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Hybrid and Electric Vehicles for Land, Water and Air 2013-2023: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

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This publication has been discontinued on October 5, 2013.

Abstract

IDTechEx provides forecasts and analysis of all electric vehicles, land, water and air. IDTechEx has studied this sector for 13 years so far and each year new categories become significant, this year being the turn for car-like vehicles not homologated as cars to become a separately forecasted category because of a lift-off in sales. Mainstream hybrid and pure electric cars, are of course important and they are closely covered by IDTechEx but they are something of a special case. Being massively loss-making, forecasting sales of hybrid and pure electric mainstream cars is largely a matter of forecasting very uncertain levels of industrial, government and other financial support. They are the largest sector by value but industrial/commercial EVs are very close behind at $93 billion in 2023 and they are already profitable for most manufacturers.

Market for light industrial and commercial electric vehciles in 2012 in $ billion

Source: IDTechEx

10 Year Forecasts Across All EV Sectors

Mobility vehicles for the disabled and golf cars are among the very profitable vehicles today but for specialist component and system suppliers, marine, aircraft and military EVs are worth a look, for example. Then again, certain EV markets are recession proof and others very recession prone. Some markets are almost entirely in developing countries over the next decade and others hugely concentrated in one developed country. It is therefore essential that those anywhere in the hybrid and pure electric vehicle supply chain and other interested parties look at the whole picture of this burgeoning, largely profitable, disruptive business and that can best be done by reading the 24 IDTechEx reports on the subject and employing the PhD level IDTechEx consulting team. This is the IDTechEx master report, replete with figures and forecasts for the whole business. The other reports drill down to the vehicle, component and system sectors involved.

Comprehensive Applicational and Geographic Spread

This report is uniquely comprehensive in applicational and geographical spread. Primarily it presents statistics and forecasts including back up data such as conventional vehicle sales and market drivers. There is even comparative data such as statistics and forecasts by other analysts and by regional trade associations. There is some coverage of technology trends and considerable tabulation of manufacturers and by type of vehicle made and which are world leaders in value sales and why. There is little anecdotal text and information already available on the web, the illustrations and tables being largely original and deriving from IDTechEx analysis and private sources as well as extensive interviews carries out in 2013.

About IDTechEx Ltd.

IDTechEx offers independent market research and advice in selected emerging technologies to companies across the value chain, to support them in making essential strategic business decisions. Content expertise and IP in our chosen specialisms is available through provision of regularly-updated reports, advisory services, bespoke consulting services and events. Our technology experts are respected, high profile and well-connected in their fields.

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Market sectors and technology trends
  • 1.2. Numbers of manufacturers
  • 1.3. Electric cars - the most unpredictable market
  • 1.4. Market drivers
  • 1.4.1. Market by territory

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Definitions and scope of this report
    • 2.1.1. Learning from the past
    • 2.1.2. The EV value chain
    • 2.1.3. Key components
  • 2.2. Pure electric vehicles
  • 2.3. Hybrid electric vehicles
    • 2.3.1. Largest sector by value
    • 2.3.2. Here come range extenders
    • 2.3.3. Second or third generation?
    • 2.3.4. Second generation success
    • 2.3.5. Third generation range extenders in the marketplace
    • 2.3.6. Hybrids at no price penalty
  • 2.4. Born electric - in-wheel electric motors
  • 2.5. Born Electric - smart skin
  • 2.6. Objectives
  • 2.7. Benefits
  • 2.8. Range extenders fuel cell, mini turbine
  • 2.9. Electric vehicles become less poisonous
    • 2.9.1. How green are electric vehicles really?

3. HEAVY INDUSTRIAL EVS

  • 3.1. What is included
  • 3.2. Future opportunities Caterpillar USA, JC Bamford UK
  • 3.3. Nissan and Mitsubishi electric forklifts Japan
  • 3.4. New Toyota forklifts Japan
  • 3.5. Zheijang Goodsense Forklift China
  • 3.6. Linde Germany, Komatsu Japan
  • 3.7. Listing of manufacturers
    • 3.7.1. Statistics for all types of industrial lift truck
    • 3.7.2. Manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs
  • 3.8. Market size
  • 3.9. Market forecasts 2012-2023

