Brief Overview

Last year in 2014, the consumption value of LED lamps in the United States, which are used in General Lighting, reached $1.22 billion; ElectroniCast forecasts that the consumption value will reach $3.36 billion in 2019. The consumption value is forecast to increase with strongly rising quantity growth partially offset by declining average prices.

General Lighting Stationary Applications The definition used by ElectroniCast for General Lighting is - lighting that is used to provide the main illumination of an area. ElectroniCast includes Directional Lighting, Supplementary Lighting and Architectural Lighting in the General Lighting category. In 2015, "architainment lighting" - a blend of architectural and event lighting has been added to the General Lighting segment. LED lamps used in theaters, photography, news-gathering (TV broadcasts, film, similar) and even lighting used in nightclubs on the dance floor and in operation rooms (surgery) are also included in the General Lighting application.

LED lamps used in signage (digital sign boards) and displays (back-lighting units for LCD/other screens) are not included in the General Lighting segment; however, Lamps used in display windows or display cases (for example: retail store displays) are now included in the General Lighting segment. LEDs in signals (for example traffic signals), portable flashlights (torches) and decorative Christmas/holiday lighting are not included in the market forecast data for this study.

Below, are five levels (or "food chain") pertaining to the LED market. For the purposes of this ElectroniCast study, we quantify and provide a market forecast for "Level 4"

  • Level 1 - The chip or die
  • Level 2 - The LED component (component-level bulb)
  • Level 3 - LED array; may include optics, heat sink and/or power supply
  • Level 4 - Lamp
  • Level 5 - Luminaire (light fixture/lamp holder/including lamp/s)

This report provides the 2014-2019 market forecast data by the following functions:

  • Consumption Value (US$, Million)
  • Quantity (number/units in Millions)
  • Average Selling Prices (ASP US$, each)

LED Lamps and Applications Covered in this Study

The ElectroniCast LED Lamp General Lighting Market Forecast is built up from specific segments. The major lamp (product) categories are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Market Forecast Data Base Hierachy Structure
General Lighting LED Lamp Product Category List

Total Consumption: LED Lamps

Parabolic aluminized reflector (PAR)

  • PAR16
  • PAR20
  • PAR30
  • PAR38
  • PAR56
  • PAR64
  • PAR-Types: Other (Miscellaneous) Sizes

General Service and Decorative

  • A19 / Other A-Type (sizes)
    • A19
      • A19
      • A19
      • A19
  • Other -- A19 Watt and Other A-Type sizes

Decorative Types/Edison Screw: Candle, Fancy Round, Other

Multifaceted reflector (MR) Compatible

  • MR16
  • MR11 / Other MR

Linear Tube and Tape (Protected Strip)

  • Linear Tube < 1200mm
  • Linear Tube > 1200mm (1200mm and longer)
  • Tape with Protective layer over the LEDs: Quantified by Meter

Street / Parking-lot / Campus / Similar (Parks, Walkways)

High Bay/Flood (>= 2500Lm)

Miscellaneous LED-Based Lamp and Lamp Sections of Fixtures

LED Lamps and Applications Covered in this Study

The ElectroniCast LED Lamp General Lighting Market Forecast is built up from specific segments. The major lamp (product) categories are shown in Table 1. This market forecast of consumption in the United States of America is also presented for three major End-User categories:

  • Government
  • Commercial/Industrial
  • Residential/Non-Specific

Information Base for the Market Forecast

Primary Research This study is based on analysis of information obtained continually over the past several years, but updated through the middle of February 2015. During this period, ElectroniCast analysts performed interviews with authoritative and representative individuals in the LED manufacturing (materials, chips, packaging, devices, associated parts/pieces, lamps and fittings/fixtures) and building/facility management, local and federal government policy and management, LEDs, LED Lamps, LED luminaire/fixtures, LED driver IC and micro-controllers, product distributors, retail store management, import/export, and other. The interviews were conducted principally with:

  • Engineers, marketing personnel and management at manufacturers of LEDs (chips, packaged LEDs, lamps, fixtures, controls, systems) as well as other technologies.
  • Design group leaders, engineers, marketing personnel and market planners at major users and potential users of LED lamps.
  • Other industry experts, including those focused on standards activities, trade associations, and investments.
  • The interviews covered issues of technology, R&D support, pricing, contract size, reliability, documentation, installation/maintenance crafts, standards, supplier competition and other topics. Customers and distributors also were interviewed, to obtain their estimates of quantities received and average prices paid. Customer estimates of historical and expected near term future growth of their application are obtained. Their views of use of new technology products were obtained.
  • Analysis The analyst then considered customer expectations of near term growth in their application, plus forecasted economic payback of investment, technology trends and changes in government regulations in the United States, to derive estimated growth rates of quantity and price of each product subset in each application. These forecasted growth rates are combined with the estimated baseline data to obtain the long-range forecasts at the lowest detailed level of each product and application.

