• Japanese
  • Korean
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World Hydrogen

World demand to rise 3.5% annually through 2018

Global consumption of merchant and captive hydrogen is forecast to increase 3.5 percent annually through 2018 to 290 billion cubic meters, driven by strong growth in petroleum hydrotreating and hydrocracking refining operations. These advances will be particularly robust in developing countries as per capita vehicle ownership rates rise, and as countries adopt and enforce more stringent emissions regulations to combat increasingly difficult air pollution problems. Merchant supply from industrial gas companies will expand rapidly as hydrogen consumption in upgraded petroleum refineries exceeds the refineries' available captive resources.

Low-sulfur fuel regulations to continue driving demand

Over the past two decades, the adoption by many developed countries of motor vehicle emissions regulations has led to the need for low-sulfur and ultra-lowsulfur gasoline and diesel fuels, greatly increasing the consumption of hydrogen in refinery hydrotreating operations. This trend will continue to drive demand going forward as developing countries begin to combat persistently difficult air quality issues by implementing and/or enforcing more stringent fuel sulfur regulations. While tightening motor vehicle fuel sulfur regulations will be one factor driving refinery hydrogen demand in developing countries, growth will also be aided by rising per capita vehicle ownership rates and higher demand for fuels. Additionally, the shift in the world's crude oil supply toward heavier crudes and rising demand for distillate fuels globally will support the increased use of hydrogen in refinery hydrocracking processes to break down heavier petroleum fractions into more valuable products.

Outside of refining, hydrogen is used in the production of many important chemicals; as well as in the metals, electronics, and thin-film solar industries; edible oil processing; and a variety of other applications. Although the chemical industry is the largest of these, more rapid growth is expected in several smaller markets. Additionally, the adoption of hydrogen energy technologies continues to proceed worldwide, and fuel cells will see greater mainstream adoption. Despite technical and other challenges, the emergence of a hydrogen market for fuel cell powered vehicles remains a possibility.

China to claim largest share of new demand growth

Although the United States will remain the world's largest hydrogen consuming country, the greatest share of growth through 2018 is expected to occur in China. With air pollution in urban areas an increasingly pressing issue, China is expected to aggressively target motor vehicle emissions by enacting and enforcing tighter fuel sulfur regulations. This will drive hydrogen demand growth as the country's refining industry increases its ability to produce low-sulfur fuels. Other emerging markets such as India and Russia will also seek to export ultralow- sulfur fuels, and will see among the fastest gains in hydrogen demand. In most developed countries, demand for hydrogen will grow only modestly, if at all. The refining and chemical industries of Western Europe and Japan face stagnant domestic markets as well as strong competition from other areas. The US and Canada, however, will benefit from relatively plentiful raw material supply and the advanced state of their refining industries, allowing for healthier growth in hydrogen demand.

Study coverage

This Freedonia industry study, World Hydrogen, presents historical demand data for 2003, 2008 and 2013, plus forecasts for 2018 and 2023 by market, world region, and for 17 countries. The study also considers market environment factors, examines hydrogen energy technologies, evaluates company market share and profiles key global industry players.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

II. MARKET ENVIRONMENT

  • General
  • World Economic Overview
  • Recent Historical Trends
  • World Economic Outlook
  • World Population Overview
  • World Manufacturing Overview
  • World Chemical Manufacturing Outlook
  • World Energy Outlook
  • World Petroleum Refining Outlook
  • World Fuel Cell Outlook
  • Environmental & Regulatory Issues
  • General
  • World Fuel Sulfur Regulations

III. TECHNOLOGY

  • General
  • Petroleum Refining
  • Conversion Processes
  • Treatment Processes
  • Hydrogen Production Methods
  • Steam Methane Reforming
  • Partial Oxidation
  • Water Electrolysis
  • Byproduct Hydrogen
  • Other Production Methods
  • Hydrogen Energy
  • General
  • Fuel Cells
  • Hydrogen Storage & Transportation

IV. OVERVIEW

  • General
  • World Hydrogen Demand by Region
  • World Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Petroleum Refining
  • Petroleum Refining Hydrogen Demand by Process
  • Chemical Manufacturing
  • Other Markets for Hydrogen
  • Metal Processing
  • Electronics
  • Glass
  • Food Processing
  • All Other
  • Pricing Trends

V. NORTH AMERICA

  • Macroeconomic Environment
  • Hydrogen Demand
  • Suppliers & Market Share
  • United States
  • Canada
  • Mexico

VI. WESTERN EUROPE

  • Macroeconomic Environment
  • Hydrogen Demand
  • Suppliers & Market Share
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Netherlands
  • Spain
  • France
  • United Kingdom
  • Other Western Europe

