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Functional Materials for Future Electronics: Metals, Inorganic & Organic Compounds, Graphene, CNT

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Specialist chemicals and materials will reach over $50 billion in 2023. The chemistry of the new electronics and electrics is key to its future. This report is key reading for all advanced chemical and material manufacturers and developers.

The chemistry of the new electronics and electrics is key to its future, whether it is invisible, tightly rollable, biodegradable, edible, employing the memristor logic of the human brain or possessing any other previously- impossible capability in a manufactured device. De-risking that material development is vital yet the information on which to base that has been unavailable. No more.

See how the metals aluminium, copper and silver are widely deployed, sometimes in mildly alloyed, nano, precursor, ink or other form. Understand the 12 basic compounds most widely used in the new electronics and electrics and compare them with compounds exhibiting the broadest range of appropriate electrical and optical functions for the future. Those seeking low volume, premium priced opportunities can learn of other broad opportunities. Indeed, we cover in detail all the key inorganic and organic compounds and carbon isomers. We show how the element silicon has a new and very different place beyond the silicon chip. Learn how the tailoring of a chosen, widely-applicable chemical can permit premium pricing and barriers to entry based on strong new intellectual property. For example, see which of 15 basic formulations are used in the anode or cathode of the re-invented lithium-ion batteries of 131 manufacturers and what comes next.

The chart below shows the breakdown of most popular inorganic compounds in new electronics including;

  • Aluminium compound
  • Boron compound
  • Copper compound
  • Gallium compound
  • Indium compound
  • Lithium compound
  • Manganese compound
  • Silicon compound
  • Titanium compound
  • Zinc compound

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We identify 37 families of new and rapidly-evolving electronic and electric device, spanning nano to very large devices. Most chemical and material companies wish to de-risk their investment by finding common formulations across this new business that has a potential of over $50 billion for them. This will reduce R&D cost and provide escape routes to sell their current formulations elsewhere if they prove unsuccessful in the first application addressed. Indeed, the biggest markets for new and reinvented electrical and electronic devices may get commoditised first or collapse suddenly, leaving the materials suppliers high and dry. Read this report to avoid such a fate.

Who should buy this report?

All advanced chemical and material manufacturers and developers - both chemical companies and equipment manufacturers with deep vertical integration.

To a lesser extent those making the devices and key circuit technologies such as printed electronics, organic electronics, wide area electrics and very high volume electronics. Smart packaging. Smart labels. Investors and acquirors in these industries, particularly in advanced chemical and material manufacturers and developers. Academics and research centers covering advanced chemicals and materials for electronics and electrics. Particularly huge opportunity in Japan, Germany and USA.

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. The most important materials by three criteria
  • 1.2. Chemical giants reposition to benefit
    • 1.2.1. Itochu and partners
    • 1.2.2. BASF and partners
    • 1.2.3. Dow and others
  • 1.3. Need for de-risking
  • 1.4. The most widely useful compounds
    • 1.4.1. Many examples analysed
    • 1.4.2. Possible future importance of the chemistry of iron
  • 1.5. The most versatile compounds electronically
  • 1.6. Disruptive new electronics and electrics - the market pull
  • 1.7. Fine metals and semiconductors that will be most widely used - survey result
  • 1.8. Fine inorganic compounds most widely needed - survey results
  • 1.9. The inorganic compounds - detailed results for 37 families of device
  • 1.10. Allotropes of carbon most widely needed - survey result
  • 1.11. Fine organic compounds most widely needed - survey results
  • 1.12. Survey results for lithium salts in the biggest battery market
  • 1.13. Less prevalent or less established formulations
  • 1.14. Tantalum oxide catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Elements being targeted
  • 2.2. Here come composites and mixtures
  • 2.3. Disparate value propositions
  • 2.4. Here comes printing
  • 2.5. Great breadth
  • 2.6. Fragile chemicals
  • 2.7. Challenges of ink formulation
  • 2.8. Company size is not a problem
  • 2.9. Uncertainties
  • 2.10. Inorganic vs organic
  • 2.11. Impediments
  • 2.12. Photovoltaics
  • 2.13. Examples of company activity
    • 2.13.1. Dow Chemical
    • 2.13.2. Merck, DuPont and Honeywell
    • 2.13.3. Bayer
  • 2.14. Progress with Semiconductors
  • 2.15. Printed and multilayer electronics and electrics needs new design rules
  • 2.16. Metamaterials, nantennas and memristors
  • 2.17. The toolkit becomes large
    • 2.17.1. Three dimensional
    • 2.17.2. Leveraging smart substrates
    • 2.17.3. Planned applications can have plenty of area
    • 2.17.4. Health and environment to the fore
    • 2.17.5. Three generations?

