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Batteries & Supercapacitors in Consumer Electronics 2013-2023: Forecasts, Opportunities, Innovation

Mobile phone and laptop sales have increased consistently by double digits in the last years. Now with the presence of smartphones and tablet PCs this trend will boost in the following years. This new age of communications, information and portability would not have been possible without energy storage solutions to power these portable devices.

Lithium batteries are currently the dominant technology in the energy storage space because of their superior energy density characteristics. The consumer electronics industry has pushed their production to the scale of billions and consequently, through economies of scale, optimized its supply chain and reduced their price. However, lithium battery technology capabilities are being challenged by the modern multifunctional portable devices which are increasingly requiring higher performance in terms of power density. Whilst current research and development pathways aim for the emergence of a new generation of high energy density technologies, alternative energy storage technologies, are challenging the dominance of lithium batteries. This is the case with supercapacitors, which are an emerging energy storage technology, whose characteristics make them strong candidates for satisfying those specific functions where lithium batteries underperform.

Energy storage space including supercapacitors

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On the other hand, the developments of electronics and material science is allowing for new developments in the energy storage field. Now we can build, or better said, print, thin film batteries on different surfaces allowing for new energy storage solutions which coupled with energy harvesting (collecting energy from the environment) and radio frequency technologies unlock many potential applications as traceability in consumer product supply chains and internet remote localization without the need of big devices, just to mention some examples.

This report leads you from the basic concepts to understand the technologies in the energy storage industry including the advantages and limitations of different technologies. This is followed by a comprehensive section of the supercapacitor technology explaining where they fit in the energy storage industry and their potential applications. Finally it introduces the emerging and future technologies in the energy storage space: Thin Film and Flexible Batteries. We present both for batteries and supercapacitors their current research and development paths leading to improvements. Through these sections we highlight the work of the companies involved in this industry. Expanding from previous editions we present potential cost reduction paths for lithium batteries, drivers of the consumer electronic industry, the potential role of super capacitors and innovative technologies and their niche markets. In addition this report presents IDTechEx's comprehensive study of companies in the lithium battery industry: 138 manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, including their country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte morphology case type and application priorities. We present a 10 year forecast on lithium batteries, supercapacitors, RFID and wireless sensors applications.

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Energy Storage for Smart and Portable Electronic Devices is currently the biggest and fastest growing battery market. The Consumer Electronics segment is one of the fastest changing markets. Portable electronic devices are becoming increasingly multifunctional and this trend is currently requiring better performance from batteries. This report explains the drivers in this changing segment, what are these changes demanding from battery technologies and what are the research and development paths to improve battery technologies accordingly. We present a new entrant technology in the energy storage industry: supercapacitors, which compared with batteries, can deliver high power instantly and do not rely on chemical processes to store energy so they have longer useful lives. We present what is the role of this new technology as an alternative to improve battery performance and satisfy the changing demands of the consumer electronics market. Indeed supercapacitors as an emerging energy storage alternative are challenging the predominance of batteries and complementing their functions. By the other hand thin film batteries open a new category in energy solutions for specific niche markets which can potentially launch them to mass production. RFID and Wireless Sensors are two examples. Emerging battery manufacturing technologies as spray battery painting and new technologies as transparent batteries hold the promise of opening new possibilities in portable device design and energy storage applications.

This report has a global coverage and presents global forecasts and players in the sector.

In this report we provide a 10 year forecast (2013-2023) for the following segments of the energy storage for portable devices and related markets:

  • Primary Batteries
  • Secondary (or Rechargeable Batteries) (Lithium Batteries)
  • Supercapacitors for Smart and Portable Devices
  • RFID and Wireless Sensors applications

In addition this report presents IDTechEx's comprehensive study of companies in the lithium battery industry: 138 manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, including their country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte morphology case type and application priorities.

Some of the insights you will find in this report:

  • Following the trend of smartphones, portable devices are becoming increasingly multifunctional, in this report you will find what this trend will be demanding from the energy storage industry.
  • What trends are behind the primary consumer battery market contraction?
  • How supercapacitors will step in the consumer electronics industry? What will be the value of this market in 2023?
  • What are the pathways for cost reduction and increased performance for Lithium Batteries?

