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Graphene Markets, Technologies and Opportunities 2013-2018

"100 million dollars worth of graphene will be sold in 2018."

Graphene is a hot topic. It promises to offer the best possible material properties in almost all applications. Its extraordinary performance has led many to call it the ‘superlative' or ‘wonder' material. The reality however is different and this report diligently separates hype from reality using our detailed understanding of the graphene technology and industry.

IDTechEx forecasts that 100 million dollars of graphene will be sold in 2018 into a range of applications, including RFID, smart packaging, supercapacitors, composites, ITO replacement, sensors, logic and memory, etc.

For each market segment, the forecasts are provided by both value and mass. The forecast models are based on (a) our detailed market knowledge at application level, (b) our critical assessment of graphene's value proposition per target market, and (c) existing and projected commercial activity at company level. Our knowledge base was built up by interviewing relevant players across the industry and tracking and interpreting the latest around the globe.

IDTechEx finds that there is no single graphene, but there are different types of graphene. Each type has a different microstructure, layer number, oxygen content, etc. And each type offers a different set of properties therefore targeting a different set of markets.

Total market divided by application*

*For further information please refer to the report
Source: IDTechEx

Graphene can be manufactured using a variety of techniques. IDTechEx critically assesses the potential volume production capability, cost structure, and graphene quality for each technique. Here, we evaluate mechanical micro-cleavage, chemical vapour deposition, liquid-phase exfoliation, oxidisation-reduction and various plasma approaches.

The value proposition of each type of graphene for each target market is critically assessed. Beyond R&D, the markets examined include high-performance composites, smart packaging, RFID, energy storage including supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries, sensors, touch screens and other ITO replacement opportunities, etc. For each application, the state of technology development and approximate market development time scale is determined.

For each market segment, the main go-to-market strategies are presented and analysed. Where appropriate, the incumbent and emerging rival materials are identified and examined. These materials include carbon black, carbon fibre, graphite, carbon nanotubes, silver nanowires, ITO, silver flakes, copper nanoparticles, aluminium, silicon, GaAs, ZnO, etc. In many cases, graphene-enabled performance premiums are evaluated. These give space for premium pricing.

In our assessment, a critical link between the manufacturing technique, graphene quality, and accessible potential target markets is established. This way, companies can be sorted by their size and maturity of potential addressable target markets.

Detailed company profiles are provided. In many cases, the profiles are compiled using direct interviews with decision-makers within the companies. For each company, detailed insight is given into their state of the technology, target markets, assets and business strategy. Using our insight, an overall picture of the emerging graphene industry, from an investment and revenue prospective, is constructed.

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1. Ideal graphene vis-á-vis reality
  • 1.2. Attributes of graphene manufacturing techniques
  • 1.3. The state of the industry and best way going forward
  • 1.4. Markets overview and forecasts

2. GRAPHENE - THE WONDER MATERIAL?

  • 2.1. What is graphene?
  • 2.2. Why is graphene so great?

3. THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF GRAPHENE

4. COST-EFFECTIVE AND SCALABLE MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUE IS THE HOLY GRAIL

5. THE STATE OF INVESTMENT, PRODUCTION AND REVENUE IN THE GRAPHENE MARKET

6. MOVING UP THE VALUE CHAIN IS CRITICAL

  • 6.1. Who will be the winner in the graphene space?

7. THE IP ACTIVITY IS MOVING FROM THE MANUFACTURING SIDE TO COVER END USES

8. REDUCED GRAPHENE OXIDE

  • 8.1. Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
  • 8.2. Reduction methods
  • 8.3. Assessment and market view
  • 8.4. Companies
  • 8.5. Pros and cons

9. CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION

  • 9.1. Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
  • 9.2. Transfer
  • 9.3. Assessment and market view
  • 9.4. Companies
  • 9.5. Pros and cons

10. LIQUID PHASE EXFOLIATION

  • 10.1. Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
  • 10.2. Assessment and market view
  • 10.3. Companies
  • 10.4. Pros and cons

11. PLASMA

  • 11.1. Manufacturing details- process, material set, scalability, cost, quality, etc
    • 11.1.1. Plasma Approach I
    • 11.1.2. Plasma Approach II
  • 11.2. Assessment and market view
  • 11.3. Companies
  • 11.4. Pros and cons

