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Electric Vehicle Encyclopedia

“The world's first encyclopedia on the present and future of electric vehicles and their components”

IDTechEx has prepared the world's first encyclopedia on the present and future of electric vehicles and their components. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned practitioner, you can now obtain clarity about all those acronyms and the new terminology. We put this into the context of the three generations of range extenders, the three generations of lithium-ion traction batteries and the three levels of charging infrastructure, for example. As so many vehicle manufacturers now seek to make a wide variety of vehicles, we cover electric vehicles by land, water and air. This is also essential to those researching of making components and subsystems.

There are over 100 tables and illustrations including many block diagrams and cross sections and there is substantial explanatory text. This invaluable reference book is largely based on information from the latest IDTechEx events and reports on the subject and other expert sources, so it gives exceptional insight into what is happening. It is not loaded with nostalgia about the past - such as who invented what - because the focus is on easy access to useful information and the understanding of trends, benefits and challenges now and in future.

Over 200 acronyms and terms are explained. From your AUV to your AELDC, your KERS to your lithium sulfur, Mennekes plug and switched reluctance motor, it is all here. For example, motor Torque and Power are explained in terms of actual values for the various types of EV.

Table of Contents

1. A

  • 1.1. AC
  • 1.2. ACIM
  • 1.3. ACI
  • 1.4. AC induction
  • 1.5. AC motor
  • 1.6. Advanced asynchronous motor variant - Chorus Motors
  • 1.7. Advanced synchronous PM motor - Protean Electric
  • 1.8. AELDC
  • 1.9. Aerogel Capacitor
  • 1.10. AGM
  • 1.11. Airship
  • 1.12. Alkaline batteries
  • 1.13. Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor
  • 1.14. Ampere
  • 1.15. AMV
  • 1.16. APU
  • 1.17. Asymmetric electrochemical double layer capacitor
  • 1.18. Asynchronous motor
  • 1.19. ATEG
  • 1.20. Automotive Thermoelectric Generators
  • 1.21. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle AUV
  • 1.22. AUV
  • 1.23. AUV charging
  • 1.24. Axial flux vs radial flux motors
  • 1.25. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUVs

2. B

  • 2.1. Bacitor
  • 2.2. Battery
  • 2.3. Battery capacity
  • 2.4. Battery cells
  • 2.5. Battery Electric Vehicle
  • 2.6. Battery life
  • 2.7. Battery Management System BMS
  • 2.8. Battery State of Charge
  • 2.9. BEV
  • 2.10. Biomimetic
  • 2.11. Bismuth telluride
  • 2.12. BLDC traction motor
  • 2.13. Blended mode
  • 2.14. BMS
  • 2.15. BOL
  • 2.16. Brushed motor
  • 2.17. Brushless DC
  • 2.18. Brushless motor
  • 2.19. BSOC

3. C

  • 3.1. Cabattery
  • 3.2. Cadmium telluride
  • 3.3. Capacitance
  • 3.4. Capacitor
  • 3.5. Capacitor electrolytic
  • 3.6. Capacitor electrostatic
  • 3.7. Capacitor tantalum
  • 3.8. CARB
  • 3.9. CdTe
  • 3.10. Ceramic Capacitor
  • 3.11. CHAdeMO
  • 3.12. Charge depleting mode
  • 3.13. Charger
  • 3.14. Charge sustaining mode
  • 3.15. Charging electric vehicles
  • 3.16. Charging station
  • 3.17. CIGS
  • 3.18. Clandestine Extended Range Vehicle CERV
  • 3.19. COM-BAT
  • 3.20. Commutator
  • 3.21. Controller
  • 3.22. Converter
  • 3.23. Coulomb
  • 3.24. CPU

4. D

  • 4.1. DC
  • 4.2. DDC
  • 4.3. Deep hybridisation
  • 4.4. de-ICE
  • 4.5. Dielectric
  • 4.6. DMFC
  • 4.7. DOD
  • 4.8. DSSC

5. E

  • 5.1. Earthed/Grounded
  • 5.2. e-bike
  • 5.3. ECM
  • 5.4. EDLC
  • 5.5. EH
  • 5.6. Electric aircraft
  • 5.7. Electric bicycle
  • 5.8. Electric Corner Modules ECM
  • 5.9. Electric helicopter
  • 5.10. Electric motor
  • 5.11. Electric motor scooters
  • 5.12. Electric nose wheels
  • 5.13. Electric traction motor
  • 5.14. Electric Vehicle EV
  • 5.15. Electric vehicle value chain
  • 5.16. Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor
  • 5.17. Energy harvesting
  • 5.18. Energy scavenging
  • 5.19. EOL
  • 5.20. eRoute