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Objective of this report
  • 1.2. Batteries, Supercapacitors and Alternative Energy Storage for Smart and Portable Electronic devices in context
  • 1.3. IDTechEx forecasts
  • 1.4. Total global battery market
  • 1.5. Rechargeable batteries by use
  • 1.6. Cost Drivers and Cost Structure of Lithium Ion Batteries
    • 1.6.1. Cost Structure of Lithium Ion batteries
    • 1.6.2. Paths for further cost reductions on Lithium-ion Batteries
  • 1.7. 138 Lithium-based Rechargeable Battery Manufacturers - Chemistry, Strategy, Success, Potential
  • 1.8. Power requirements of small devices
    • 1.8.1. Power Demand and Specific Power
    • 1.8.2. Capacity, Energy Density and Specific Power
  • 1.9. The Consumer Electronics game is changing: a role for supercapacitors?
    • 1.9.1. Smartphones and Tablet PCs are changing the game of consumer electronics
    • 1.9.2. An analysis of power consumption in Smartphones
    • 1.9.3. A role for supercapacitors in the consumer electronics market
  • 1.10. Alternative directions
    • 1.10.1. Transparent Smartphone
    • 1.10.2. Spray Painted Batteries
    • 1.10.3. Flexible Smartphone
    • 1.10.4. New market drivers
  • 1.11. Conclusions

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Small electrical and electronic devices
  • 2.2. Popular chemistry and shape
  • 2.3. What is a battery?
    • 2.3.1. Battery definition
    • 2.3.2. Analogy to a container of liquid
    • 2.3.3. Construction of a battery
    • 2.3.4. Many shapes of battery
    • 2.3.5. Single use vs rechargeable batteries
    • 2.3.6. Challenges with batteries in small devices
  • 2.4. What is a capacitor?
    • 2.4.1. Capacitor definition
    • 2.4.2. Analogy to a spring
    • 2.4.3. Capacitor construction
  • 2.5. Limitations of energy storage devices
    • 2.5.1. The electronic device and its immediate support
    • 2.5.2. Safety
    • 2.5.3. Improvement in performance taking place
  • 2.6. Standards

3. RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

  • 3.1. Technology successes and failures
  • 3.2. Lithium ion
    • 3.2.1. Formats of the leading forms of battery
    • 3.2.2. Cost Drivers of Lithium Ion Batteries.
    • 3.2.3. Materials Cost Drivers
    • 3.2.4. Improvements in specific energy and/or energy density
    • 3.2.5. Anode New Materials Development
    • 3.2.6. Cathode New Materials Improvement
    • 3.2.7. Improvements in Power
    • 3.2.8. Improvements in safety and reliability
    • 3.2.9. The Lithium Batteries of the Future
    • 3.2.10. Materials and economies of scale
    • 3.2.11. Manufacturing cost drivers

4. TRENDS IN SMART AND PORTABLE DEVICES

  • 4.1. Evolution of Markets for Lithium Ion Batteries
  • 4.2. Forecast for Smart and Portable Devices
  • 4.3. Trends in Smart and Portable Electronic Devices
    • 4.3.1. Increasing Multifunctionality: From Simon to IPhone.
    • 4.3.2. Is the race for the thinnest mobile in the market over?
    • 4.3.3. The iPad
    • 4.3.4. IPhone and Nokia want a piece of Cannon and Nikkon's market- Can Supercapacitors play a role on this strategy?
    • 4.3.5. Power Efficiency due to Multiple Core Processors in Smartphones
  • 4.4. Supercapacitors as a solution for peak power requirements in smart and portable devices
    • 4.4.1. An analysis of power consumption in Smartphones
    • 4.4.2. Digital Cameras Flash - why today's digital cameras need a more powerful flash
    • 4.4.3. Laptop Solid State Drives use Supercapacitors

5. SINGLE USE BATTERIES AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY STORAGE

  • 5.1. Energy Storage for Wireless Sensors and RFID
    • 5.1.1. Customised and AAA/AA Batteries
    • 5.1.2. Planar Energy Devices
    • 5.1.3. Primary battery life extension
    • 5.1.4. Always Ready Smart Nano Battery
    • 5.1.5. Energy Storage of batteries in standard and laminar formats
    • 5.1.6. Future options for higher energy density
    • 5.1.7. Laminar Fuel Cells
    • 5.1.8. Tadiran Batteries twenty year batteries

6. NEW SHAPES - LAMINAR AND FLEXIBLE BATTERIES

  • 6.1. Laminar lithium batteries
  • 6.2. Laminar printed manganese dioxide batteries
    • 6.2.1. Printed battery construction
    • 6.2.2. Printed battery production facilities
    • 6.2.3. Applications of printed batteries
    • 6.2.4. Printed battery specifications
  • 6.3. Ultrathin battery from Front Edge Technology
  • 6.4. Nanotube flexible battery
  • 6.5. Transparent battery - NEC and Waseda University
  • 6.6. Battery Assembly through Spray Painting
  • 6.7. Other emerging needs for laminar batteries - apparel and medical
    • 6.7.1. Electronic apparel
    • 6.7.2. Wireless body area network
  • 6.8. Biobatteries do their own harvesting
  • 6.9. Battery that incorporates energy harvesting - FlexEl
  • 6.10. Microbatteries built with viruses
  • 6.11. Biomimetic energy storage system
  • 6.12. Magnetic spin battery

