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Industrial Desalination and Water Reuse

Overview

The focus of investment in desalination and reuse is changing. The boom in municipal desalination and reuse which quadrupled the size of that market over the past decade has mostly played itself out. Now the smart money is on industrial water - with water intensive industries investing in water technologies that enable them to use water more efficiently, this is the fastest growing sector of the water market today.

Water technology companies need to position themselves now to take advantage of this growth - or miss out. Industrial desalination and water reuse is your key to this market. From the continuously advancing ultrapure water systems that underpin the pharmaceutical and microelectronics industries to the to the high recovery technologies becoming more prevalent for produced water management, we show you the opportunities

Covers: Oil and Gas, Petrochemicals, Power, Mining, Food and Beverage, Pharmaceuticals, Pulp & Paper, Microelectronics.

Market Forecast by Major Market 2011 - 2012

                        Source: Global Water Intelligence.

This report provides:

Market and Technology Overview

  • What's driving the market - water scarcity, water risk, environmental protection, process efficiency and complex waste waters
  • Coverage of key technologies relevant to industrial desalination and water reuse
  • Technology trends and market forecasts - covers the geographies which are most under pressure to invest in water efficiency and improved wastewater treatment and industry specific forecast categories by treatment type.

Key Technology Areas

In this report, we provide our most in depth coverage of technologies than any report published so far:

Seawater desalination: where and why are industrial water users turning to seawater desalination, and what are the trends in the membrane and thermal technologies they are using?

  • Ultrapure water: value and technology trends in high purity process water systems including reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodeionisation
  • Industrial wastewater desalination: why is demand for high recovery wastewater desalination systems growing so quickly, which industrial processes are driving demand, and how is technology shaping the market?
  • Other advanced treatment technologies: how demand for improved water efficiency is driving technological development in biological treatment, physical/chemical separation and disinfection.

Market Sector Profiles

The market sector profiles highlight what makes each industrial sector so unique, paving the way for your involvement. The profiles cover: water requirements, wastewater challenges, trends in technology and water reuse, procurement models, supply chain analysis and a market forecast.

  • Oil and gas: From the Canadian oil sands, to coal seam gas in Australia, and enhanced off-shore oil recovery, water treatment is emerging as a key driver of value across the energy sector. This section pinpoints the specific market niches which offer the richest opportunities for water technology companies.
  • Refining and petrochemicals: the downstream petrochemical industry is moving more towards emerging economies like India and China as well as upstream producer economies in the Gulf and North Africa. Most new refining capacity is being built in water scarce areas, prompting a revolution in the way water is managed in this sector.
  • Power generation: electricity generation is the largest industrial water use. It's also responsible for some of the most challenging wastewaters. This, plus the growing power demands of emerging economies and the need to increase the efficiency of steam generation in mature economies, creates a recipe for solid market growth.
  • Food and Beverage: this is the largest industrial market for water technology by total expenditure. It is also the one which is most under pressure to improve its water stewardship.
  • Pharmaceutical: global healthcare expenditure is expected to grow faster than the global economy as a whole for the foreseeable future. It also has some of the most complex water treatment needs seen anywhere in the industrial sector.
  • Microelectronics: the most significant and challenging market for high purity water. Process water requirements are continuing to become more exacting, while stewardship concerns are making companies rethink their approach to water efficiency and effluent treatment.
  • Pulp and Paper: a massive user of water, and potentially a significant source of pollution. Although the majority of plants are located in water rich regions, producers are being pushed towards reuse by tougher environmental regulation.
  • Mining: the process water needs of the mining industry are increasingly pressed up against social and environmental limits, forcing mining companies to make desalination and water reuse a central part of their strategy.

CD-ROM Contents

CD-Rom Includes Excel spreadsheets for:

  • Industrial desalination and water reuse market forecast
  • Inventory of industrial seawater desalination plants
  • Inventory of UF/MF installations with a capacity of more than 10,000 m3/d
  • Inventory of high recovery wastewater desalination plants

Our Industry-Specific Market Forecast Categories

Oil and Gas

  • Shale gas conventional treatment
  • Shale gas high recovery desalination
  • CBM high recovery desalination
  • Sulphate removal package / low salinity systems
  • Water recycling systems for steam EOR
  • High recovery desalination for steam EOR
  • Produced water polishing
  • Produced water RO/evaporation

Refining and Petrochemicals

  • Pretreatment systems
  • Ultrapure water systems
  • Wastewater treatment systems
  • Seawater desalination plants
  • ZLD systems
  • Power Pretreatment systems
  • Boiler feedwater systems
  • Condensate polishing systems
  • Wastewater treatment systems (excl. ZLD)
  • Seawater desalination
  • Co-located power/desalination
  • ZLD/high recovery desalination systems

Food and Beverage

  • Pretreatment Systems
  • Polishing systems
  • Wastewater treatment systems

Pharmaceutical

  • Pretreatment systems
  • Ultrapure water systems
  • Disinfection systems
  • Wastewater treatment systems
  • Wastewater polishing technologies

Microelectronics

  • Pretreatment systems
  • Ultrapure water systems
  • Wastewater treatment systems

Pulp and Paper

  • Process water systems (excl. UPW)
  • Boiler feedwater systems
  • Wastewater treatment systems

Mining

  • Process water treatment systems
  • Wastewater treatment systems
  • Seawater desalination systems

Table of Contents

Publication information

Executive summary

  • i The proposition
    • Figure i: UPW, seawater desalination and wastewater desalination by industrial segment, 2011-2025
  • ii Oil and gas
    • Figure ii: Oil and gas industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure iii: Oil and gas industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
  • iii Refining and petrochemicals
    • Figure iv: Refining and petrochemicals industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure v: Refining and petrochemicals industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
  • iv Power
    • Figure vi: Power industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure vii: Power industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
  • v Food and beverage v
    • Figure viii: Food and beverage industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure ix: Food and beverage industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
  • vi Pharmaceutical
    • Figure x: Pharmaceutical industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure xi: Pharmaceutical industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
  • vii Microelectronics
    • Figure xii: Microelectronics industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure xiii: Microelectronics industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
  • viii Pulp and paper
    • Figure xiv: Pulp and paper industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure xv: Pulp and paper industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
  • ix Mining
    • Figure xvi: Mining industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure xvii: Mining industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
  • x Technologies