4. LIGHT INDUSTRIAL, BUSES AND OTHER COMMERCIAL EVS

  • 4.1. What is included
    • 4.1.1. Sub categories
    • 4.1.2. Buses
    • 4.1.3. Trucks
    • 4.1.4. Odyne hybrid truck propulsion
    • 4.1.5. Balqon Pure Electric Trucks and Bus Drive
    • 4.1.6. Via Motors USA
  • 4.2. Market drivers
    • 4.2.1. Governments get involved
  • 4.3. Important initiatives
    • 4.3.1. Azure Dynamics
  • 4.4. EVs for local services
  • 4.5. Airport EVs
  • 4.6. Small people-movers
  • 4.7. Light industrial aids
  • 4.8. Listing of manufacturers
  • 4.9. Market forecasts 2012-2023

5. MOBILITY FOR THE DISABLED

  • 5.1. The sector with the most compelling and enduring need
  • 5.2. The demographic time-bomb
    • 5.2.1. Ageing population and the dependent elderly
    • 5.2.2. Laws make mobility easier
  • 5.3. Types of mobility vehicle
    • 5.3.1. Growth by new market segments
    • 5.3.2. Interchina Industry Group China
  • 5.4. Market drivers
    • 5.4.1. Geographical distribution
    • 5.4.2. Needs creating new segments
    • 5.4.3. What is driving regional differences?
    • 5.4.4. Zhejiang R&P Industry China
    • 5.4.5. Pride Mobility, USA
  • 5.5. Listing of manufacturers
  • 5.6. Market forecasts 2012-2023
    • 5.6.1. Growth by creating new markets

6. TWO WHEELED EVS AND ALLIED VEHICLES

  • 6.1. What is included
  • 6.2. Prices and performances compared
  • 6.3. Electric two wheeler companies
    • 6.3.1. Yamaha Japan
    • 6.3.2. Eko Vehicles hybrid scooters India
    • 6.3.3. Interchina Industry Group foldable electric bike China
    • 6.3.4. Honda Japan
    • 6.3.5. Suzuki fuel cell bike Japan
    • 6.3.6. Peugeot E-Vivacity scooter France
    • 6.3.7. Cytronex lightweight bicycle USA
    • 6.3.8. Daymak Canada
  • 6.4. Market drivers
    • 6.4.1. Bicycles and electric bicycles
    • 6.4.2. Hybrid motorcycles
  • 6.5. Statistics for all bicycles
  • 6.6. Listing of manufacturers
    • 6.6.1. China
  • 6.7. Market forecasts 2012-2023

7. CAR-LIKE VEHICLES NOT HOMOLOGATED AS CARS: MICROEV, QUADRICYCLE, E TRIKE, NEV, GOLF CAR

  • 7.1. Many names, common factors
  • 7.2. Car-like vehicles that evade restrictions, taxes and other costs
  • 7.3. Philippines: big new commitments to e trikes
  • 7.4. Listing of manufacturers beyond golf cars
  • 7.5. Golf cars
    • 7.5.1. What is included
    • 7.5.2. Market drivers
    • 7.5.3. Listing of manufacturers
    • 7.5.4. Market forecasts 2012-2023

8. CARS

  • 8.1. Adoption of electric cars
  • 8.2. US and Europe try to catch up
  • 8.3. Rapid increase in number of manufacturers
  • 8.4. Providing charging infrastructure
    • 8.4.1. Recharging points
    • 8.4.2. Battery changing points
    • 8.4.3. Can the grid cope?
  • 8.5. Market 2012-2023
  • 8.6. National targets for plug-in (PHEV, BEV) on road vehicle sales 2010-2020
    • 8.6.1. United Kingdom

9. PURE ELECTRIC CARS

  • 9.1. Déjà; Vu
    • 9.1.1. Pure electric cars are a necessary part of the range?
  • 9.2. Examples of pure EV cars
  • 9.2.1. Nissan Japan - most ambitious of all?
    • 9.2.2. Here come the Chinese - BYD, Brilliance, Geely, Chengfang
    • 9.2.3. Jianghsu China
    • 9.2.4. Interchina Industry Group China
    • 9.2.5. High performance pure EVs - Tesla USA
    • 9.2.6. Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar France, Italy
    • 9.2.7. REVA India
    • 9.2.8. Club Car USA
    • 9.2.9. Toyota Japan
    • 9.2.10. Detroit Electric USA
    • 9.2.11. Tara Tiny India
    • 9.2.12. Kleenspeed Technologies goes mainstream
    • 9.2.13. Mitsubishi Japan