7. SUPERCAPACITORS

  • 7.1. Example of capacitor storage application - e-labels
  • 7.2. Many shapes of capacitor
  • 7.3. Capacitors for small devices
  • 7.4. What does a supercapacitor for small devices look like?
  • 7.5. Supercapacitors = Ultracapacitors
  • 7.6. Where supercapacitors fit in
  • 7.7. Advantages and disadvantages
  • 7.8. How it all began
  • 7.9. Applications
  • 7.10. Uses in small devices.
  • 7.11. Relevance to energy harvesting
    • 7.11.1. Perpetuum harvester
    • 7.11.2. Human power to recharge portable electronics
    • 7.11.3. Use in nanoelectronics
  • 7.12. Can supercapacitors replace capacitors?
  • 7.13. Can supercapacitors replace batteries?
  • 7.14. Electric vehicle demonstrations and adoption
  • 7.15. How an EDLC supercapacitor works
    • 7.15.1. Basic geometry
    • 7.15.2. Properties of EDL
    • 7.15.3. Charging
    • 7.15.4. Discharging and cycling
    • 7.15.5. Energy density
    • 7.15.6. Achieving higher voltages
  • 7.16. Improvements coming along
    • 7.16.1. Better electrodes
    • 7.16.2. Better electrolytes
    • 7.16.3. Better carbon technologies
    • 7.16.4. Carbon nanotubes and Graphene
    • 7.16.5. Carbon aerogel
    • 7.16.6. Solid activated carbon
    • 7.16.7. Carbon derived carbon
    • 7.16.8. Fast charging is achieved
  • 7.17. Microscopic supercapacitors become possible
    • 7.17.1. Graphene
  • 7.18. Flexible, paper and transparent supercapacitors
    • 7.18.1. University of Minnesota
    • 7.18.2. University of Southern California
    • 7.18.3. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute USA
  • 7.19. Woven wearable supercapacitors
  • 7.20. National University of Singapore: a competitor for supercapacitors?
  • 7.21. Handling surge power in electronics
  • 7.22. Wireless systems and Burst-Mode Communications
  • 7.23. Energy harvesting
    • 7.23.1. Bicycles and wristwatches
    • 7.23.2. Polyacenes or polypyrrole
    • 7.23.3. New shapes
    • 7.23.4. Human power to recharge portable electronics
  • 7.24. Using a supercapacitor to manage your power
    • 7.24.1. A glimpse at the new magic
  • 7.25. Supercabatteries or bacitors

8. ORGANISATION PROFILES

  • 8.1. Blue Spark Technologies USA
  • 8.2. Cap-XX Australia
  • 8.3. Celxpert Energy Corp. Taiwan Head Quarter
  • 8.4. Cymbet USA
  • 8.5. Permanent Power for Wireless Sensors - White Paper from Cymbet
  • 8.6. DYNAPACK
  • 8.7. Duracell USA
  • 8.8. Enfucell Finland
  • 8.9. Excellatron USA
  • 8.10. Front Edge Technology USA
  • 8.11. Frontier Carbon Corporation Japan
  • 8.12. Harvard University USA
  • 8.13. Hitachi Maxell
  • 8.14. Holst Centre Netherlands
  • 8.15. Infinite Power Solutions USA
  • 8.16. Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Singapore
  • 8.17. Lebônê Solutions South Africa
  • 8.18. Lifeline Energy
  • 8.19. LG Chem
  • 8.20. Lilliputian Systems
  • 8.21. Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA
  • 8.22. Maxwell Technologies Inc., USA
  • 8.23. Murata Japan
  • 8.24. National Renewable Energy Laboratory USA
  • 8.25. NEC Japan
  • 8.26. Nippon Chemi-Con Japan
  • 8.27. Oak Ridge National Laboratory USA
  • 8.28. Panasonic Japan
  • 8.29. Paper Battery Company USA
  • 8.30. Planar Energy Devices USA
  • 8.31. Renata Batteries
  • 8.32. ReVolt Technologies Ltd
  • 8.33. Sandia National Laboratory USA
  • 8.34. SIMPLO TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD
  • 8.35. Solicore USA
  • 8.36. Sony Japan
  • 8.37. Technical University of Berlin Germany
  • 8.38. University of California Los Angeles USA
  • 8.39. University of Michigan USA
  • 8.40. Tadiran Batteries
  • 8.41. University of Sheffield UK
  • 8.42. University of Wollongong Australia
  • 8.43. Waseda University

