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Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2015-2025

Notes

We are in the decade of the hybrid electric vehicle. By 2023, 8 million hybrid cars, each with a range extender, will be manufactured. Order this report to examine the pros and cons of the market.

We are in the decade of the hybrid electric vehicle despite the fact that most off road and underwater vehicles are pure electric. That includes most forklifts, golf cars and mobility vehicles for the disabled plus Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and personal submarines. Indeed, most electric aircraft are pure electric as well. The reason is that these are mainly small as are electric two-wheelers, which are also almost all pure electric. Small vehicles rarely need to travel long distances. In addition, these pure electric vehicles are often used where a conventional engine is banned as on lakes and indoors or where it is impracticable as with underwater vehicles. By contrast, half the electric vehicle market value lies in larger road vehicles, notably cars, and here the legal restrictions are weaker or non-existent and range anxiety compels most people to buy hybrids if they go electric at all.

Over eight million hybrid cars will be made in 2025, each with a range extender, the additional power source that distinguishes them from pure electric cars. Add to that significant money spent on the same devices in buses, military vehicles, boats and so on and a major new market emerges. This unique report is about range extenders for all these purposes - their evolving technology and market size. Whereas today's range extenders usually consist of little more than off the shelf internal combustion engines, these are rapidly being replaced by second generation range extenders consisting of piston engines designed from scratch for fairly constant load in series hybrids. There are some wild cards like Wankel engines and rotary combustion engines or free piston engines both with integral electricity generation. However, a more radical departure is the third generation micro turbines and fuel cells that work at constant load. The report compares all these. It forecasts the lower power needed over the years given assistance from fast charging and energy harvesting innovations ahead. Every aspect of the new range extenders is covered.

This report profiles key developers, manufactures and integrators of range extenders for land, water and airborne electric vehicles. It gives ten year forecasts of the different types of electric vehicle and of range extenders by number, unit value and market value. Market drivers and the changing requirements for power output are analysed. Will shaftless range extenders with no separate electricity generator take over and when will that be What fuels will be used and when What are the pros and cons of each option and who are the leaders It is all here.

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Range extender market in 2025
  • 1.2. EV market 2015 and 2025 identifying hybrids
  • 1.3. Hybrid and pure electric vehicles compared
  • 1.4. Hybrid market drivers
  • 1.5. What will be required of a range extender 2015-2025
  • 1.6. Three generations of range extender
  • 1.7. Why range extenders need lower power over the years
  • 1.8. Energy harvesting - mostly ally not alternative
  • 1.9. Key trends for range extended vehicles
  • 1.10. Combining heating and range-extension for electric vehicles
  • 1.11. Emergency range extenders
  • 1.12. Latest timelines
    • 1.12.1. Piston engine use and rotary engine tests
    • 1.12.2. Gas turbines
    • 1.12.3. Fuel cell rollouts
  • 1.13. BMW

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Types of electric vehicle
  • 2.2. Many fuels
  • 2.3. Born electric
  • 2.4. Pure electric vehicles are improving
  • 2.5. Series vs parallel hybrid
  • 2.6. Modes of operation of hybrids
    • 2.6.1. Plug in hybrids
    • 2.6.2. Charge-depleting mode
    • 2.6.3. Blended mode
    • 2.6.4. Charge-sustaining mode
    • 2.6.5. Mixed mode
  • 2.7. Microhybrid is a misnomer
  • 2.8. Deep hybridisation
  • 2.9. Battery cost and performance are key
  • 2.10. Hybrid price premium
  • 2.11. What is a range extender
    • 2.11.1. First generation range extender technology
    • 2.11.2. Second generation range extender technology
    • 2.11.3. Third generation range extender technology
  • 2.12. PEM fuel cells
  • 2.13. Market position of fuel cell range extenders

3. MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR REEVS

  • 3.1. Range extenders for land craft
  • 3.2. Range Extenders for electric aircraft
    • 3.2.1. Military aircraft
  • 3.3. Comparisons
  • 3.4. Fuel cells in aviation
  • 3.5. Civil aircraft
  • 3.6. Range extenders for marine craft