10. HYBRID CARS

  • 10.1. Construction and advantages of hybrids
  • 10.2. Evolution
  • 10.3. Chevrolet Volt USA
  • 10.4. Ford plug-in hybrid USA
  • 10.5. Market drivers
    • 10.5.1. Leading indicators
  • 10.6. History of hybrids and planned models to 2013

11. MILITARY

  • 11.1. Examples of military EVs
    • 11.1.1. Hummer USA / China
    • 11.1.2. Quantum Technologies USA Aggressor AMV
    • 11.1.3. US Army trucks etc - ZAP, Columbia ParCar USA
    • 11.1.4. Oshkosh Truck Corp USA
    • 11.1.5. Plug-in trucks - BAE Systems UK
    • 11.1.6. Electric robot vehicles USA
    • 11.1.7. UQM unmanned combat vehicle USA
    • 11.1.8. Balqon Corporation
  • 11.2. Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
    • 11.2.1. Small electrical UAVs
    • 11.2.2. SUAV batteries
    • 11.2.3. The most successful electric UAV
    • 11.2.4. Micro nano air vehicles
    • 11.2.5. Large electrical UAVs
    • 11.2.6. COM-BAT robot bat USA
  • 11.3. Examples of military EVs - in the water
    • 11.3.1. US Naval Undersea Warfare Center
  • 11.4. Manufacturers of military EVs
  • 11.5. Market forecasts 2012-2023

12. MARINE

  • 12.1.1. Hybrid and pure electric tugboats
  • 12.2. Market segments
    • 12.2.1. Total market
    • 12.2.2. Underwater
    • 12.2.3. On the water
  • 12.3. Commonality with land EVs
    • 12.3.1. Grants for land and water
    • 12.3.2. Effect of land EV manufacturers entering marine
  • 12.4. Market drivers
    • 12.4.1. Pollution laws back electric boats - India, Europe, USA
    • 12.4.2. Energy harvesting superyacht UK
    • 12.4.3. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) - Europe, USA
  • 12.5. Manufacturers by country and product
  • 12.6. Selling prices
  • 12.7. Market forecasts 2012-2023

13. OTHER EVS

  • 13.1. Definition
  • 13.2. Market drivers
  • 13.3. Listing of manufacturers by country and product
  • 13.4. Market size and trends
    • 13.4.1. Aircraft - Renault, Piccard
    • 13.4.2. Solar Impulse
    • 13.4.3. Non-military mobile robots - USA, UK, Japan
    • 13.4.4. The Electrolux Automower Sweden
    • 13.4.5. Rescue robots in Germany
    • 13.4.6. Robots on Mars
    • 13.4.7. Leisure
    • 13.4.8. Research and hobbyist
  • 13.5. Market forecasts 2012-2023