Secondary Research A full review of published information was also performed to supplement information obtained through interviews. The following sources were reviewed:

  • Professional technical journals and papers
  • Trade press articles; Technical conference proceedings
  • Product literature; Company profile and financial information
  • Additional information based on previous ElectroniCast market studies
  • Personal knowledge of the research team.
  • In analyzing and forecasting the complexities of the markets for light emitting diode products in the United States, it is essential that the market research team have a good and a deep understanding of the technology and of the industry. ElectroniCast members who participated in this report were qualified.

Bottom-up Methodology ElectroniCast forecasts, as illustrated in the forecast data structure, are developed initially at the lowest detail level, then summed to successively higher levels. The background market research focuses on the amount of each type of product used in each application in the base year (2014), and the prices paid at the first transaction from the manufacturer. This forms the base year data. ElectroniCast analysts then forecast the growth rates in component quantity use in each application, along with price trends, based on competitive, economic and technology forecast trends, and apply these to derive long term forecasts at the lowest application levels. The usage growth rate forecasts depend heavily on analysis of overall end user trends toward equipment usage and economic payback.

Cross-Correlation Increases Accuracy The quantities of packaged LEDs, LED Driver ICs, LED materials/wafer/die/chips, LED Lamps and LED fixtures (luminaries) and other LED-based components, manufacturing processes/quality control/yields, and end-use products used in a particular application are interrelated. Since ElectroniCast conducts annual analysis and forecast updates in each LED component field, accurate current quantity estimates are part of the corporate database. These quantities are cross-correlated as a "sanity check".

ElectroniCast, each year since 2002, has conducted extensive research and updated their forecasts of several LED lighting categories. As technology and applications have advanced, the number of component subsets covered by the forecasts has expanded impressively.

The calculation and analysis data spreadsheet technique is based upon input/output analysis, leveraging the quantitative consumption quantity, price and value of each item in each application at all levels to achieve reasonable quantitative conclusions; this interactive analysis concept, first applied on a major scale by Leonteff, of the US Department of Commerce, in the mid 1950s, was then adopted successfully by analyst/forecasting firms Quantum Science, Gnostic Concepts and (in 1981) by ElectroniCast.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1 Overview
  • 1.2 LED Lamps & Light Fixtures Used in General Lighting
  • 1.3 Unpackaged and Packaged LEDs - Overview

2. LEDs - Technology Overview

3. LED Lamp General lighting Consumption Forecast

  • 3.1 Overview
  • 3.2 Parabolic Aluminized Reflector (PAR) LED Lamps
  • 3.3 General Service (A-Type): LED lamps
  • 3.4 Decorative LED Lamps (Fancy Round, Candle, other-Types)
  • 3.5 Multifaceted reflector (MR) Compatible LED Lamps
    • Linear Tube LED Lamps and LED Tape
    • LED Lamps: Street-lighting/Parking-Lots/Campus/Parks/Similar
    • Specialty High Bay and Flood (> = 2500Lm) LED Lamps
    • LED-Based Miscellaneous Lamps/Lamp Sections

4. Company Profiles of LED and Related Companies

5. ElectroniCast Market Research Methodology

6. Definitions and Standards

  • 6.1 Acronyms, Abbreviations, and General Terms
  • 6.2 Lighting Standards and Protocols

7. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Data Base - Introduction/Explanation of Excel Worksheets