VII. ASIA/PACIFIC

  • Macroeconomic Environment
  • Hydrogen Demand
  • Suppliers & Market Share
  • China
  • Japan
  • South Korea
  • India
  • Singapore
  • Taiwan
  • Other Asia/Pacific

VIII. OTHER REGIONS

  • Central & South America
  • Macroeconomic Environment
  • Hydrogen Demand
  • Suppliers & Market Share
  • Brazil
  • Other Central & South America
  • Eastern Europe
  • Macroeconomic Environment
  • Hydrogen Demand
  • Suppliers & Market Share
  • Russia
  • Poland
  • Other Eastern Europe
  • Africa/Mideast
  • Macroeconomic Environment
  • Hydrogen Demand
  • Suppliers & Market Share
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Other Africa/Mideast

IX. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

  • General
  • Market Share
  • Acquisitions & Divestitures
  • Cooperative Agreements
  • Supply Agreements
  • Distribution
  • On-Site & Pipeline Distribution
  • Liquid & Compressed Gas Distribution

COMPANY PROFILES

  • Air Liquide Group
  • Air Products and Chemicals Incorporated
  • Airgas Incorporated
  • Hydro Edge, see Iwatani International
  • INOX Air Products, see Air Products and Chemicals
  • Iwatani International Corporation
  • Linde Group
  • Matheson Tri-Gas, see Taiyo Nippon Sanso
  • Messer Group GmbH
  • Praxair Incorporated
  • Showa Denko KK
  • Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation

LIST OF TABLES

SECTION I -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • Summary Table

SECTION II -- MARKET ENVIRONMENT

  • World Gross Domestic Product by Region
  • World Population by Region
  • World Manufacturing Value Added by Region
  • World Chemical Manufacturing Value Added by Region
  • World Energy Production by Type
  • World Refined Petroleum Products Production by Region
  • World Commercial Fuel Cell Demand by Region

SECTION III -- TECHNOLOGY

SECTION IV -- OVERVIEW

  • World Hydrogen Demand
  • World Hydrogen Demand by Region
  • World Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • World Petroleum Refining Market for Hydrogen
  • World Petroleum Refining Market for Hydrogen by Application & Source
  • World Chemical Manufacturing Market for Hydrogen
  • Other Markets for Hydrogen by Region & Market
  • Hydrogen Pricing & Valuation

SECTION V -- NORTH AMERICA

  • North America: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • North America: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • United States: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • United States: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Canada: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Canada: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Mexico: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Mexico: Hydrogen Demand by Market

SECTION VI -- WESTERN EUROPE

  • Western Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Western Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Germany: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Germany: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Italy: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Italy: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Netherlands: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Netherlands: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Spain: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Spain: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • France: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • France: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • United Kingdom: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • United Kingdom: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Other Western Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Other Western Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market

SECTION VII -- ASIA/PACIFIC

  • Asia/Pacific: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • China: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • China: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Japan: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Japan: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • South Korea: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • South Korea: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • India: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • India: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Singapore: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Singapore: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Taiwan: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Taiwan: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Other Asia/Pacific: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Other Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Market

SECTION VIII -- OTHER REGIONS

  • Central & South America: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Central & South America: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Brazil: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Brazil: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Other Central & South America: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Other Central & South America: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Eastern Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Eastern Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Russia: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Russia: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Poland: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Poland: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Other Eastern Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Other Eastern Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Africa/Mideast: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Africa/Mideast: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Saudi Arabia: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Saudi Arabia: Hydrogen Demand by Market
  • Other Africa/Mideast: Market Environment for Hydrogen
  • Other Africa/Mideast: Hydrogen Demand by Market

SECTION IX -- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

  • Merchant Hydrogen Sales by Company, 2013
  • Selected Acquisitions & Divestitures
  • Selected Cooperative Agreements
  • Selected Supply Agreements

LIST OF CHARTS

SECTION X -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

SECTION XI -- MARKET ENVIRONMENT

  • World Energy Production by Type, 2003-2023
  • World Commercial Fuel Cell Demand by Region, 2013

SECTION XII -- TECHNOLOGY

SECTION XIII -- OVERVIEW

  • World Hydrogen Demand by Region, 2013
  • Share of World Hydrogen Market Growth by Region, 2013-2018
  • World Hydrogen Demand by Market, 2013

SECTION XIV -- NORTH AMERICA

  • North America: Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013
  • North America: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013

SECTION XV -- WESTERN EUROPE

  • Western Europe Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013
  • Western Europe: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013

SECTION XVI -- ASIA/PACIFIC

  • Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013
  • Asia/Pacific: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013

SECTION XVII -- OTHER REGIONS

  • Central & South America: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013
  • Eastern Europe: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013
  • Africa/Mideast: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013

SECTION XVIII -- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

  • World Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013
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