6. F

  • 6.1. Farad
  • 6.2. FCV or FCEV
  • 6.3. FCHV
  • 6.4. FCUV
  • 6.5. Fixed Capacitor
  • 6.6. Flying motorcycle
  • 6.7. Flying submarines
  • 6.8. Flywheel Energy Storage
  • 6.9. Free piston engine
  • 6.10. Fuel cell

7. G

  • 7.1. GC
  • 7.2. GHG
  • 7.3. Glider AUV
  • 7.4. Ground Support Equipment
  • 7.5. GSE

8. H

  • 8.1. HEV
  • 8.2. High voltage systems
  • 8.3. HPCU
  • 8.4. Hybrid aircraft
  • 8.5. Hybrid bus
  • 8.6. Hybrid electric vehicle
  • 8.7. Hub motor
  • 8.8. Humming bird
  • 8.9. Hybrid

9. I

  • 9.1. ICE
  • 9.2. IGBT
  • 9.3. Integrated Sensor Is Structure smart airship
  • 9.4. Internal Combustion Engine
  • 9.5. Induction motor
  • 9.6. Inductive coupling
  • 9.7. Intercalation
  • 9.8. Inverter
  • 9.9. In-wheel motor
  • 9.10. In-wheel units
  • 9.11. ISIS electric airship

10. J

  • 10.1. Jaguar supercar

11. K

  • 11.1. KERS
  • 11.2. Kinetic Energy recovery System
  • 11.3. kW

12. L

  • 12.1. Laminar battery
  • 12.2. Lane-splitting
  • 12.3. Large Unmanned Aerial Vehicles LUAVs
  • 12.4. Lead acid battery - Absorbed Glass Mat
  • 12.5. Lead acid battery - Flooded or Wet Cells
  • 12.6. Lead acid battery - Gel Cells
  • 12.7. LCO
  • 12.8. LEVA
  • 12.9. Level One
  • 12.10. Level Two
  • 12.11. Level Three
  • 12.12. LDV
  • 12.13. LFP
  • 12.14. LIC
  • 12.15. Light Electric Vehicle Association
  • 12.16. Light Electric Vehicle LEV
  • 12.17. Li-ion
  • 12.18. LiPo
  • 12.19. Lithium-ion batteries
  • 12.20. Lithium Cobalt Oxide
  • 12.21. Lithium Iron Phosphate
  • 12.22. Lithium manganese
  • 12.23. Lithium polymer
  • 12.24. Lithium rechargeable battery
  • 12.25. Lithium sulfur
  • 12.26. Lithium titanate
  • 12.27. Lithium traction batteries - Second generation
  • 12.28. Lithium traction batteries - Third generation
  • 12.29. Low Speed Vehicles LSV

13. M

  • 13.1. MATV
  • 13.2. MCFC
  • 13.3. MEMS
  • 13.4. Mennekes plug
  • 13.5. Micro hybrid / Microhybrid
  • 13.6. Microturbine
  • 13.7. Mine Resistant Ambush Protected - All Terrain Vehicle
  • 13.8. Mixed mode
  • 13.9. Mobility aids for the disabled/ mobility vehicles
  • 13.10. Mobility scooter
  • 13.11. Monoblock engines
  • 13.12. Motor controller
  • 13.13. Multi-fuel engines
  • 13.14. Multi-mode energy harvesting

14. N

  • 14.1. Nano Air Vehicle
  • 14.2. NAV
  • 14.3. Neighborhood aircraft
  • 14.4. Neighborhood Electric Vehicle NEV
  • 14.5. Nickel-Metal Hydride battery
  • 14.6. NiMH Battery
  • 14.7. Noise Vibration Harshness
  • 14.8. NVH

15. O

  • 15.1. OCV
  • 15.2. On Line Electric vehicle OLEV

16. P

  • 16.1. PAFC
  • 16.2. PAS
  • 16.3. Pb-Acid
  • 16.4. PCM
  • 16.5. Pedelec
  • 16.6. PEFC
  • 16.7. PEM
  • 16.8. PEMFC
  • 16.9. Personal Electric Vehicle PEV
  • 16.10. PEV
  • 16.11. PHEV
  • 16.12. Photovoltaic
  • 16.13. Piezoelectric
  • 16.14. Plug-in
  • 16.15. PM
  • 16.16. PMAC traction motor
  • 16.17. Pouch
  • 16.18. Power
  • 16.19. Power beaming
  • 16.20. Power chairs
  • 16.21. Power on demand bike
  • 16.22. Power restricted vehicles
  • 16.23. Printed electronics
  • 16.24. Prismatic
  • 16.25. Proton Electron Fuel Cell
  • 16.26. Proton exchange membrane
  • 16.27. Pulse Width Modulation
  • 16.28. Pure Electric Vehicle PEV
  • 16.29. PV
  • 16.30. PWM
  • 16.31. PZEV
  • 16.32. PZT