12. A GENERAL MARKET OVERVIEW

  • 12.1. Graphene markets- target markets, go-to-market strategy, the interplay between manufacturing technique and application, etc
  • 12.2. Assessment for graphene target markets
  • 12.3. Application/product development lifecycle per market segment

13. GRAPHENE FUNCTIONAL INKS- WHAT IS THEIR MARKET POSITION?

  • 13.1. Which applications/market segments will benefit?
  • 13.2. Assessment
  • 13.3. Conclusion

14. GRAPHENE- DOES IT HAVE A FUTURE AS AN ACTIVE CHANNEL IN TRANSISTORS?

  • 14.1. Graphene- are they good for transistors?
    • 14.1.1. Digital Applications
    • 14.1.2. Analogue/RF Electronics
    • 14.1.3. Large Area Electronics- a comparison with other thin film transistor technologies
  • 14.2. Conclusions

15. GRAPHENE IN POLYMERIC COMPOSITES- THE LARGEST NEAR-TERM OPPORTUNITY FOR GRAPHENE

  • 15.1. Graphene/polymeric composites
  • 15.2. Is there an added value or performance enhancement?
  • 15.3. Which applications/market segments will benefit?
  • 15.4. Our assessment
  • 15.5. Conclusions

16. GRAPHENE - HAS IT POTENTIAL IN LITHIUM-ION OR RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM METAL BATTERIES?

  • 16.1. Is there an added value or performance enhancement?
  • 16.2. Does graphene add value or improve performance when added to epoxy, polyester, PVA, PANI, polycarbonates, PET, PVDA, PDMS, rubber, etc

17. GRAPHENE- A WINNER REPLACEMENT FOR ITO?

  • 17.1. What markets require a transparent conductor?
  • 17.2. Why is ITO dominant and why replace it?
  • 17.3. Is ITO the only doped metal oxide used in the industry?
  • 17.4. Is graphene the only material trying to replace ITO?
  • 17.5. Is there an added value or performance enhancement?
  • 17.6. Graphene does offer flexibility- is that good enough?
  • 17.7. How does graphene compare against other transparent conductors?
  • 17.8. Assessment
  • 17.9. Conclusions

18. GRAPHENE - DOES IT DELIVER VALUE IN SUPERCAPACITOR?

  • 18.1. Supercapacitors- technology and markets
  • 18.2. Is there an added value or performance enhancement?
  • 18.3. Assessment
  • 18.4. Conclusions

19. GRAPHENE FUNCTIONAL INKS IN RFID TAGS

  • 19.1. The big picture - number of tags, classifications, price tags
  • 19.2. What are the material options for RFID tags and how do they compare?
  • 19.3. Does graphene deliver a value in this crowded market?
  • 19.4. Market shares

20. SUMMARY - FORECASTS AND ASSESSMENT

  • 20.1. Forecast per sector by mass, market share and value
    • 20.1.1. Smart Packaging
    • 20.1.2. ITO replacement
    • 20.1.3. RFID
    • 20.1.4. R&D
    • 20.1.5. High-strength composite
    • 20.1.6. Supercapacitors

21. COMPANY INTERVIEWS

  • 21.1. Cheaptubes
  • 21.2. Durham Graphene Science
  • 21.3. Grafen
  • 21.4. Graphenea
  • 21.5. Graphene Frontiers
  • 21.6. Graphene Industries
  • 21.7. Graphene Laboratory
  • 21.8. Graphene Nano
  • 21.9. Graphene Square
  • 21.10. Graphene Technologies
  • 21.11. Haydale
  • 21.12. Incubation Alliance
  • 21.13. Nanoinnova
  • 21.14. Showa Denko
  • 21.15. Sony
  • 21.16. University of Cambridge
  • 21.17. University of Exeter
  • 21.18. Vorbeck
  • 21.19. XG Sciences
  • 21.20. Xolve