4. RANGE EXTENDER DEVELOPERS AND MANUFACTURERS

  • 4.1. Advanced Magnet Laboratory USA
  • 4.2. AeroVironment / Protonex Technology USA
  • 4.3. Austro Engine Austria
  • 4.4. Bladon Jets UK
  • 4.5. BMW Germany
  • 4.6. Brayton Energy USA
  • 4.7. Capstone Turbine Corporation USA
  • 4.8. Compound Rotary Engines UK
  • 4.9. Daimler AG inc Mercedes Benz Germany
  • 4.10. DLR German Aerospace Center Germany
    • 4.10.1. Free piston range extenders
  • 4.11. EcoMotors
  • 4.12. Ener1 USA
  • 4.13. ETV Motors Israel
  • 4.14. FEV USA
  • 4.15. Flight Design Germany
  • 4.16. Getrag Germany
  • 4.17. GSE USA
  • 4.18. Hüttlin Germany
  • 4.19. Hyperdrive UK
  • 4.20. Libralato UK
    • 4.20.1. Libralato technology
    • 4.20.2. Avoiding the problems of the Wankel engine
    • 4.20.3. The company
  • 4.21. Intelligent Energy UK
  • 4.22. KSPG Germany
  • 4.23. LiquidPiston USA
  • 4.24. Lotus Engineering UK
  • 4.25. MAHLE Powertrain UK
  • 4.26. Mazda Japan
  • 4.27. Polaris Industries Switzerland
  • 4.28. Powertrain Technologies UK
  • 4.29. Proton Power Systems plc UK/Germany
  • 4.30. Ricardo UK
  • 4.31. Suzuki Japan
  • 4.32. Toyota Japan
  • 4.33. Urbee Canada
  • 4.34. Volkswagen Germany
  • 4.35. Volvo Sweden/China
    • 4.35.1. Long term major work
    • 4.35.2. Volvo V8 performance with four cylinders
  • 4.36. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

5. RANGE EXTENDER INTEGRATORS

  • 5.1. ACAL Energy UK
  • 5.2. Airbus (formerly EADS) Germany
  • 5.3. Altria Controls USA
  • 5.4. Ashok Leyland India
  • 5.5. Audi Germany
  • 5.6. AVL Austria
  • 5.7. Azure Dynamics USA
  • 5.8. BAE Systems UK
  • 5.9. BMW Germany
  • 5.10. Boeing Dreamworks USA
  • 5.11. Chrysler USA
  • 5.12. ENFICA-FC Italy
  • 5.13. Ford USA
  • 5.14. Frazer-Nash UK
  • 5.15. General Motors including Opel
  • 5.16. Honda Japan
  • 5.17. Hyundai Korea
  • 5.18. Jaguar Land Rover UK
  • 5.19. Langford Performance Engineering Ltd UK
  • 5.20. Marion HSPD USA
  • 5.21. Pipistrel Slovenia
  • 5.22. SAIC China
  • 5.23. Skyspark Italy
  • 5.24. Suzuki Japan
  • 5.25. Tata Motors India
  • 5.26. Toyota Japan
  • 5.27. Université de Sherbrooke Canada
  • 5.28. University of Stuttgart Germany
  • 5.29. Volvo Sweden/ China
  • 5.30. Wrightspeed USA
  • 5.31. Yo-Avto Russia

6. RECENT ADVANCES

  • 6.1. Latest update on Taiwan Automotive International Forum and Exhibition October 2014
  • 6.2. Electric vehicles set for 2014 MPG Marathon
  • 6.3. Hydrogen fuel cell range extenders double the range of EV trucks