14. WHAT LEVEL OF RECHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE IS NEEDED?

APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY

TABLES

  • 1.1. Categories of electric vehicle, saturating and growth subsectors within these categories and technology trends by size/ duty cycle.
  • 1.2. Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
  • 1.3. Explanation of trends in market numbers by sector and background statistics and forecasts by other analysts of future numbers by sector and country
  • 1.4. Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
  • 1.5. Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
  • 1.6. Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2013 by application with numbers for China
  • 1.7. Main market drivers 2013-2023
  • 1.8. The value of the electric vehicle market by territory % East Asia, Europe, North America, Other 2013 and 2023 %
  • 2.1. Energy, number of riders and energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options.
  • 2.2. Some reasons why ICE vehicles are replaced with EVs
  • 3.1. Twenty examples of manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs by country
  • 3.2. Percentage split of global manufacture of heavy industrial trucks
  • 3.3. Global sales of heavy industrial EVs by numbers, ex factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
  • 3.4. Sales of heavy electric vehicles by region by percentage of units
  • 4.1. 150 manufacturers of light industrial and commercial EVs and drive trains by country and examples of their products
  • 4.2. Global sales of buses, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
  • 4.3. Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs excluding buses by numbers thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
  • 4.4. Sales of light electric/ commercial vehicles by region 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020 by percentage of units
  • 5.1. Statistics relevant to the challenge to society caused by ageing population
  • 5.2. Evolution of three families of powered vehicles for the disabled
  • 5.3. Evolution of power chairs 1980 to 2010
  • 5.4. Evolution of scooters for the disabled 1980 to 2010
  • 5.5. The continental percentage split of markets for vehicles for the disabled by value in 2012
  • 5.6. The percentage split of market for vehicles for the disabled by country within Europe
  • 5.7. The numbers in thousands of scooters plus power chairs that were and will be sold in Europe 2005 to 2015
  • 5.8. Features of mobility vehicles that may hold up the price by offering more in future
  • 5.9. The percentage distribution of manufacture between Taiwan and Mainland China by value of vehicles for the disabled 2005, 2010 and 2015
  • 5.10. Market for EVs for the disabled by geographical region, ex works pricing and percentage split in 2005, 2010 and 2020
  • 5.11. 82 examples of manufacturers of EVs for the disabled by country
  • 5.12. Global sales of EVs used as mobility aids for the disabled by number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars, 2012-2023, rounded
  • 6.1. Prices and performance of electric two wheelers
  • 6.2. 70 examples of manufacturers of two wheel EVs and electric quad bikes
  • 6.3. Largest suppliers of electric bicycles by number (not in order)
  • 6.4. 34 sources of two wheelers in China by brand, region and battery chemistry
  • 6.5. Listing of light electric scooter makers in China. Most use lead-acid battery chemistry but there is a move to lithium-ion batteries
  • 6.6. Global sales of two wheel and allied EVs number, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
  • 6.7. Sales of Light Electric Vehicles LEVs (two wheelers and allied eg electric quad bikes and on road three wheel micro cars) by region by percentage of units.
  • 7.1. Listing of manufacturers beyond golf cars
  • 7.2. MicroEV quadricycle forecasts 2012-2023
  • 7.3. 19 examples of golf EV manufacturers
  • 7.4. Global sales of electric golf cars and motorised caddies in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
  • 7.5. Geographical split of golf EV sales by value 2010, 2015 and 2020
  • 8.1. Global stimulus for fuel efficient cars in 2009
  • 8.2. 121 examples of manufacturers of EV cars
  • 8.3. Global sales of car hybrid number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
  • 8.4. Global sales of car pure electric number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
  • 8.5. Global sales of micro EV quadricycle number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
  • 10.1. Major market drivers for growth in hybrid sales
  • 10.2. Hybrid electric vehicles and associated events 1876-2013
  • 11.1. Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
  • 11.2. 26 suppliers of military EVs
  • 11.3. Global sales of electric military vehicles in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
  • 11.4. Military electric vehicle sales by region 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020 in percentage units
  • 12.1. 44 examples of manufacturers of EV electric water craft
  • 12.2. Leading manufacturers of remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles for sale
  • 12.3. Indicative prices for marine EVs in 2010
  • 12.4. Global sales of electric marine craft in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
  • 13.1. 30 examples of manufacturers of mobile robots, toy, leisure, research or hobbyist EVs by country and product
  • 13.2. Global sales of other electric vehicles (including civil aircraft and robot) in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
  • 14.1. Number of gas stations ("service stations") by region in 2010