1. Market and technology overview

  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Market drivers
    • 1.2.1. Water scarcity
      • 1.2.1.1. Case study: Coca-Cola and brand risk
      • 1.2.1.2. Case Study: Tia Maria
      • 1.2.1.3. Case study: the semiconductor industry in Taiwan
    • 1.2.2. Water risk
    • 1.2.3. The Global Water Risk Index
      • Figure 1.1: Global Water Risk Index: global water supply
      • Figure 1.2: Global Water Risk Index: global water demand in 2030
      • Figure 1.3: Global Water Risk Index: water risk in 2030
    • 1.2.4. Other drivers of water technology investment
  • 1.3. Membrane filtration
    • 1.3.1. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes
      • Figure 1.4: A microfiltration membrane removes suspended solids
      • Figure 1.5: Dead-end and cross-flow membrane modules
      • Figure 1.6: Build up of material on ultrafiltration membranes, and cleaning processes
    • 1.3.2. Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes
      • Figure 1.7: Removal of dissolved solids by reverse osmosis
  • 1.4. Electrical charge separation
    • 1.4.1. Ion exchange
      • Figure 1.8: Ion exchange process
      • Figure 1.9: Types of resins and their applications
    • 1.4.2. Electrodialysis
      • Figure 1.10: An electrodialysis cell
        • 1.4.2.1. Electrodialysis reversal
        • 1.4.2.2. Electrodeionisation
        • 1.4.2.3. Problems
  • 1.5. Seawater desalination technologies
    • 1.5.1. Reverse osmosis (SWRO)
    • 1.5.2. Multiple-effect distillation (MED)
      • Figure 1.11: The multi-effect distillation process with three distillation chambers
    • 1.5.3. Multi-stage flash evaporation (MSF)
      • Figure 1.12: Multi-stage flash evaporation process with three evaporation chambers
  • 1.6. High recovery technologies
    • 1.6.1. Vapour compression
      • Figure 1.13: Vapour compression evaporation process
    • 1.6.2. Brine concentrators
      • Figure 1.14: A falling film brine concentrator with vapour compression
    • 1.6.3. Crystallisers
      • Figure 1.15: A forced circulation crystalliser
    • 1.6.4. Filter presses
      • Figure 1.16: The operation of a diaphragm plate filter press
    • 1.6.5. High recovery reverse osmosis
      • Figure 1.17: Comparison of high recovery and conventional reverse osmosis systems
    • 1.6.6. Comparison of high recovery technologies
      • Figure 1.19: Comparison of high recovery desalination technologies
  • 1.7. Chemical treatment
    • 1.7.1. Lime softening
      • 1.7.1.1. Cold and warm lime softening
        • Figure 1.20: Cold and warm lime softening processes in a softening basin
      • 1.7.1.2. Hot lime softening
        • Figure 1.21: Hot lime softening processes in a downflow sludge contact unit
  • 1.8. Physical treatment
    • 1.8.1. Coagulation and flocculation
      • Figure 1.22: Coagulation and flocculation create clumps of suspended particles
    • 1.8.2. Adsorption processes
  • 1.9. Biological wastewater treatment
    • 1.9.1. Removal of nutrients
    • 1.9.2. Removal of heavy metals
  • 1.10. Disinfection
    • 1.10.1. Disinfection with chlorine-based compounds
    • 1.10.2. Disinfection with ultraviolet light
      • Figure 1.23: Emission of ultraviolet light from an array of mercury vapour lamps
    • 1.10.3. Disinfection by ozonation
      • Figure 1.24: Ozone breaks down micro-organisms in deep contact chambers
  • 1.11. Technology trends and market forecast
    • 1.11.1. Notes on the forecast
      • Figure 1.25: Industry-specific forecast categories and overall forecast categories
    • 1.11.2. Ultrapure water technology trends
      • Figure 1.26: Advantages and disadvantages of EDI process
      • Figure 1.27: The ultrapure water market by industry segment, 2011-2017
      • Figure 1.28: The ultrapure water market by technology, 2011-2017
      • Figure 1.29: The ultrapure water market by region, 2011-2017
    • 1.11.3. High recovery wastewater desalination
      • 1.11.3.1. Wastewater desalination technology trends
        • Figure 1.30: The industrial wastewater desalination market by industry segment 2011-2017
        • Figure 1.31: The industrial wastewater desalination market by region, 2011-2017
        • Figure 1.32: The industrial wastewater desalination market by technology, 2011-2017
      • 1.11.3.2. Wastewater desalination alternate scenario
        • Figure 1.33: The industrial wastewater desalination market by technology, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario
    • 1.11.4. Seawater desalination
      • 1.11.4.1. Seawater desalination technology trends
        • Figure 1.34: All industrial seawater desalination in the context of all seawater desalination, 1990-2011
        • Figure 1.35: Contracted >10,000 m3/d industrial seawater desalination plants by off-taker industry, 1990-2011
        • Figure 1.36: Seawater desalination plants for industrial customers by technology, 1990-2011
        • Figure 1.37: The industrial seawater desalination market by industry segment, 2011-2017
        • Figure 1.38: The industrial seawater desalination market by technology, 2011-2017
        • Figure 1.39: The industrial seawater desalination market by region, 2011-2017
      • 1.11.4.2. Seawater desalination alternate scenario
        • Figure 1.40: The industrial seawater desalination market by industry segment, 2011-2017: alternate scenario
    • 1.11.5. The overall market
      • Figure 1.41: UPW, seawater desalination and wastewater desalination by industrial segment, 2011-2025
      • Figure 1.42: Desalination and water reuse market forecast by major market, 2011-2025
      • Figure 1.43: Membrane markets, 2011-2017
      • Figure 1.44: Breakdown of equipment for other process water and other wastewater treatment, 2011-2017