22. COMPANY PROFILES

  • 22.1. AMO GmbH, Germany
  • 22.3. BASF, Germany
  • 22.4. Carben Semicon Ltd, Russia
  • 22.5. Carbon Solutions, Inc., USA
  • 22.6. Catalyx Nanotech Inc. (CNI), USA
  • 22.7. Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), USA
  • 22.8. Grafoid, Canada
  • 22.9. GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain
  • 22.10. Graphene Energy Inc., USA
  • 22.11. Graphensic, Sweden
  • 22.12. Harbin Mulan, China
  • 22.13. HDPlas
  • 22.14. HRL Laboratories, USA
  • 22.15. IBM, USA
  • 22.16. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA
  • 22.17. Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany
  • 22.18. Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials, Inc., USA
  • 22.19. Pennsylvania State University, USA
  • 22.20. Quantum Materials Corp, India
  • 22.21. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), USA
  • 22.22. Rice University, USA
  • 22.23. Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey, USA
  • 22.24. Samsung Electronics, Korea
  • 22.25. Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Korea
  • 22.26. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), USA
  • 22.27. University of Manchester, UK
  • 22.28. University of Princeton, USA
  • 22.29. University of Southern California (USC), USA
  • 22.30. University of Texas at Austin, USA
  • 22.31. University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

APPENDIX: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY

TABLES

  • 1.1. Summary of manufacturing technique attributes including, material sets, graphene quality, target markets and players
  • 1.2. Markets- assessment of value proposition and incumbent rival materials
  • 2.1. Graphene vs. carbon nanotubes
  • 8.1. Different reduction techniques for oxidised graphite or graphene
  • 8.2. Comparison of graphene properties obtained using different reduction techniques
  • 8.3. Companies commercialising RGO graphene
  • 8.4. Pros and cons of RGO graphene
  • 9.1. Carbon solubility of different metals
  • 9.2. Companies commercialising CVD graphene
  • 9.3. Pros and cons of graphene
  • 10.1. List of suitable organic solvents for exfoliating graphene
  • 10.2. Companies commercialising liquid-phase exfoliated graphene
  • 10.3. Pros and cons of commercialising liquid-phase exfoliated graphene
  • 11.1. Companies commercialising plasma graphene
  • 11.2. Pros and cons of plasma graphene
  • 12.1. Primary target markets
  • 13.1. Outlining and assessing target markets for functional graphene inks
  • 14.1. Comparison and assessment of material options for thin film transistors
  • 15.1. A comprehensive table collecting and showing latest results on how adding graphene to various polymers will enhance their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties
  • 15.2. Potential target markets that will benefit from graphene composites
  • 17.1. Examples of products requiring transparent conductors
  • 17.2. Pros and cons of ITO.
  • 17.3. Which transparent conductors are used in thin film photovoltaic applications
  • 17.4. A critical assessment of different printable conductive ink options and their corresponding target markets
  • 17.5. Pros and cons of each manufacturing technique for serving the ITO replacement market
  • 17.6. Are silver nanowires and fine silver grids suitable for ITO replacement
  • 18.1. Examples of supercapacitor and supercabattery applications envisaged by suppliers
  • 18.2. Reported values of graphene-enabled specific capacitance and power density
  • 18.3. Assessing the value proposition for graphene in different supercapacitor applications
  • 19.1. Different RFID bands- frequency, range
  • 19.2. Comparison and assessment of different ink options for printed antennas
  • 20.2. Graphene markets in smart packaging including mass, unit number, market share, and market value
  • 20.3. Graphene markets in ITO replacement including market share and market value
  • 20.4. Graphene markets in RFID including market share, market value, mass and unit number
  • 20.5. Graphene markets in academic R&D including market share and market value
  • 20.6. Graphene markets in the high-strength composite market including total addressable market, market share, and market value
  • 20.7. Supercapacitors market- electrical applications.
  • 20.8. Supercapacitors market- electronic applications
  • 20.9. Sensors market
  • 20.10. Sensors market - electronic applications only