TABLES

  • 1.1. Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2015-2025 by applicational sector
  • 1.2. Number of hybrid vehicles sold globally (in thousands), this being approximately equal to the number of range extender sets in later years
  • 1.3. Number of hybrid vehicles sold globally (in thousands), this being approximately equal to the number of range extender sets in later years
  • 1.4. Range extender numbers (thousand), unit price (US$) and market value (US$ million) 2015-2025
  • 1.5. Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
  • 2.1. Price premium for hybrid buses
  • 4.1. Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
  • FIGURES
  • 1.1. Range extender numbers (thousand) 2015-2025
  • 1.2. Range extender unit price (US$) 2015-2025
  • 1.3. Range extender market value (US$ million) 2015-2025
  • 1.4. Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid vs pure electric vehicles
  • 1.5. Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade
  • 1.6. Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
  • 1.7. Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
  • 1.8. Trend of size of largest (in red) and smallest (in green) fuel cell sets used in bus trials worldwide 1991-2011
  • 1.9. Evolution of lower power range extenders for large vehicles
  • 1.10. The most powerful energy harvesting in vehicles
  • 1.11. The gull wing BMW i8
  • 2.1. ThunderVolt hybrid bus
  • 2.2. BAE Systems powertrain in a bus
  • 2.3. Hybrid bus powertrain
  • 2.4. Hybrid car powertrain using CNG
  • 2.5. Mitsubishi hybrid outdoor forklift replacing a conventional ICE vehicle
  • 2.6. Hybrid military vehicle that replaces a conventional ICE version
  • 2.7. Hybrid sports boat replacing a conventional ICE version
  • 2.8. CAF-E hybrid motorcycle design based on a Prius type of drivetrain
  • 2.9. Hybrid tugboat replacing a conventional ICE version to meet new pollution laws and provide stronger pull from stationary
  • 2.10. Some hybrid variants
  • 2.11. Evolution of plug in vs mild hybrids
  • 2.12. Trend to deep hybridisation
  • 2.13. Evolution of hybrid structure
  • 2.14. Battery price assisting price of hybrid and pure electric vehicles as a function of power stored
  • 2.15. The principle of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells
  • 3.1. Northrop Grumman surveillance airship with fuel cell range extender and energy harvesting for virtually unlimited range
  • 3.2. Light utility aircraft - power-systems weight comparison
  • 3.3. Light primary trainer - power-systems weight comparison
  • 3.4. Battery and jet fuel loading
  • 3.5. Pilot plus payload vs range for fuel cell light aircraft and alternatives
  • 3.6. Total weight vs flight time for PEM fuel cell planes
  • 3.7. Takeoff gross weight breakdowns. Left: Conventional reciprocating-engine-powered airplane. Right: Fuel-cell-powered airplane.
  • 3.8. JAMSTEC Fuel Cell Underwater Vehicle FCUV
  • 4.1. AeroVironment Raven
  • 4.2. Raven enhancement
  • 4.3. Aqua Puma
  • 4.4. AeroVironment Helios
  • 4.5. Global Observer first flight August 2010
  • 4.6. Bladon Jets gas turbine range extender for cars and light aircraft and the Jaguar CX75
  • 4.7. Jaguar Land Rover
  • 4.8. Latest Bladon Jets design
  • 4.9. Range extender for BMW i3 electric car
  • 4.10. Capstone microturbine
  • 4.11. Capstone turbine in a Japanese bus
  • 4.12. Various sizes of Capstone MicroTurbines
  • 4.13. Daimler roadmap for commercial vehicles
  • 4.14. DLR fuel cell and the electric A320 airliner nose wheel it drives when the airliner is on the ground.
  • 4.15. Holstenblitz fuel cell car trial
  • 4.16. A new power generator for hybrid vehicles
  • 4.17. EcoMotors opposing piston range extender
  • 4.18. FEV extreme downsized range extender engine
  • 4.19. GSE mini diesel driving a propeller
  • 4.20. Greg Stevenson (left) and Gene Sheehan, Fueling Team GFC contender, with GSE Engines.
  • 4.21. Block diagram of the Frank/Stevenson parallel hybrid system
  • 4.22. Libralato cycle
  • 4.23. Fuel cell taxi trials
  • 4.24. Fuel cell development
  • 4.25. KSPG 30kW V2 range extender for small cars
  • 4.26. The LiquidPiston engine
  • 4.27. New two cylinder range extender from Lotus Engineering
  • 4.28. Lotus hybrid powertrain and second generation range extender ICE
  • 4.29. Lotus three and two cylinder range extenders
  • 4.30. Proton EMAS
  • 4.31. MAHLE range extenders
  • 4.32. MAHLE compact range extender
  • 4.33. MAHLE range extender at EVS26 2012
  • 4.34. Polaris REX range extender left with generator, right with peripherals as well
  • 4.35. Location of technical advances in Polaris range extender
  • 4.36. Ricardo Wolverine engine for hybrid UAVs
  • 4.37. Toyota FPEG options and piston geometry
  • 4.38. Volkswagen XL1 hybrid concept
  • 5.1. Adura powertrain with microturbine.
  • 5.2. Ashok Leyland CNG hybrid bus
  • 5.3. Azure Dynamics hybrid powertrain
  • 5.4. Bus with BAE Systems hybrid power train
  • 5.5. Boeing fuel cell aircraft
  • 5.6. ENFICA FC two seater fuel cell plane
  • 5.7. Ford Lincoln hybrid car offered at no price premium over the conventional version
  • 5.8. Frazer-Nash EREV powertrain
  • 5.9. Namir EREV Supercar
  • 5.10. Proton Exora
  • 5.11. Chevrolet Volt powertrain
  • 5.12. Honda IMA
  • 5.13. Hyundai Blue hybrid car
  • 5.14. Hyundai fuel cell powered car
  • 5.15. The LPE REEV concept car
  • 5.16. Marion Hyper-Sub Submersible Powerboat
  • 5.17. Skyspark in flight
  • 5.18. Suzuki Burgman fuel cell scooter
  • 5.19. Suzuki concept fuel cell motorcycle headed for production
  • 5.20. Tata Motors roadmap for hybrid commercial vehicles
  • 5.21. Toyota Prius hybrid car is the world's best selling electric car
  • 5.22. Toyota hybrid forklift
  • 5.23. Hybrid quad bike
  • 5.24. Hydrogenius
  • 5.25. Volvo hybrid bus
  • 5.26. Volvo technical concept 1
  • 5.27. Volvo technical concept 2
  • 5.28. Volvo technical concept 3
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