FIGURES

  • 1.1. Basic schematic of pure EV power train
  • 1.2. Size of vehicle, broadly indicated by price and battery kWh, related to when up-front cost becomes competitive with a conventional version
  • 1.3. FlyNano pure electric flying jet ski Finland
  • 1.4. Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
  • 1.5. Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
  • 1.6. Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
  • 1.7. Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2013, percentage by applicational sector
  • 1.8. Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2023, percentage by applicational sector
  • 1.9. The various types of car, the precise definitions, regulations and user preferences varying greatly between countries
  • 1.10. kWh per passenger for conventional or electric on-road vehicles related to type of vehicle and showing cars to be uniquely inefficient.
  • 1.11. Cumulative and monthly plug-in on-road vehicle sales in the USA through 2012 according to trade association EDTA
  • 1.12. The tiny sales of pure electric on-road vehicle sales in Europe showing carrier goods EVs/ light industrial and commercial vehicles outselling passenger EVs, according to trade association AVERE
  • 1.13. Adoption of different car power trains past and present
  • 1.14. The Daimler Smart, left, is a mainstream car subject to tax, insurance, crash tests etc whereas the G-Whiz from India, right, is registered as a quadricycle and was the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for ten years with s
  • 1.15. Renault Twizy quadricycle which is selling over ten thousand within two years from launch. The standard model has no windows
  • 1.16. Chinese micro-EV cars in China. Most of them have three wheels
  • 2.1. EV sectors with the largest gross sales value and profits over the years
  • 2.2. Electric vehicle value chain
  • 2.3. Increasing inefficiency of private vehicles with size, even when fully occupied
  • 2.4. Increasing efficiency of buses with size when fully occupied
  • 2.5. Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
  • 2.6. The Bladon Jets microturbine range extender is the size of two cans of beans
  • 2.7. Planned Jaguar supercar with microturbine range extenders
  • 2.8. Boeing fuel cell plane trial
  • 2.9. Principle of a PEM fuel cell
  • 2.10. Toyota hybrid fork lift for heavy outdoor duty
  • 2.11. Tyrano Big Rig
  • 2.12. Ford MKZ Hybrid
  • 2.13. The Lohner-Porsche electric vehicle of 1898 showing its two in-wheel electric motors. Another version had four
  • 2.14. Mitsubishi in-wheel motor
  • 2.15. Mine resistant ambush protected - All Terrain Vehicle MATV
  • 2.16. MATV structure
  • 2.17. Volvo ReCharge concept hybrid
  • 2.18. Fraunhofer in-wheel motor on an Artega GT
  • 2.19. SIM Drive in wheel traction
  • 2.20. EMRAX 222 Duplex Motor
  • 2.21. The dream of smart skin for land, sea and air vehicles
  • 2.22. Competing electric drive train technologies and their targets by market sector
  • 2.23. Proton Electron Membrane
  • 2.24. Toyota hybrid outdoor forklift
  • 2.25. Carbon Intensity CO2 kg/kWh and % Fossil fuel in power sector
  • 2.26. LCA greenhouse emissions of a compact car with different drive trains
  • 2.27. Carbon emissions, in grams CO2 per km, of a selection of cars for sale in the UK
  • 3.1. Caterpillar CAT series hybrid diesel electric bulldozer
  • 3.2. Nissan lithium forklift
  • 3.3. Mitsubishi diesel electric hybrid lifter
  • 3.4. Toyota Material Handling has launched the new Traigo 48 in 2010, a powerful electric forklift fitted into a compact and agile package
  • 3.5. Forklift from one of the many Chinese manufacturers
  • 3.6. Top 20 industrial lift truck suppliers in 2011.
  • 3.7. Lift truck market demand increase in 2012
  • 3.8. World industrial truck statistics/orders and shipments
  • 4.1. Orion VII hybrid electric bus USA
  • 4.2. Nova RTS hybrid electric bus USA
  • 4.3. Gillig low floor hybrid bus in USA
  • 4.4. Two buses in Brazil using the locally made Eletra hybrid power trains
  • 4.5. Kent electric city bus from China
  • 4.6. Hino Blue Ribbon hybrid diesel electric bus in China
  • 4.7. Lightning Motorcycle's Balqon-equipped superbike
  • 4.8. PG&E and VIA Motors displayed a new SUV version of its extended-range electric vehicle at the Detroit auto show.
  • 4.9. The full-size pickup and a cargo van introduced by VIA Motors in 2012, in use by PGE.
  • 4.10. Electric bus in Nepal