FIGURES

  • 1.1. Illustrating how the many manufacturing techniques affect graphene quality, cost, scalability and accessible market
  • 1.2. Estimating amount of investment in graphene companies (by company)
  • 1.3. Estimating amount of revenue in the graphene industry by company. In million USD
  • 1.4. Market forecast for graphene in different applications between 2012-2018
  • 1.5. Market value per application in 2012, 2015 and 2018
  • 2.1. Examples of graphene nanostructures
  • 3.1. Different graphene types available on the market
  • 3.2. Illustrating how the many manufacturing techniques affect graphene quality, cost, scalability and accessible market
  • 4.1. Mapping out different manufacturing techniques as a function of graphene quality, cost, accessible market and scalability
  • 5.1. The state of technology company development in the graphene space
  • 5.2. Estimating amount of investment in graphene companies
  • 5.3. Estimating amount of revenue in the graphene industry by company (US$ million)
  • 5.4. Mapping the link between universities and various start-ups in the graphene space.
  • 6.1. A basic illustration of graphene value chain from precursor to end product
  • 7.1. Graphene patents filed by year and by patent authority
  • 7.2. Patent filing by company or institution and by patent authority
  • 8.1. Structural changes when going from graphite to graphite oxide and graphene
  • 8.2. Oxidisation reduction damages the graphene lattice
  • 8.3. Sheet resistance as a function of transmittance for different RGO graphenes
  • 8.4. Market position for RGO graphene on a performance cost map.
  • 9.1. CVD manufacturing process flow
  • 9.2. Example of large-sized cylindrical copper furnace
  • 9.3. How are graphene sheets transferred and stamped
  • 9.4. Roll-to-roll transfer of graphene sheets on flexible substrates
  • 9.5. Market position of CVD graphene on a performance-price map
  • 10.1. From natural graphene to inkjet ink via liquid-phase exfoliation
  • 10.2. Liquid-phase exfoliation
  • 10.3. Market position of liquid-phase exfoliated graphene on a performance-price map
  • 12.1. Product development timeline per application sector
  • 14.1. Cut-off frequency as a function of channel length for different active channels and Degradation output characteristics of graphene transistors
  • 16.1. Graphene supercapacitors on Ragone plots
  • 17.1. Transmission as a function of wavelength for SWCNT, graphene and ITO
  • 17.2. Examples of graphene-enabled touch screens
  • 17.3. Best of class performance (sheet resistance vs transmission) of treated graphene oxide.
  • 17.4. Best of class performance (sheet resistance vs transmission) for CVD graphene.
  • 17.5. Graphene is mechanically flexible
  • 17.6. Examples of flexible transparent conductors realised using non-graphene materials. These materials include PDOT:PSS, CNT, Silver nanoparticle, silver nanowire, etc
  • 17.7. A cost and performance assessment for different transparent conductors
  • 18.1. Schematic of a supercapacitor structure
  • 18.2. Graphene supercapacitors on Ragone plots
  • 18.3. Assessing the value proposition for graphene in different supercapacitor applications
  • 19.1. Examples of RFID antennas in 125KHz, 33.56 MHZ, UHF and 2.45GHZ bands
  • 19.2. Examples of HF antennas
  • 19.3. The approximate cost breakdown of different components in a typical UHF RF ID tag
  • 19.4. RF ID tags growth
  • 19.5. Cost projection for antennas made using different materials (material costs only)
  • 19.6. Example of roll-to-roll printed graphene RFID tags by Vorbeck
  • 19.7. Market share for each material or ink option in the RFID tag business
  • 20.1. Market forecast for graphene in different applications between 2012-2018
  • 20.2. Market value per application in 2012, 2015 and 2018
  • 22.1. IBM has patterned graphene transistors with a metal top-gate architecture (top) fabricate on 2-inch wafers (bottom) created by the thermal decomposition of silicon carbide.
  • 22.2. The graphene microchip mostly based on relatively standard chip processing technology
  • 22.3. Concept version of the photoelectrochemical cell
  • 22.4. This filament containing about 30 million carbon nanotubes absorbs energy from the sun
  • 22.5. A new method for using water to tune the band gap of the nanomaterial graphene
  • 22.6. A mesh of carbon nanotubes supports one-atom-thick sheets of graphene that were produced with a new fluid-processing technique.
  • 22.7. A three-terminal single-transistor amplifier made of graphene
  • 22.8. CNT films from Rutgers University
  • 22.9. Graphene OPV
  • 22.10. The resulting film is photographed atop a color photo to show its transparency
  • 22.11. Fabrication steps, leading to regular arrays of single-wall nanotubes (bottom)
  • 22.12. The colourless disk with a lattice of more than 20,000 nanotube transistors in front of the USC sign
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