17. R

  • 17.1. Range Extended Electric Vehicle REEV
  • 17.2. Range extender
  • 17.3. Rare earths
  • 17.4. RBS
  • 17.5. RE
  • 17.6. REEV
  • 17.7. Regen
  • 17.8. Regenerative Braking System
  • 17.9. Regenerative soaring
  • 17.10. Resonant power transfer
  • 17.11. Robot insects and tiny birds

18. S

  • 18.1. SAE levels of charging
  • 18.2. Scooter
  • 18.3. SCR
  • 18.4. Sea scooters
  • 18.5. SEI
  • 18.6. Separator
  • 18.7. SepEx
  • 18.8. Series motor
  • 18.9. SFC
  • 18.10. SIM Drive
  • 18.11. SLA
  • 18.12. SLI
  • 18.13. SM
  • 18.14. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles SUAVs
  • 18.15. Smart grid
  • 18.16. Smart skin
  • 18.17. Society of Automotive Engineers SAE
  • 18.18. SOFC
  • 18.19. Solar Impulse
  • 18.20. Solar road vehicles
  • 18.21. Solar train
  • 18.22. Specific energy
  • 18.23. Split path
  • 18.24. SRM
  • 18.25. SUAV
  • 18.26. Supercabatteries
  • 18.27. SuperCap
  • 18.28. Supercapacitor
  • 18.29. Super grid
  • 18.30. SVR
  • 18.31. Swimmer
  • 18.32. Switched reluctance motor
  • 18.33. Synchronous machines SM
  • 18.34. Synchronous motor

19. T

  • 19.1. Tantalum Capacitor
  • 19.2. TDI
  • 19.3. Torque
  • 19.4. TPM
  • 19.5. TPMS
  • 19.6. Traction battery

20. U

  • 20.1. ULEV
  • 20.2. Ultra Broadband Capacitor UBC
  • 20.3. Ultracapacitors

21. V

  • 21.1. Vehicle Management System VMS
  • 21.2. VEM
  • 21.3. VMS
  • 21.4. Volt
  • 21.5. VRLA

22. W

  • 22.1. Wankel engine
  • 22.2. Wh
  • 22.3. Wireless Power Transmission WPT

23. Y

  • 23.1. Yazaki connector for charging

24. Z

  • 24.1. ZEV

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY

TABLES

  • 2.1. Advantages and disadvantages of brushless traction motors
  • 3.1. The good and the bad of inductive contactless charging of electric vehicles
  • 18.1. SAE six levels of charging
  • 18.2. Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
  • 19.1. Typical torque for the electric motors in the various types of electric vehicle
  • 19.2. What is on the way in or out with traction batteries