3. THE MOST IMPORTANT EMERGING DEVICES AND THEIR REQUIREMENTS

  • 3.1. Conductive patterning: antennas, electrodes, interconnects, metamaterials
    • 3.1.1. Silver flake inks continue to reign supreme for printing
    • 3.1.2. Alternatives gain share
    • 3.1.3. ITO Replacement
    • 3.1.4. For RFID Tags
    • 3.1.5. For logic and memory
    • 3.1.6. For sensors
    • 3.1.7. For smart packaging
    • 3.1.8. For memristors
  • 3.2. CIGS Photovoltaics
    • 3.2.1. Brief description of technology
  • 3.3. DSSC Photovoltaics
    • 3.3.1. Brief description of technology
  • 3.4. Electrophoretic displays and alternatives
    • 3.4.1. Brief description of the technology
    • 3.4.2. Applications of E-paper displays
    • 3.4.3. E ink
    • 3.4.4. The Killer Application
    • 3.4.5. SiPix, Taiwan
    • 3.4.6. Alternatives - electrowetting
  • 3.5. Inorganic LED
  • 3.6. Li-ion battery rechargeable
  • 3.7. Rechargeable lithium/lithium metal battery and PEM fuel cell
  • 3.8. MEMS & NEMS
  • 3.9. Organic Light Emitting Diode OLED displays and lighting
  • 3.10. Power semiconductors
  • 3.11. Supercapacitor
    • 3.11.1. View of rollout of graphene based devices
  • 3.12. Supercabattery
  • 3.13. Touch screen
    • 3.13.1. Main Touch Technologies
    • 3.13.2. Leading Market Applications
    • 3.13.3. ITO Alternatives for touch screens
    • 3.13.4. Over 100 profiled organizations
  • 3.14. Transistor, diode, thermistor, thyristor for electronics
  • 3.15. Other devices of interest
  • 3.16. New material formats will lead to new devices

4. CARBON NANOTUBES AND GRAPHENE

  • 4.1. Carbon Nanotubes
  • 4.2. Graphene
    • 4.2.1. Graphene could reduce weight of batteries for electric vehicles
  • 4.3. Carbon Nanotubes and graphene summary
  • 4.4. 113 Organizations profiled

5. INDIUM COMPOUNDS IN THE NEW ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICS

  • 5.1. More than the story of ITO
  • 5.2. Key in the newer light emitting devices
  • 5.3. Quantum dots and FETs
  • 5.4. Cost and printability are challenges
  • 5.5. Oxide semiconductor with a new elemental composition

6. TITANIUM COMPOUNDS IN THE NEW ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICS

  • 6.1. Piezoelectrics, energy harvesters, supercapacitors, displays and sensors
  • 6.2. Allied topic photocatalysis

7. ZINC COMPOUNDS FOR THE NEW ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICS

  • 7.1. Dielectric for insulation, capacitors and other devices
  • 7.2. Improving the efficiency of UV LED

8. FLUORINE COMPOUNDS FOR THE NEW ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICS

  • 8.1. "Rechargeable lithium", alkali metal fluorides and other fluorine chemistry
  • 8.2. Fluoropolymer for solution-based OFET processing

APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY

TABLES

  • 1.1. Description and images of the 37 families of new electronics and electrics
  • 1.2. The 20 categories of chemical and physical property exploited by the key materials in the devices are identified
  • 1.3. Four families of carbon allotrope needed in the new electronics and electrics
  • 1.4. Organic materials used and researched for the 37 families of new electronics and electrics
  • 1.5. 138 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries showing country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte form, case, targeted applicational sectors and sales relationships and successes by veh
  • 1.6. Examples of relatively less prevalent or less established formulations than those examined earlier
  • 2.1. Examples of inorganic materials needed for printed electronics and their suppliers.
  • 2.2. Comparison of the more challenging inorganic and organic materials used in printed and potentially printed electronics
  • 2.3. Typical quantum dot materials from Evident Technologies and their likely application.
  • 2.4. The leading photovoltaic technologies compared
  • 3.1. Key chemicals and materials for conductive patterning: antennas, electrodes, interconnects, metamaterials
  • 3.2. Product Overview of conductive printed electronics
  • 3.3. Advantages and disadvantages of electrophoretic displays
  • 3.4. Comparison between OLEDs and E-Ink of various parameters
  • 3.5. 138 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries showing country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte form, case, targeted applicational sectors and sales relationships and successes by veh
  • 3.6. Some materials needs for small molecule vs polymeric OLEDs.
  • 3.7. Organisations working in touch screens
  • 3.8. The 20 categories of chemical and physical property exploited by the key materials in the devices are identified
  • 3.9. Four families of carbon allotrope needed in the new electronics and electrics
  • 3.10. Organic materials used and researched for the 37 families of new electronics and electrics
  • 4.1. Semiconductors
  • 4.2. Activities of 113 Organizations