7.1 Overview 7.2 Tutorial of the Excel Worksheets

List of Tables

  • 1.1.1 ElectroniCast Market Forecast Hierarchy Structure: LED Lamp Product Category List
  • 1.1.2 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category ($ Million)
  • 1.1.3 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (Quantity/Units)
  • 1.1.4 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (ASP, $ Each)
  • 1.1.5 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast, By End-User Category ($ Million)
  • 1.1.6 Selling to a Government Entity
  • 1.1.7 Current Members of NGLIA
  • 1.1.8 Members - CERC Building Energy Efficiency Consortium
  • 1.1.9 Selected LED Streetlights Installations in the United States
  • 1.3.1 Typical Luminous Efficacies for Traditional and LED Sources
  • 2.1 LED Color Variety - Selected Examples
  • 2.2 LED Color Chart
  • 3.1.1 ElectroniCast Market Forecast Hierarchy Structure: LED Lamp Product Category List
  • 3.1.2 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category ($ Million)
  • 3.1.3 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (Quantity/Units)
  • 3.1.4 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (ASP, $ Each)
  • 3.1.5 Data Transfer Rates: Visible Light Communications vs. Other Technology
  • 3.1.5 Calculation of the Cost of Manufacturing Facility Downtime
  • 3.1.6 Comparison of Lighting Technologies
  • 3.1.7 Applications for LED Based High-Bay Lighting
  • 3.1.8 DIP LED Manufacturing in China
  • 3.1.9 LED-Packaging Designers and Manufacturers in Taiwan
  • 3.1.10 Applications for LED Based High-Bay Lighting
  • 3.2.1 PAR Lamp Designation and Nominal Diameter
  • 3.2.2 PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category ($ Million)
  • 3.2.3 PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product (Quantity/Units)
  • 3.2.4 PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product (ASP, $ Each)
  • 3.2.5 PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By Product Category (all functions)
  • 3.2.6 PAR LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User Category ($ Million)
  • 3.3.1 General Service (A-Type) LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast (all functions)
  • 3.3.2 General Service (A-Type) LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, End User ($ Million)
  • 3.4.1 Decorative LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.5.1 MR-Compatible LED Lamps in General Lighting Australia Forecast, by Product (all functions)
  • 3.5.2 MR-Compatible LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.6.1 Linear Tube LED Lamps and Tape in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, by Product (all functions)
  • 3.6.2 Linear Tube LED Lamps and Tape in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.7.1 LED Street Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast, By End User ($ Million)
  • 3.8.1 LED-Based Specialty Lamps: High Bay and Flood (>=2500Lm), Value Basis ($ Million)
  • 3.9.1 LED-Based Specialty Lamps: Small Flood and Miscellaneous (<2500Lm), Value Basis, ($ Million)
  • 7.1.1 ElectroniCast Market Forecast Database Product Category Hierarchy List
  • 7.2.1 ElectroniCast Market Forecast Database Application Category Hierarchy List