FIGURES

  • 1.1. 60/15 kW Chorus Meshcon motor
  • 1.2. Protean in-wheel motor for on-road vehicles
  • 1.3. Northrop Grumman electric airship
  • 1.4. Asynchronous motor
  • 1.5. Planned BMW ATEG system
  • 1.6. See Level One, Two, Three and Charging Electric Vehicles.
  • 1.7. Axial flux in-wheel motor driving a bicycle and a propeller.
  • 2.1. Construction of a battery cell
  • 2.2. BMS
  • 2.3. Fraunhofer IIS BMS
  • 2.4. BLDC traction motor
  • 2.5. Brushed motor
  • 3.1. CHAdeMO plug: NEXCO EV Quick
  • 3.2. TEPCO CHAdeMO Level 3 "Quick" fast charging plug
  • 3.3. Nissan backed charging stations being installed in the USA by region
  • 3.4. Hino "no plug in" bus
  • 3.5. In-road charging of small buses in Turin Italy
  • 3.6. Charging station
  • 3.7. CERV
  • 3.8. COM-BAT concept
  • 3.9. COM-BAT concept
  • 3.10. Brushed DC motor control circuit
  • 3.11. Typical 50 kW electric drive system
  • 5.1. e-bike
  • 5.2. Some proposals for suburban electric aircraft.
  • 5.3. EADS concept of a VoltAir electric 'fanliner'
  • 5.4. Sikorsky all electric helicopter
  • 5.5. Multiple electric motors on a NASA solar powered, unmanned aircraft for the upper atmosphere
  • 5.6. WheelTug electrified airliner nose wheel
  • 5.7. DLR electric nosewheel
  • 5.8. Electric vehicle value chain
  • 6.1. Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle.
  • 6.2. Fuel Cell Underwater Vehicle
  • 6.3. Samson Motorworks flying motorcycle
  • 6.4. Bionic Dolphin and Neckar Nymph
  • 6.5. Gannet diving and planned Cormorant military spy plane/submarine
  • 6.6. Free piston engine
  • 6.7. Fuel cell
  • 6.8. Fuel cell hybrid taxi
  • 6.9. Fuel cell trial in airport GSE (see GSE)
  • 6.10. HyLite Fuel Cell System Package
  • 6.11. Evolution of range extenders
  • 6.12. Propulsion system architecture
  • 6.13. Fuel cells and other allied technologies
  • 7.1. Glider AUV
  • 8.1. Aircraft with a serial hybrid electric drive system first flown in 2011
  • 8.2. GE hybrid electric aircraft configuration
  • 8.3. University of Colorado hybrid aeroengine
  • 8.4. Hybrid buses
  • 8.5. Hybrid bus prices compared to conventional diesel
  • 8.6. Hybrid electric bus manufacturers
  • 8.7. Hybrid technology evolving as traction batteries improve
  • 8.8. The convergence of hybrid and pure electric technologies
  • 9.1. Inverter for Toyota hybrid vehicle motor.
  • 9.2. Integrated Sensor Is Structure (ISIS) smart airship
  • 10.1. Jaguar super car using electric drive with mini turbine range extenders - lessons for aviation
  • 11.1. KERS schematic
  • 11.2. Flywheel KERS system layout
  • 12.1. Aerovironment Helios and Global Observer
  • 12.2. Global Observer first flight August 2010
  • 12.3. Odysseus self assembling unmanned electric UAV
  • 12.4. Sunlight Eagle
  • 12.5. Lockheed Martin morphing electric UAV
  • 12.6. Lockheed Martin solar airship and P791 concepts
  • 12.7. Slow charging station in China for lithium-ion batteries
  • 12.8. Forklift truck lead acid battery charger, charging up to 900 ampere-hour of batteries in about eight hours
  • 12.9. Fast charger for lead acid traction batteries in electric bicycles in China
  • 12.10. Level 3 vehicle-side connector
  • 12.11. Offerings of lithium-ion traction battery manufacturers.
  • 12.12. Lithium polymer
  • 13.1. Mine resistant ambush protected - All Terrain Vehicle MATV
  • 13.2. MATV structure
  • 13.3. Mennekes plug
  • 13.4. Adura MESA powertrain for buses and trucks employing Capstone turbine range extender
  • 13.5. The Bladon Jets microturbine range extender
  • 13.6. Twin Bladon jets in rear of Jaguar C-X75 concept supercar exhibited in 2010
  • 13.7. Planned Velozzi supercar with miniturbine range extender
  • 13.8. Mobility scooter
  • 13.9. Mobility scooter with weather protection
  • 13.10. Lotus monoblock hybrid engine
  • 13.11. A hybrid boat
  • 14.1. Puffin concept
  • 15.1. KAIST OLEVs
  • 16.1. Pedelec
  • 16.2. LaserMotive objectives illustrated
  • 16.3. T-Ink printed and laminated overhead control console for an electric car
  • 16.4. Price of pure electric vehicles
  • 16.5. PWM signals of varying duty cycles
  • 17.1. Electraflyer Trike
  • 17.2. Electraflyer uncowled
  • 17.3. Principle of the WiTricity Delphi wireless charging system
  • 17.4. Examples of robot insects
  • 17.5. UAS nano swarm vignette
  • 17.6. Military hummingbird
  • 18.1. Suzuki Bergman fuel cell powered scooter.
  • 18.2. SIM Drive in-wheel traction
  • 18.3. Lockheed flying cameras based on tree seeds
  • 18.4. Examples of SUAV rechargeable lithium batteries. Top: Flight Power "EVO 20" lithium polymer battery. Bottom: Sion Power lithium sulphur
  • 18.5. Aeroplanes but not as we know them - SPI electrical SUAV
  • 18.6. AeroVironment Raven
  • 18.7. Raven enhancement
  • 18.8. Aqua Puma
  • 18.9. Rotomotion VTOL electrical UAV incorporating video camera, telemetry, auto takeoff and landing
  • 18.10. .Lite Machines Voyeur UAV
  • 18.11. Voyeur in action
  • 18.12. US Airforce interest in smart sensing skin for aircraft and aircrew
  • 18.13. Examples of on board solar power charging land electric vehicle batteries
  • 18.14. Solar train concept and underwater docking chargers already in use, both involving lithium-ion traction batteries
  • 18.15. AUV
  • 18.16. View of AUV in water
  • 18.17. Synchronous machines - electric motors without magnets
  • 18.18. Synchronous motor
  • 21.1. Vehicle Management System
  • 21.2. Vehicle Energy Management system as shown below. Synonymous with VMS below.
  • 22.1. Clarian Laboratories range extender
  • 23.1. Yazaki's SAE J1772 compliant electric vehicle connector
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