2. Oil and gas

  • 2.1. Water and wastewater in the oil and gas industry
    • 2.1.1. Onshore conventional oil
      • Figure 2.1: Typical water and oil production profile of an oil well in the North Atlantic
      • Figure 2.2: Salinity of produced water in the U.S.
      • Figure 2.3: Water to oil ratios of selected producers
    • 2.1.2. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
      • Figure 2.4: Primary, secondary and tertiary oil recovery
      • Figure 2.5: Global oil production by EOR method
      • Figure 2.6: low salinity water in polymer flood
    • 2.1.3. Steam injection for heavy oil and oil sands
    • 2.1.4. In-situ mining of oil sands
      • Figure 2.7: Inorganic water chemistry of tailings water at Syncrude's Mildred Lake Settling Basin
      • Figure 2.8: Organic chemistry of tailings water at Syncrude's Mildred Lake Settling Basin
    • 2.1.5. Offshore conventional oil
    • 2.1.6. Conventional gas
      • Figure 2.9: Typical produced water constituents from oil, gas and coalbed methane (CBM) production
    • 2.1.7. Shale gas
      • Figure 2.10: Fracturing fluid components
      • Figure 2.11: Flowback reuse as fracturing fluid contaminants
      • Figure 2.12: Average volumes of frac and drilling water in Barnett, Fayetteville, Haynesville & Marcellus shale
    • 2.1.8. Coalbed methane
      • Figure 2.13: Gas and produced water from CBM
    • 2.1.9. Summary of water and wastewater challenges in the oil and gas industry
  • 2.2. Market drivers
    • 2.2.1. Beneficial reuse of conventional oil and gas produced water
      • Figure 2.14: U.S. oil and gas produced water volumes by management practice
      • Figure 2.15: Global produced water volumes by management practice
      • Figure 2.16: Use of produced water in agriculture
      • Figure 2.17: Cost of produced water management alternatives
      • Figure 2.18: Oil reserves and water risk
    • 2.2.2. Low salinity water and sulphate removal for flood and enhanced oil recovery
      • 2.2.2.1. Sulphate removal drivers
        • Figure 2.19: Sulphate removal offshore adoption
        • Figure 2.20: Sulphate removal and the growth of the deep water oil production sector
        • Figure 2.21: Deepwater offshore crude production, 2010-2030
        • Figure 2.22: Deepwater production in the Atlantic Rim, 2000-2020
      • 2.2.2.2. Low salinity water flood
        • Figure 2.23: Forecast of oil production by EOR from different countries in 2015 and 2030
      • 2.2.2.3. Low salinity water for chemical EOR
        • Figure 2.24: EOR market development
        • Figure 2.25: EOR process selection according to reservoir depth and oil viscosity
        • Figure 2.26: Cost profiles of different approaches to EOR
        • Figure 2.27: Chemical floods since 1985
    • 2.2.3. Water recycling for steam flood
      • Figure 2.28: Top 10 Countries for global steam flood operations
      • Figure 2.29: Oil production from steam EOR, 1980-2012
      • Figure 2.30: Canadian crude oil production forecast 2007-2020
      • Figure 2.31: Potential growth in oil sand operators' water handling
      • Figure 2.32: SAGD capacity in the Canadian oil sands
      • Figure 2.33: Long term oil supply cost curve
    • 2.2.4. Shale gas produced water management
      • Figure 2.34: Global shale plays
      • Figure 2.35: Technically recoverable shale gas resources by country
      • Figure 2.36: Status of international shale plays
      • Figure 2.37: Gas production costs and spot market prices
      • Figure 2.38: Natural gas price trends: Henry Hub spot price and LNG import prices in Europe and Japan
      • Figure 2.39: Shale gas production by state
      • Figure 2.40: Proven shale gas reserves by state and class II injection wells
    • 2.2.5. Coalbed methane produced water management
      • Figure 2.41: Map of the world's CBM resources
      • Figure 2.42: CBM reserves and production by country
      • 2.2.5.1. CBM produced water in the U.S.
        • Figure 2.43: Summary of produced water management in the main U.S. CBM basins
      • 2.2.5.2. CSG produced water in Australia
        • Figure 2.44: CSG water desalination plants in operation/contracted
        • Figure 2.45: Upcoming opportunities in Australian CSG water treatment
      • 2.2.5.3. CBM produced water elsewhere in the world
  • 2.3. Technologies for desalination and water reuse in the oil and gas industry
    • 2.3.1. Produced water management technologies for conventional oil and gas
      • 2.3.1.1. Minimisation
      • 2.3.1.2. Oil/water separation
        • Figure 2.46: Oil water separation and treatment schematic
        • Figure 2.47: Differences between IGF and DGF
      • 2.3.1.3. Produced water polishing
        • Figure 2.48: Off-shore produced water regulation
      • 2.3.1.4. Technologies for gas field produced water management
    • 2.3.2. Steam EOR recycling technologies
      • Figure 2.49: Steam EOR evaporation and high recovery reverse osmosis references
      • Figure 2.50: Saltworks seawater desalination circuit
      • Figure 2.51: Produced water volume reduction guidelines using thermal and membrane technologies
    • 2.3.3. Technologies for sulphate removal and low salinity water
      • Figure 2.52: Sulphate removal technology train evolution
    • 2.3.4. Technologies for unconventional gas produced water management
  • 2.4. Supply chain analysis
    • 2.4.1. Reaching the customer
    • 2.4.2. Procurement models
    • 2.4.3. Market structure
      • Figure 2.53: Significant company acquisitions, mergers and joint ventures
    • 2.4.4. Market entry
  • 2.5. Market forecast
    • 2.5.1. Overall picture
      • Figure 2.54: Oil and gas industry market forecast, 2011-2025
      • Figure 2.55: Oil and gas industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
    • 2.5.2. Reference and alternate scenarios
      • 2.5.2.1. Unconventional gas
        • Figure 2.56: Oil and gas industry, unconventional gas combined, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
        • Figure 2.57: Oil and gas industry, unconventional gas combined, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario
      • 2.5.2.2. Steam and water flood systems
        • Figure 2.58: Oil and gas industry, steam and water flood systems, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
        • Figure 2.59: Oil and gas industry, steam and water flood systems, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario
      • 2.5.2.3. Produced water treatment systems
        • Figure 2.60: Oil and gas industry, produced water treatment systems, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
        • Figure 2.61: Oil and gas industry, produced water treatment systems, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario

3. Refining and petrochemicals

  • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.1.1. Introduction to refining
      • Figure 3.1: Main crude oil fractions by chain length
    • 3.1.2. Crude oil refining processes
      • 3.1.2.1. Desalting
      • 3.1.2.2. Atmospheric distillation
      • 3.1.2.3. Further processing
    • 3.1.3. Current refining capacity
      • Figure 3.2: Current refinery locations, 2011
      • Figure 3.3: Global refining capacity by country, 2011
      • Figure 3.4: Top 20 countries by refining capacity, 2011
      • Figure 3.5: Global refining capacity by region, 2012
  • 3.2. Drivers for water reuse and advanced wastewater treatment technologies
    • 3.2.1. Environmental regulations
    • 3.2.2. Economic considerations
      • Figure 3.6: Crack spreads for gasoline and heating oil, 2006-2012
    • 3.2.3. Water scarcity
    • 3.2.4. Operational reliability
  • 3.3. Refinery water requirements
    • 3.3.1. Refinery water systems
      • Figure 3.7: Refinery water systems
    • 3.3.2. Water use in refining
      • 3.3.2.1. Boiler feedwater (BFW)
      • 3.3.2.2. Cooling water
      • 3.3.2.3. Process water
      • 3.3.2.4. Treatment methods for contaminants in raw water
        • Figure 3.8: Water quality requirements for refinery's water streams
        • Figure 3.9: Potential contaminants in raw water
    • 3.3.3. Water volumes for refining
      • Figure 3.10: Wastewater generation by U.S. refineries with crude oil capacities > 300,000 bbl/d
  • 3.4. Demineralisation and desalination technologies
    • 3.4.1. Technologies for producing BFW
      • 3.4.1.1. Water softening
      • 3.4.1.2. Demineralisation technology trains for BFW
    • 3.4.2. Seawater desalination
      • Figure 3.11: Large scale seawater desalination for refineries by region, 1990-2011
      • Figure 3.12: Large scale seawater desalination for refineries by region and year, 1990-2011
      • Figure 3.13: Large scale seawater desalination plants for refineries, 1990-2011
      • Figure 3.14: Large scale seawater desalination for refineries by technology, 1990-2011
  • 3.5. Wastewater challenges
    • 3.5.1. Wastewater streams and volumes
      • Figure 3.15: Main refinery processes and wastewater streams generated
    • 3.5.2. Strong wastes
    • 3.5.3. Oily wastewater
    • 3.5.4. Blowdown and condensate
      • 3.5.4.1. Cooling tower blowdown
      • 3.5.4.2. Condensate from boiler blowdown and steam generators
    • 3.5.5. Wastewater streams generated by advanced water treatment processes
  • 3.6. Wastewater treatment technologies
    • Figure 3.16: Typical refinery WWTP technologies
    • Figure 3.17: Wastewater streams and wastewater treatment in the refining industry
    • 3.6.1. Emerging trends in refinery wastewater treatment
  • 3.7. Water reuse
    • 3.7.1. Sources of water for reuse
      • Figure 3.18: Water reuse applications and source of water
      • 3.7.1.1. Stripped sour water
      • 3.7.1.2. Recovered condensate
      • 3.7.1.3. Tertiary and advanced wastewater treatment
        • Figure 3.19: Trends in water reuse technologies
    • 3.7.2. Zero liquid discharge
    • 3.7.3. Demand for advanced water reuse technologies
  • 3.8. Supply chain analysis
    • 3.8.1. Procurement models
      • 3.8.1.1. EPC model
        • Figure 3.20: Seawater desalination for refining by EPC contractor, 1990-2011
      • 3.8.1.2. EP model
      • 3.8.1.3. Direct procurement of treatment solutions
    • 3.8.2. Factors that influence decision making
    • 3.8.3. Maintaining a market presence
  • 3.9. Market forecast
    • 3.9.1. Refining projects
      • Figure 3.21: Future refining projects, 2012-2020
      • Figure 3.22: Future additional refining capacity by country, 2012-2017
    • 3.9.2. Reference and alternate scenarios
    • 3.9.3. Overall picture
      • Figure 3.23: Refining and petrochemicals industry market forecast, 2011-2025
      • Figure 3.24: Refining and petrochemicals industry: top country markets, 2013-2017
      • Figure 3.25: Refining and petrochemicals industry: regional markets, 2013-2017
    • 3.9.4. Seawater desalination
      • Figure 3.26: Refining and petrochemicals industry, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 3.27: Refining and petrochemicals industry, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario

4. Power

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Water intensive processes
    • Figure 4.1: Water cycles and treatment processes in power generation
    • 4.2.1. Boiler water in the steam cycle
    • 4.2.2. Cooling cycle
      • Figure 4.2: Water consumption of selected cooling systems in coal-fired power stations
    • 4.2.3. Combined cycle power plants
      • Figure 4.3: Water use in a combined cycle power plant
      • Figure 4.4: Projected water use volumes at the CPV Vaca station combined cycle power plant
    • 4.2.4. Flue gas desulphurisation
      • Figure 4.5: Limestone addition removes sulphur dioxide from flue gas
    • 4.2.5. Ash handling systems
      • Figure 4.6: Percentage of US coal-fired power plants using wet ash handling systems
    • 4.2.6. Coal gasification
      • Figure 4.7: Water use in coal gasification and synthetic gas cleaning
    • 4.2.7. Nuclear power industry
    • 4.2.8. Concentrated solar power
      • Figure 4.8: Potential energy supply and water use from concentrated solar power plants in the U.S.
  • 4.3. Process water requirements
    • 4.3.1. Purity of boiler makeup
      • Figure 4.9: ASME guidelines for boiler water purity at increasing pressure and a constant temperature
    • 4.3.2. Cooling tower makeup
  • 4.4. Wastewater characteristics
    • 4.4.1. Cooling tower blowdown
      • Figure 4.10: Concentration of contaminants in the cooling cycle
    • 4.4.2. FGD wastewater
      • Figure 4.11: Concentrations of contaminants in FGD wastewater
  • 4.5. Demineralisation technologies for process water
    • 4.5.1. Treatment options for steam cycle boilers
  • 4.6. Wastewater treatment technologies
    • 4.6.1. Zero-liquid discharge treatment of cooling tower blowdown
    • 4.6.2. Treatment of FGD wastewater
      • Figure 4.12: Wastewater treatment processes following flue gas desulphurisation
      • 4.6.2.1. Opportunities for zero-liquid discharge technologies
        • Figure 4.13: Coal-fired power stations treating FGD wastewater in the United States
        • Figure 4.14: ENEL power plants using zero-liquid discharge technology
      • 4.6.2.2. Biological treatment for selenium removal
  • 4.7. Market drivers
    • 4.7.1. Trends in fuel use and power plant construction
      • 4.7.1.1. Coal
        • Figure 4.15: Annual additional capacity of new coal-fired power plants, 1970-2015
      • 4.7.1.2. Gas
        • Figure 4.16: Annual additional capacity of new gas-fired power plants, 1970-2015
      • 4.7.1.3. Alternative sources
        • Figure 4.17: Annual additional capacity of nuclear power plants, 1970-2015
      • 4.7.1.4. Global trends
        • Figure 4.18: Global cumulative generating capacity, 1970-2015
        • Figure 4.19: Projected additional capacity for our three forecast regions between 2013 and 2017
    • 4.7.2. Increased use of FGD systems
      • Figure 4.20: Techniques used to mitigate the emission of sulphur dioxide from coal-fired plants in 2011
      • Figure 4.21: Growth of wet limestone scrubbers as method of desulphurisation at coal plants in the USA
    • 4.7.3. Regulation of emissions
    • 4.7.4. Increasing boiler and turbine efficiency
      • Figure 4.22: Temperature and pressure of fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants
      • Figure 4.23: Growth in generating capacity provided by supercritical power plants, 1980-2011
    • 4.7.5. Coal gasification
      • Figure 4.24: Monthly cost of fossil fuels for power generation in the USA
      • Figure 4.25: Increase in generating capacity at IGCC plants, 2000-2016
    • 4.7.6. Co-located water and power projects
      • Figure 4.26: Generating capacity of power plants providing heat for thermal desalination in 2011
  • 4.8. Water reuse strategies
    • Figure 4.27: Water consumption and discharge in the cooling systems of U.S. power plants
  • 4.9. Supply chain analysis
    • 4.9.1. FGD market
    • 4.9.2. Procurement models
      • 4.9.2.1. Procurement relationships
      • 4.9.2.2. Procurement process for mobile systems
    • 4.9.3. Procurement process in the United States
      • 4.9.3.1. Outsourcing of water treatment systems
      • 4.9.3.2. Outsourcing of wastewater treatment systems
    • 4.9.4. Procurement process in China
    • 4.9.5. Procurement process in India
      • 4.9.5.1. Tendering
      • 4.9.5.2. Funding
    • 4.9.6. Market players
      • Figure 4.28: Companies providing equipment to the U.S. power market
      • Figure 4.29: Companies providing water treatment equipment to the Chinese power market
      • Figure 4.30: Companies active within the Indian power market
      • Figure 4.31: Companies providing water treatment equipment to the Indian power market
  • 4.10. Market forecast
    • 4.10.1. Power plant projects and installed base
    • 4.10.2. Overall picture
      • Figure 4.32: Power industry market forecast, 2011-2025
      • Figure 4.33: Power industry: top country markets, 2013-2017
      • Figure 4.34: Power industry: regional markets, 2013-2017
    • 4.10.3. Reference and alternate scenarios
      • Figure 4.35: Power industry: seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 4.36: Power industry, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario
      • Figure 4.37: Power industry: water and ww treatment ex. seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 4.38: Power industry: water and ww treatment ex. seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario
      • Figure 4.39: Power industry, co-located power/desalination: Reference scenario
      • Figure 4.40: Power industry, co-located power/desalination: Alternate scenario