FIGURES

  • 1.1. Inorganic elements and compounds most widely needed for growth markets in the new electronics and electrics over the coming decade
  • 1.2. Number of new device families using elemental or mildly alloyed aluminium, copper, gold, silicon and silver giving % of 37 device families analysed and typical functional form over the coming decade
  • 1.3. The anions or metals in the most popular inorganic compounds in the new electronics by number of device families using them and percentage of the 37 device families (there is overlap for multi-metal formulations). Main functional
  • 1.4. The incidence of the allotropes of carbon that are most widely being used, at least experimentally, for the 37 types of new electronics and electrics giving functional form and % and number of surveyed devices involved
  • 1.5. The families of organic compound that are most widely being used or investigated for the new electronics as % of sample and number of device families using them
  • 1.6. Cross sectional images of SEM (a, b) and BSEM (c) of Pt/TaOx catalyst on GC electrode
  • 2.1. Some of the most promising elements employed in research and production of the new electronics and electrics - much broader than today and away from silicon
  • 2.2. The increasing potential of progress towards the printing and multilayering of electric and electronic devices
  • 2.3. Attributes and problems of inorganic, hybrid and organic thin film electronics form a spectrum
  • 2.4. Likely impact of inorganic printed and potentially printed technology to 2020 - dominant technology by device and element. Dark green shows where inorganic technology is extremely important for the active (non-linear) components s
  • 2.5. Mass production of flexible thin film electronic devices using the three generations of technology
  • 2.6. Strategy options for chemical companies seeking a major share of the printed electronics market, with examples.
  • 2.7. Metal interconnect and antennas on a BlueSpark printed manganese dioxide zinc battery supporting integral antenna and interconnects
  • 3.1. Negative refractive index metamaterial bends electromagnetic radiation the "wrong" way
  • 3.2. Split ring resonator and micro-wire array that form negative refractive index material when printed together in the correct dimensions
  • 3.3. Schematic representation of a CIGS thin film solar cell
  • 3.4. Principle of operation of electrophoretic displays
  • 3.5. E-paper displays on a magazine sold in the US in October 2008
  • 3.6. Retail Shelf Edge Labels from UPM
  • 3.7. Secondary display on a cell phone
  • 3.8. Amazon Kindle 2, launched in the US in February 2009
  • 3.9. Electrophoretic display on a commercially sold financial card
  • 3.10. Flow chart of the manufacture process
  • 3.11. Process for printing LEDs
  • 3.12. OLED structure showing left the vacuum -based technology
  • 3.13. Examples of OLED light-emitting and hole transport molecules
  • 3.14. Functions within a small molecule OLED, typically made by vacuum processing
  • 3.15. Illustration of how the active matrix OLED AMOLED is much simpler than the AMLCD it replaces.
  • 3.16. Families of power semiconductor
  • 3.17. Latest power semiconductors by frequency of use
  • 3.18. View of the rollout of graphene in advanced electrical and electronic components
  • 3.19. Touch market forecast by technology in 2012
  • 3.20. Conductance in ohms per square for the different printable conductive materials, at typical thicknesses used, compared with bulk metal, where nanotubes refers to carb on nanotube or graphene
  • 4.1. Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes
  • 4.2. The chiral vector is represented by a pair of indices (n, m). T denotes the tube axis, and a1 and a2 are the unit vectors of graphene in real space
  • 4.3. Graphene - the world's thinnest material isolated at The University of Manchester
  • 4.4. Targeted applications for carbon nanotubes by Eikos
  • 7.1. Zinc oxide nanowires
  • 7.2. SEM image of the vertically-aligned Ga-doped ZnO nanofiber
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