  • 4.11. Mobile electric scissor lift by Wuhan Chancay Machinery and Electronics
  • 4.12. Garbage collecting electric car
  • 4.13. Market for light industrial and commercial electric vehicles in 2012 in $ billion
  • 4.14. Market for industrial and commercial electric vehicles in 2022
  • 5.1. Percentage of dependent elderly 1970 to 2040
  • 5.2. New Pihsiang Shoprider pure electric mobility vehicle for the disabled
  • 5.3. The Electric Car (INEC-KARO) for the disabled from Interchina Industry Group
  • 5.4. Zhejiang R&P Industry ES 413
  • 5.5. Pride Jazzy - making new things possible
  • 6.1. Yamaha EC-f and EC-fs concept electric scooters
  • 6.2. Yamaha EC03
  • 6.3. Eko Vehicles ET-120 hybrid scooter
  • 6.4. Foldable Electric Bike (LNEB-9601
  • 6.5. Honda EV Cub sports twin, front and rear electric drive motors.
  • 6.6. Suzuki Burgman Fuel Cell Scooter powered by Intelligent Energy
  • 6.7. Peugeot E-Vivacity electric scooter planned for 2010
  • 6.8. Cytronex light-weight electric bike
  • 6.9. Shadow eBike is powered by Daymak Drive
  • 6.10. e-bikes parked in Yangzhou China
  • 6.11. Electric mopeds parked in Cheghdu China
  • 6.12. World bicycle and automoblie production, 1950-2007
  • 7.1. Car-like vehicles not homologated as cars, in the context of two wheelers and Europe. Love them or hate them?
  • 7.2. The Daimler Smart, left, is a mainstream car subject to tax, insurance, crash tests etc whereas the G-Whiz from India, right, is registered as a quadricycle and was the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for ten years with s
  • 7.3. Renault Twizy quadricycle which is selling over ten thousand within two years from launch. The standard model has no windows
  • 7.4. Chinese micro-EV cars in China. Most of them have three wheels
  • 7.5. E-trikes
  • 7.6. Tonaro golf and general purpose vehicle from China
  • 7.7. Suzhou Eagle two and four seat golf cars from China
  • 7.8. Yongkang Fourstar golf vehicles from China
  • 7.9. Shadong Wuzheng golf cars from China
  • 7.10. Jinhua Ryder golf car from China
  • 8.1. Distribution of cars made in Europe
  • 8.2. Detailed breakdown of car parameters by type
  • 8.3. Geographical distribution of 120 companies making or intending to make electric cars
  • 8.4. National targets for plug-in on road vehicle sales of EVI members in number of vehicles purchased yearly
  • 8.5. Planned PEV vehicle stock by year 2010-2020 in national targets
  • 8.6. Government targets and sales by company of PEV (PHEV/BEV on-road vehicles)
  • 8.7. Early sales of new EVs by year superimposed showing comparative early adoption
  • 9.1. Trouvé pure EV car in 1881
  • 9.2. Red Bug pure EV in 1930
  • 9.3. Sinclair C5
  • 9.4. Aptera
  • 9.5. Gemcars
  • 9.6. The BYD E6 pure EV car
  • 9.7. Jianghsu DHCLBC EF-1 car
  • 9.8. Electric Car (INEC-BOBI)
  • 9.9. Tesla Motors Roadster pure EV performance car
  • 9.10. Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar showing solar panels on roof and hood
  • 9.11. Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar cross section
  • 9.12. REVA pure EV car
  • 9.13. The Club Car street legal car launched in 2009
  • 9.14. Toyota pure EV city car
  • 9.15. Detroit Electric
  • 9.16. Tara Tiny
  • 9.17. Mitsubishi pure EV car
  • 10.1. Evolution of EV design for on-road and many non-road vehicles
  • 10.2. Chevrolet Volt battery, generator and drive unit positioning
  • 11.1. Oshkosh truck
  • 11.2. Balqon Mule M150
  • 11.3. SPI electrical SUAV
  • 11.4. Examples of SUAV rechargeable lithium batteries. Top: Flight Power "EVO 20" Lithium Polymer battery. Bottom: Sion Power lithium sulfur
  • 11.5. AeroVironment Raven
  • 11.6. AeroVironment Aqua Puma UAV completes Royal Australian Navy Sea trials in 2007
  • 11.7. AeroVironment Helios
  • 11.8. Aurora Flight Sciences solar plane that takes off in parts and self-assembles at altitude
  • 11.9. COM-BAT
  • 11.10. Robotic Bat
  • 11.11. Large autonomous robot jellyfish
  • 12.1. Hybrid tugboat
  • 12.2. Engine room of the hybrid tugboat
  • 12.3. Bratt electric tugboat
  • 12.4. Electric deck boat by Leisure Life
  • 12.5. Electric launch
  • 12.6. Solar powered boats for tourism cruising at 12 kph on Lake Geneva
  • 12.7. The rigid-wing superyacht concept called 'Soliloquy'
  • 13.1. "Zep'lin"s
  • 13.2. "Zep'lin" photovoltaic sail adjustment
  • 13.3. Solar Impulse
  • 13.4. The Electrolux Automower
  • 13.5. Robots for Mars
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