5. Food and beverage

  • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.1.1. F&B subsectors
      • Figure 5.1: Food and beverage industry subsectors
    • 5.1.2. Food processing
      • Figure 5.2: Generic food and beverage processing path for fruit/vegetables and meat raw materials
    • 5.1.3. Water volumes in the F&B industry
      • Figure 5.3: Estimates of global food and beverage water use in 2012
  • 5.2. Process water requirements and technologies
    • 5.2.1. Uses of water in the F&B industry
      • Figure 5.4: Water consuming activities in food and beverage plants
      • 5.2.1.1. Water that contacts food (cleaning equipment and food processing)
      • 5.2.1.2. Other operations (utility water, cleaning floors)
    • 5.2.2. Process water technologies
      • Figure 5.5: Simplified process water treatment line
      • Figure 5.6: Process water technology categories
      • 5.2.2.1. Membrane technologies for process water
      • 5.2.2.2. Technology trends
    • 5.2.3. Efficiency trends
      • 5.2.3.1. Cleaning water efficiency
      • 5.2.3.2. Utility water efficiency
      • 5.2.3.3. Process water efficiency
      • 5.2.3.4. Other water efficiency practices
  • 5.3. Market drivers
    • 5.3.1. Brand protection
      • 5.3.1.1. The sustainability factor
      • 5.3.1.2. The risk factor
    • 5.3.2. Water scarcity
    • 5.3.3. Regulations
      • 5.3.3.1. Water abstraction regulations
      • 5.3.3.2. Process water quality standards
      • 5.3.3.3. Wastewater discharge standards
      • 5.3.3.4. Adoption of universal regulations at plant sites
    • 5.3.4. Geographical trends
      • Figure 5.7: Countries mentioned in the expansion plans of 50 leading F&B companies, grouped by region
  • 5.4. Wastewater challenges
    • 5.4.1. Wastewater discharge options
    • 5.4.2. Wastewater characteristics
      • Figure 5.8: Wastewater characteristics from food and beverage subsectors
  • 5.5. Wastewater treatment technologies
    • 5.5.1. Overview of wastewater treatment technologies
      • Figure 5.9: Wastewater treatment technologies
    • 5.5.2. Wastewater treatment technology trends
      • 5.5.2.1. Anaerobic digester technology trends
      • 5.5.2.2. Aerobic systems: MBBR versus MBR
      • 5.5.2.3. Membrane-based technology trends in wastewater
  • 5.6. Water reuse strategies
    • 5.6.1. Condensate reuse
      • 5.6.1.1. Boiler condensate return systems
      • 5.6.1.2. Product condensate recovery
    • 5.6.2. Water management
    • 5.6.3. Water reuse trends
  • 5.7. Supply chain analysis
    • 5.7.1. Procurement process
      • 5.7.1.1. Operation and maintenance
      • 5.7.1.2. Technology purchasing
      • 5.7.1.3. Local versus international suppliers
      • 5.7.1.4. One-stop shop versus separate technologies
    • 5.7.2. Procurement models
      • 5.7.2.1. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs)
      • 5.7.2.2. Design, build, operate and maintain (DBOM)
      • 5.7.2.3. Acquire, operate and transfer (AOT)
      • 5.7.2.4. Build, own, operate and maintain (BOOM) versus build, own, operate and transfer (BOOT)
      • 5.7.2.5. Request for quotation (RFQ)
    • 5.7.3. Market entry
      • 5.7.3.1. Dominance of market players
      • 5.7.3.2. Market entry potential for smaller/niche players
  • 5.8. Market forecast
    • 5.8.1. Market background
    • 5.8.2. Overall picture
      • Figure 5.10: Food and beverage industry market forecast, 2011-2025
      • Figure 5.11: Food and beverage industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
    • 5.8.3. Reference and alternate scenarios
      • Figure 5.12: Food and beverage industry, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 5.13: Food and beverage industry, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario

6. Pharmaceutical

  • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.1.1. Introduction to the pharmaceutical industry
      • 6.1.1.1. Consolidation in the pharmaceutical industry
    • 6.1.2. Product safety in the pharmaceutical industry
    • 6.1.3. Processing of pharmaceutical products
      • 6.1.3.1. Pharmaceutical products
      • 6.1.3.2. Pharmaceutical manufacturing processes
        • Figure 6.1: Generalised manufacturing processing steps
    • 6.1.4. Water in the pharmaceutical industry
      • 6.1.4.1. Water consumption in the pharmaceutical industry
  • 6.2. Process water requirements
    • 6.2.1. Pharmacopoeias
    • 6.2.2. European pharmacopoeia - pharmaceutical grade water
      • Figure 6.2: European pharmacopoeia grades of water
    • 6.2.3. United States pharmacopoeia - Pharmaceutical grade water
      • Figure 6.3: USP grades of water
      • Figure 6.4: USP water for pharmaceutical applications
    • 6.2.4. Japanese pharmacopoeia - Pharmaceutical grade water
      • Figure 6.5: JP grades of water
    • 6.2.5. Pharmaceutical grade water quality standards from USP, Ph. Eur. And JP
      • Figure 6.6: Purified water quality standards from USP, Ph. Eur. And JP
      • 6.2.5.1. PW comparison
        • Figure 6.7: WFI quality standards from USP, Ph. Eur. and JP
      • 6.2.5.2. WFI comparison
    • 6.2.6. Process water overview
  • 6.3. Drivers
    • 6.3.1. Cost
    • 6.3.2. Brand
      • 6.3.2.1. Energy efficiency
      • 6.3.2.2. Water efficiency
    • 6.3.3. Regulations
    • 6.3.4. Industry trends
      • 6.3.4.1. Geographic shift
  • 6.4. Process water technologies
    • 6.4.1. Typical treatment trains
      • Figure 6.8: Technology options for treatment steps
    • 6.4.2. Pretreatment
    • 6.4.3. Activated carbon filters
    • 6.4.4. Softeners (ion exchange)
    • 6.4.5. Disinfection/sanitisation
      • 6.4.5.1. Thermal methods
      • 6.4.5.2. Chemical methods
      • 6.4.5.3. UV radiation (In-line)
      • 6.4.5.4. Clean-in-place (CIP)
    • 6.4.6. Deionisation
    • 6.4.7. Membrane based technologies
      • 6.4.7.1. UF
      • 6.4.7.2. RO
      • 6.4.7.3. Distillation
    • 6.4.8. Technology trends
      • 6.4.8.1. Disinfection technology trends
      • 6.4.8.2. Distillation technology trends
      • 6.4.8.3. RO trends
      • 6.4.8.4. UF/MF/NF trends
      • 6.4.8.5. Distillation versus membrane based technologies
        • Figure 6.9: Generalised schematic of a pharmaceutical water treatment system
  • 6.5. Wastewater challenges
    • 6.5.1. Wastewater characteristics
      • 6.5.1.1. Micropollutants
      • 6.5.1.2. Wastewater microbial loads
  • 6.6. Wastewater treatment technologies
    • 6.6.1. Technology categorisation
      • Figure 6.10: Wastewater treatment technologies
      • 6.6.1.1. Wastewater treatment trends
  • 6.7. Water reuse strategies
    • 6.7.1. Water reuse in the pharmaceutical industry
      • 6.7.1.1. Factors promoting water reuse
      • 6.7.1.2. Water reuse limitations
    • 6.7.2. Water reuse trends
  • 6.8. Supply chain analysis
    • 6.8.1. Procurement process
      • 6.8.1.1. Technology purchasing and outsourcing process
      • 6.8.1.2. Operating and maintenance
      • 6.8.1.3. Local versus international suppliers
      • 6.8.1.4. One-stop shop versus separate technologies
    • 6.8.2. Market entry
      • 6.8.2.1. Dominance of market players
      • 6.8.2.2. New entrants
      • 6.8.2.3. Opportunities for new entrants
  • 6.9. Market forecast
    • Figure 6.11: Pharmaceutical industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • Figure 6.12: Pharmaceutical industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
    • 6.9.1. Reference and alternate scenarios
      • Figure 6.13: Pharmaceutical industry market forecast by region, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 6.14: Pharmaceutical industry market forecast by region, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario

7. Microelectronics

  • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.1.1. Microelectronics
    • 7.1.2. The semiconductor manufacturing process
      • Figure 7.1: Steps in the semiconductor manufacturing process
    • 7.1.3. Manufacturing process trends
      • 7.1.3.1. Greater miniaturisation
        • Figure 7.2: The continuing miniaturisation of semiconductor devices
        • Figure 7.3: Capacity of new fabrication plants by line-width, 2000-2011
        • Figure 7.4: Capacity of new fabrication plants by line-width, 2012-2020
      • 7.1.3.2. Greater complexity
      • 7.1.3.3. Larger wafer sizes
        • Figure 7.5: Capacity of new fabrication plants by wafer size, 2000-2011
        • Figure 7.6: Capacity of new fabrication plants by wafer size, 2012-2020
  • 7.2. Water treatment market drivers in microelectronics
    • Figure 7.7: Planned semiconductor plant locations and water scarcity
  • 7.3. Process water requirements
    • 7.3.1. Current industry water consumption
      • Figure 7.8: UPW consumption at semiconductor and FPD fabrication plants
    • 7.3.2. Industry standards for UPW and treatment for water reuse
      • 7.3.2.1. SEMI F63-0211 Guide for ultrapure water used in semiconductor processing
      • 7.3.2.2. ASTM D5127 Standard Guide for ultrapure water used in the electronics and semiconductor industries
      • 7.3.2.3. Comparison of SEMI F63 Standard and ASTM D5127 Standard
      • 7.3.2.4. Future development of UPW standards
      • 7.3.2.5. How the standards are used
      • 7.3.2.6. Other microelectronics-related standards
    • 7.3.3. ITRS roadmap guidelines - future technology trends
      • Figure 7.9: ITRS water consumption: Facilities technology requirements - near-term years
    • 7.3.4. Water quality requirements for UPW
      • 7.3.4.1. UPW requirements for semiconductor manufacturing
        • Figure 7.10: Major contaminants of concern for UPW production
      • 7.3.4.2. PV high purity water standard
        • Figure 7.11: Comparison of SEMI F63 and SEMI PV3 Standard UPW requirements
  • 7.4. Desalination technologies for process water
    • 7.4.1. Ultrapure water (UPW) technology trends in semiconductor industry
      • Figure 7.12: UPW technology train for the semiconductor and PV industries
      • 7.4.1.1. Pretreatment
      • 7.4.1.2. Reverse osmosis
      • 7.4.1.3. Polishing
  • 7.5. Wastewater challenges
    • 7.5.1. Semiconductor industry wastewater streams
      • Figure 7.13: Wastewater streams generated in the semiconductor industry
    • 7.5.2. Wastewater treatment challenges in microelectronics manufacturing
    • 7.5.3. PV industry wastewater characteristics
      • Figure 7.14: PV wastewater streams
  • 7.6. Water reuse strategies
    • 7.6.1. Reuse opportunities at fabrication plants
      • Figure 7.15: Water reuse opportunities
      • 7.6.1.1. The “50% rule”
        • Figure 7.16: Water reuse applications
    • 7.6.2. Water reuse trends
    • 7.6.3. Water reuse at non-semiconductor facilities
  • 7.7. Wastewater treatment and water reuse technologies
    • 7.7.1. Wastewater treatment technologies and future developments.
      • Figure 7.17: Wastewater treatment technologies - conventional and advanced
    • 7.7.2. Current trends in wastewater treatment in the semiconductor industry
      • 7.7.2.1. HF treatment
      • 7.7.2.2. Metal-bearing wastewater treatment
      • 7.7.2.3. Ammonia treatment
      • 7.7.2.4. Caustic and acid wastewater treatment
      • 7.7.2.5. Concentrated acids treatment
    • 7.7.3. Technology trends
      • 7.7.3.1. Resource recovery
    • 7.7.4. Greater rate of wastewater treatment on-site
    • 7.7.5. Water reuse technologies and trends
  • 7.8. Supply chain analysis
    • 7.8.1. Market entry opportunities
      • 7.8.1.1. Market entry constraints
      • 7.8.1.2. Routes to the market
      • 7.8.1.3. “Success factors” for market entry
      • 7.8.1.4. Upcoming UPW systems market trend
    • 7.8.2. Procurement model
    • 7.8.3. Whole process stream purchase versus one-stop shop
    • 7.8.4. Local versus global suppliers
    • 7.8.5. Opportunities for outsourcing operation and maintenance (O&M)
    • 7.8.6. The competitive landscape: Major water technology companies and equipment providers
      • 7.8.6.1. “Tier-one” companies
    • Figure 7.18: Major water companies - “tier-one”
      • 7.8.6.2. Specialisation of “tier-one companies”
    • 7.8.7. “Tier-two” companies
    • 7.8.8. EPC contractors
      • Figure 7.19: Major EPC contractors
    • 7.8.9. Microelectronics manufacturers
      • Figure 7.20: Top 10 companies by installed capacity (200 mm wafer equivalent), 2012
  • 7.9. Market trends
    • 7.9.1. Currently installed capacity and market trends
      • Figure 7.21: Increment to installed capacity, 2000-2017
      • 7.9.1.1. Geographical shift
        • Figure 7.22: Global installed capacity by country in 2012
        • Figure 7.23: Newly added capacity by country, 2012-2017
      • 7.9.1.2. FPD and PV market trends
        • Figure 7.24: The top 5 PV cell producing countries, 2010
  • 7.10. Market forecast
    • 7.10.1. Fab projects
    • 7.10.2. Overall picture
      • Figure 7.25: Microelectronics industry market forecast, 2011-2025
    • 7.10.3. Regional trends
      • Figure 7.26: Microelectronics industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
    • 7.10.4. Reference and alternate scenarios
      • Figure 7.27: Microelectronics industry, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 7.28: Microelectronics industry, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario

8. Pulp and paper

  • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.1.1. Facility classification
  • 8.2. Process description: Pulping and paper manufacturing process
    • Figure 8.1: Water in the pulp and paper industry
    • 8.2.1. Pulping process
      • Figure 8.2: Pulp manufacturing process sequence
      • 8.2.1.1. Mechanical pulping (groundwood pulping)
      • 8.2.1.2. Chemical pulping
    • 8.2.2. Bleaching
    • 8.2.3. Paper manufacture
  • 8.3. Drivers
    • 8.3.1. Regulation
    • 8.3.2. Economic drivers
    • 8.3.3. Boilers
    • 8.3.4. Environmental sustainability
  • 8.4. Geographies
    • Figure 8.3: Paper production by region, 1999-2011
    • Figure 8.4: Pulp production by region, 1999-2011
    • Figure 8.5: Increasing wood pulp production in Brazil and Chile, 1999-2011
    • Figure 8.6: Increasing paper production for packaging and construction in China, 1999-2011
  • 8.5. Process water requirements
    • Figure 8.7: Water use in paper production, by grade and by region
    • 8.5.1. Technologies
  • 8.6. Wastewater characteristics
    • Figure 8.8: Wastewater contaminants in the pulp and paper making process (bleached Kraft chemical pulp)
    • 8.6.1. Technologies
      • Figure 8.9: General wastewater treatment technologies for the pulp and paper industry
      • Figure 8.10: Biological treatment processes by paper grade
      • Figure 8.11: Effluent treatment (in million m3) for pulp and paper mills (within CEPI Member Countries, 2008)
    • 8.6.2. Water reuse
  • 8.7. Supply chain analysis
    • 8.7.1. One-stop shop or separate technologies?
    • 8.7.2. International versus local players
    • 8.7.3. Requirements
    • 8.7.4. Market players
    • 8.7.5. Entering the market
  • 8.8. Market forecast
    • 8.8.1. Overall picture
      • Figure 8.12: Pulp and paper industry market forecast, 2011-2025
      • Figure 8.13: Pulp and paper industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
    • 8.8.2. Reference and alternate scenarios
      • Figure 8.14: Pulp and paper industry by region, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 8.15: Pulp and paper industry by region, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario

9. Mining

  • 9.1. Introduction to mining
    • 9.1.1. Mining methods
    • 9.1.2. Mining processing
  • Figure 9.1: Mineral ore processing steps
    • 9.1.3. Water consumption in mining processes
      • Figure 9.2: Water consumption volumes for the processing steps for selected metals
  • 9.2. Process water requirements
    • 9.2.1. Process water sources
      • 9.2.1.1. Alternate water sources
        • Figure 9.3: Water quality suitability for selected processes
    • 9.2.2. Process water technologies
      • Figure 9.4: Process water technologies
      • 9.2.2.1. Desalination technologies for process water
    • 9.2.3. Desalination trends
      • 9.2.3.1. Desalination trends in Chile and Peru
        • Figure 9.5: Main mining operations using desalination or raw seawater in Chile
        • Figure 9.6: Mining operations using, or considering the use of, seawater in Chile
      • 9.2.3.2. Desalination trends in Australia
        • Figure 9.7: Australian mining desalination project examples
  • 9.3. Drivers
    • Figure 9.8: Selected metal prices, January 2000-June 2012
    • 9.3.1. Water scarcity
      • Figure 9.9: Locations of currently operating mines
    • 9.3.2. Regulations
      • Figure 9.10: Main regulatory requirements in the mining operation life cycle
    • 9.3.3. Low grade ores and tailings recovery
  • 9.4. Wastewater challenges
    • 9.4.1. Acid rock drainage (ARD)
    • 9.4.2. Mine closures
  • 9.5. Wastewater treatment technologies
    • Figure 9.11: Wastewater treatment technologies
    • 9.5.1. Wastewater technology trends
      • 9.5.1.1. Metal recovery from waste streams
      • 9.5.1.2. Zero liquid discharge (ZLD)
      • 9.6. Water reuse strategies
    • 9.6.1. Water reuse options
      • 9.6.1.1. Direct wastewater reuse
      • 9.6.1.2. Treated wastewater reuse
    • 9.6.2. Off-site water reuse
  • 9.7. Supply chain analysis
    • 9.7.1. Procurement process
      • 9.7.1.1. Procurement options
      • 9.7.1.2. Operating, maintenance and outsourcing
      • 9.7.1.3. Partnership and teaming agreements
      • 9.7.1.4. One-stop shop versus separate technologies
    • 9.7.2. Market players
      • 9.7.2.1. Engineering programme management firms
      • 9.7.2.2. Water equipment companies
    • 9.7.3. Market entry
      • 9.7.3.1. Market presence
      • 9.7.3.2. Barriers to entry
      • 9.7.3.3. Dominance of market players
      • 9.7.3.4. Market entry potential for smaller/niche players
  • 9.8. Market forecast
    • 9.8.1. Mining projects
      • Figure 9.12: An overview of future mining projects
    • 9.8.2. Referance and alternate scenarios
    • 9.8.3. Overall picture
      • Figure 9.13: Mining industry market forecast, 2011-2025
      • Figure 9.14: Mining industry, top country markets, 2013-2017
      • Figure 9.15: Mining industry, regional markets, 2013-2017
    • 9.8.4. Seawater desalination
      • Figure 9.16: Mining industry, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 9.17: Mining industry, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario
    • 9.8.5. Water and wastewater treatment ex. seawater desalination
      • Figure 9.18: Mining industry, water and ww treatment ex. seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Reference scenario
      • Figure 9.19: Mining industry, water and ww treatment ex, seawater desalination, 2011-2017: Alternate scenario

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References

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