List of Figures

  • 1.1.1 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Value Basis, $ Million)
  • 1.1.2 LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity Basis, Million/Units)
  • 1.1.3 Product Life Cycle (PLC)
  • 1.1.4 LED-Based Bright Lit Ceiling
  • 1.1.5 Campus at Night with LED Lighting
  • 1.1.6 LED Streetlights in San Francisco (Before LED and After LED Installation)
  • 1.2.1 A19 Bulbs (Consumer-Level Bulb/LED Lamp)
  • 1.2.2 Obstruction Bulbs (Lamps) - Flashing - 138 red or amber LEDs
  • 1.2.3 LED Lamp - Down-light Retrofit Module
  • 1.2.4 Miscellaneous LED Lamps
  • 1.2.5 LED Light Bulb (Cool White)
  • 1.2.6 Complete Fixture and Replacement Bulb - Streetlight (Lamp)
  • 1.2.7 Samples of Lighting Fixture Types
  • 1.2.8 LED-Based T8 Linear Tube Lamps
  • 1.2.9 LED-Based High Bay Lamp/Fixtures
  • 1.2.10 Hazardous Location Lighting (Class 1, Division 2)
  • 1.2.11 LED Panel Light with Adjustable Color, Built in Dimmer
  • 1.2.12 19-Inch LED Ring Light Fixture Set
  • 1.3.1 Diagram of a typical LED chip
  • 1.3.2 Diagram of a typical LED chip
  • 1.3.3 LED Chip Cross-Sectional Structure
  • 1.3.4 Chip On Glass Cross-Sectional Structure
  • 1.3.5 ESD Protection Diodes
  • 1.3.6 Electrostatic Discharge Example
  • 1.3.7 Chip-on-Board LED Technology
  • 1.3.8 Single-die LED: 1000 lm at 100 lm/W at 3A
  • 1.3.9 Four-die LED with Primary Optics
  • 1.3.10 LED Packaged Chip/Bulb
  • 1.3.11 LED Packaged Chip/Bulb
  • 1.3.12 LED Packaged Chip/Bulb Surface Mount Variations
  • 1.3.13 LED Packaged Chip/Bulb
  • 1.3.14 High Brightness LED Packaged Chip/Bulb
  • 2.1 RPCVD Process Equipment
  • 2.2 LED Chromatic Chart
  • 2.3 Evolution of Research Emphasis During Technology Life Cycle
  • 2.4 LED Chip: Metal Layer (Thin Film Technology)
  • 2.5 Vertical LED Chip
  • 2.6 AC LED Technology on a Wafer
  • 2.7 Ultra High Bright LED Chip
  • 2.8 LED Chip Design with Copper Alloy Thermal Conductivity
  • 2.9 LED Chip Design - Sapphire vs. Copper Alloy
  • 2.10 Ultra-Thin LED
  • 2.11 Solid-State Lighting LED
  • 2.12 LED Module with High Light Quality
  • 2.13 LED Module with Low-Profile Rectangular Shape
  • 2.14 Lumiramic Phosphor Technology: Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC) technology
  • 2.15 Next-Generation Light Emitting Diode Module
  • 2.16 4-Leaded RGB LED
  • 2.17 Basic Structure of a Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diode
  • 2.18 Vertically Conducting Advanced LED Structure
  • 2.19 AlGaInP LED Efficacy
  • 2.20 Red Nitride Phosphors
  • 3.1.1 World Map - Cooperation on Reducing GHG Emissions
  • 3.1.2 L Prize Target
  • 3.1.3 LED-Based Operating Theater Lighting
  • 3.1.4 LED-Based Operating Theater Lighting
  • 3.1.5 LED-Based Operating Theater Lighting
  • 3.1.6 LED-Based Airfield Runway Edge Lighting (Solar Powered)
  • 3.1.7 LED-Based Solar Powered Airfield Light
  • 3.1.8 LED-Based Lighting: Coffee Shop
  • 3.1.9 Retail Outlets
  • 3.1.10 Retail Lighting Application Using Visual Light Communications (VLC)
  • 3.1.11 LED Technology for Stage Lighting
  • 3.1.12 Entertainment & Architectural Lighting: Multiple Color LED in a Surface-Mount (SMT) Package
  • 3.1.13 Color Mixer Reflector for LED Technology Lighting
  • 3.1.14 Production Lighting: 8.3-inch LED Circular Spot
  • 3.1.15 Production Lighting: 14x14-inch LED Light Panel
  • 3.1.16 Production Lighting: LED Circular Fresnel Spot Fixtures
  • 3.1.17 LED Technology for Under-Cabinet Lighting
  • 3.1.18 LED-Based Linear Lamps used in Warehousing Application
  • 3.1.19 48-inch Fluorescent Replacement Style LED Light Fixture
  • 3.1.20 DIP T8 - Linear Tube Lamps With Plastic End-Caps
  • 3.1.21 SMD T8 and T5 - LED Linear Tube Lamps With Plastic End-Caps
  • 3.1.22 DIP-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Plastic End-Caps
  • 3.1.23 DIP-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Metal End-Caps
  • 3.1.24 SMD-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Metal End-Caps
  • 3.1.25 SMD-Type High-Output LED Linear Tube Lamps with Plastic End-Caps
  • 3.1.26 Chip-On-Board (COB) LED
  • 3.1.27 Silicone Encapsulant and Silicone Lens in LEDs
  • 3.1.28 Silicone Products for LED Lamps
  • 3.1.29 Silicone Products for LED Streetlamps
  • 3.1.30 LED Tape Light
  • 3.1.31 LED Based High Bay Luminaire
  • 3.1.32 LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lighting in Cold Storage Area Facility
  • 3.1.33 Small LED-Based Specialized Flood Lighting
  • 3.1.34 Explosion-Proof Lighting
  • 3.1.35 LED Explosion Proof General-Area Light
  • 3.1.36 LED Explosion Proof Gas Station Lights
  • 3.2.1 LED-Based PAR 30 Lamp
  • 3.2.2 LED PAR56 Underwater Illuminator
  • 3.3.1 General Service LED-based Lamp (A-Style Bulb Category)
  • 3.3.2 General Service LED-based Lamp (A-Style Bulb Category) / A19 / 100W
  • 3.3.3 LED-Based Bulb A21-Type; Base Medium Screw (E26) in Retail Package
  • 3.3.4 General Service/Globe LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.3.5 General Service/Globe LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.3.6 General Service/Globe LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ ea)
  • 3.3.7 General Service A19 & "Other" Type-A LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.3.8 General Service A19 & "Other" Type-A LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.3.9 General Service A19 & "Other" Type-A LED Lamps in General Lighting U.S.A. Forecast (ASP,$ea)
  • 3.4.1 Decorative (Candle-Style) LED-based Lamp (C-Style Bulb Category)
  • 3.4.2 Decorative LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.4.3 Decorative LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.4.4 Decorative Service/Globe LED Lamps SSL General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ ea)
  • 3.5.1 1W 12V GU5.3 / 2 Pin MR16 LED Replacement Lamp
  • 3.5.2 MR Compatible LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.5.3 MR Compatible LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.5.4 MR Compatible LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 3.6.1 Linear/Tube LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.6.2 Linear/Tube LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.6.3 Linear/Tube LED Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 3.6.4 Linear Tube T8 LED Lamp
  • 3.6.5 Linear Tube T8 LED Lamp
  • 3.6.6 LED Tape Light
  • 3.7.1 LED Street Lamps Undergoing Test Operations
  • 3.7.2 LED-Based Street Lights
  • 3.7.3 LED Street Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast ($ Million)
  • 3.7.4 LED Street Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.7.5 LED Street Lamps General Lighting U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 3.8.1 LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lighting
  • 3.8.2 LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lighting at Warehouse Facility
  • 3.8.3a LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lamp
  • 3.8.3b LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lamp and Fixture
  • 3.8.3c LED-Based Specialty (Type) High Bay Lighting in Facilities
  • 3.8.4a LED-Based Specialty (Type) Flood Lighting
  • 3.8.4b LED-Based Specialty (Type) Flood Lighting
  • 3.8.5 LED- High Bay and Flood (>=2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (Value Basis, US$ Million)
  • 3.8.6 LED- High Bay and Flood (>=2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.8.7 LED- High Bay and Flood (>=2500Lm) U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 3.9.1 Small LED-Based Specialized Flood Lighting
  • 3.9.2a Other Type (Miscellaneous) of LED Lamp LED Round Panel Lights
  • 3.9.2b Other Type (Miscellaneous) Downlight
  • 3.9.3 General Service: Other Shape (not A-Type)
  • 3.9.4 LED "Corn" Lamp
  • 3.9.5 Daylight Studio Panel Light with 400 LEDs
  • 3.9.6 LED Light Fixture System
  • 3.9.7 DMX LED Light Fixture
  • 3.9.8 LED-Based Miscellaneous Lamps/Lamp Sections U.S.A. Market Forecast (Value Basis, $ Million)
  • 3.9.9 LED-Based Miscellaneous Lamps/Lamp Sections U.S.A. Market Forecast (Quantity)
  • 3.9.10 LED-Based Miscellaneous Lamps/Lamp Sections U.S.A. Market Forecast (ASP, $ each)
  • 4.1 PCB Assembly
  • 4.2 LED Backlit Display
  • 4.3 Rugged Touch Screen with NVIS Capability
  • 4.4 High Performance Materials used for Functional Parts in LED Luminaries
  • 4.5 LED Down light with 102 Lumens per Watt Fixture
  • 4.6 LED Lighting Military Solutions
  • 4.7 LED Lighting in Railway Station
  • 4.8 4-inch x 4.7-inch Round Light/Fixture
  • 4.9 Dense Matrix LED / LED-Based Light Source
  • 4.10 Silicone Encapsulant and Silicone Lens in LEDs
  • 4.11 Silicone Products for LED Lamps
  • 4.12 Silicone Products for LED Streetlamps
  • 4.13 LED Technology Safelight Design
  • 4.14 NVIS/LED Control Panel
  • 4.15 Integrated Weapons Delivery System
  • 4.16 Cockpit Modular Display/Panel
  • 4.17 Cockpit Large Area Display
  • 4.18 Traffic Lamp LED
  • 4.19 High Power LED Lamp
  • 4.20 Surface Mount Type LED
  • 4.21 Surface Mount Type LED
  • 4.22 Exterior Aircraft LED Lighting
  • 4.23 LED/CCD Barcode Readers
  • 4.24 Surface-Mount Multi-layer Ceramic Packages
  • 4.25 LED Linear Optical Array
  • 4.26 Solid-State NVIS Lamps
  • 4.27 Nanostructures Designed for Different Color Emission
  • 4.28 LED Array Lighting - Lamp
  • 4.29 Light-Measurement Device
  • 4.30 Solid-State Lighting (SSL) LED: Replacement for Halogen Lamp in Spotlights
  • 4.31 Assorted LED Lighting Profile Devices
  • 4.32 Federal Lighting Location Requirements for Buses
  • 4.33 LED-Based Digital Billboard (Signage/Display)
  • 4.34 Diagram of Backlight LED Drivers
  • 4.35 Diagram of Multifunction Backlight LED Drivers
  • 4.36 Diagram of White Backlight LED Drivers
  • 4.37 Diagram White Backlight LED Drivers
  • 4.38 Rotary Wing Aircraft Cockpit Display
  • 4.39 Ultra-Thin LED
  • 4.40 Quality Management System in LED Manufacturing
  • 4.41 Military and Harsh-Environment LEDs
  • 4.42 LED Street Lights
  • 5.1 ElectroniCast Market Research and Forecasting Methodology
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