9. MARKETS AND FORECASTS

  • 9.1. Market for energy storage for smart and portable electronic devices
    • 9.1.1. IDTechEx forecasts
  • 9.2. Total global battery market
  • 9.3. Batteries for Active RFID and Wireless Sensors Networks
    • 9.3.2. Batteries for gift cards
    • 9.3.3. Batteries for car keys
  • 9.4. Printed and thin film batteries 2013-2023
  • 9.5. Forecast assumptions and Reality Checks
    • 9.5.1. Rechargeable Energy Storage for Smart and Portable electronic devices.
    • 9.5.2. Global Battery Outlook
    • 9.5.3. Supercapacitors

10. GLOSSARY

APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY

TABLES

  • 1.1. Global market for all small batteries for use in small devices $ billion
  • 1.2. Forecast for Smart and Portable Devices
  • 1.3. Forecast Volume for active RFID and Wireless Sensors
  • 1.4. Breakdown of Energy Storage for Smart Consumer Electronic Devices market in 2012-2023 by shape-application, unit price, total volume and total value
  • 1.5. Global Market for Energy Storage for Smart and Portable Electronic Devices
  • 1.6. Global market for supercapacitors for use in smart and portable electronic devices $ billion
  • 1.7. Total and small device battery market 2013 and 2023 $billions
  • 1.8. Potential Cathodes and Anode with improved performance
  • 1.9. Comparison of some options for large rechargeable lithium batteries and companies involved.
  • 1.10. Nomenclature for lithium-based rechargeable batteries
  • 1.11. 138 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries with country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte morphology, case type, applicational priorities and customer relationships
  • 1.12. Examples of energy density figures for batteries, supercapacitors and other energy sources
  • 2.1. Important milestones in battery and capacitor history
  • 2.2. Battery characteristics
  • 2.3. Some limitations of batteries in small electronic devices and some solutions
  • 2.4. Examples of applications of batteries large vs small
  • 2.5. Applications of printed batteries by vendor
  • 2.6. Five ways in which a capacitor acts as the electrical equivalent of the spring
  • 2.7. Advantages and disadvantages of some options for supplying electricity to small devices
  • 2.8. Some limitations of batteries in small electronic devices and some solutions
  • 3.1. Specifications of Lithium Ion shapes and typical use
  • 3.2. Cost Drivers in Lithium Ion Batteries.
  • 3.3. Economies of scale for different electrode chemistries
  • 4.1. Forecast for Smart and Portable Devices
  • 5.1. Claimed energy storage in AAA batteries
  • 5.2. Claimed energy storage in AA batteries
  • 5.3. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries
  • 5.4. Tadiran high power series
  • 5.5. Tadiran cylindrical battery ratings
  • 6.1. Printed and thin film battery product and specification comparison
  • 6.2. Printed battery materials comparison
  • 6.3. The half cell and overall chemical reactions that occur in a Zn/MnO2 battery
  • 7.1. Comparison of the three types of capacitor when storing one kilojoule of energy.
  • 8.1. Panasonic lithium-ion batteries specifications
  • 9.1. Global market for all small batteries for use in small devices $ billion
  • 9.2. Forecast for Smart and Portable Devices
  • 9.3. Forecast Volume for active RFID and Wireless Sensors
  • 9.4. Breakdown of Energy Storage for Smart Consumer Electronic Devices market in 2012-2023 by shape-application, unit price, total volume and total value
  • 9.5. Global Market for Energy Storage for Smart and Portable Electronic Devices
  • 9.6. Global market for supercapacitors for use in smart and portable electronic devices $ billion
  • 9.7. Total and small device battery market 2013 and 2023 $billions
  • 9.8. Number (in millions) of active tags by application 2012-22
  • 9.9. Average active tag price per application in US cents 2012-22
  • 9.10. Value of active tags by application 2012-2022 (US Dollar Millions)
  • 9.11. Market forecast for printed and potentially printed batteries in US $ billions 2013-2023
  • 9.12. Global combined supercapacitor/ supercabattery market actual and forecast 2010-2023 $ billion ex-factory, with % and value when used for electronics vs electrical engineering

FIGURES

  • 1.1. Schematic of Smart and Portable Electronic Devices within the Energy Storage Classification
  • 1.2. Energy Storage for Smart and Portable Electronic Devices within the Energy Storage Space
  • 1.3. Global market for all small batteries for use in small devices $ billion
  • 1.4. Forecast portable consumer electronics
  • 1.5. Global Market for Energy Storage for Smart Consumer Electronic Devices $ billion
  • 1.6. Global Market for Energy Storage for Wireless Sensor Networks and RFID
  • 1.7. Pie chart of primary use batteries, secondary batteries and supercapacitors value sales in 2013
  • 1.8. Pie chart of primary batteries, secondary batteries and supercapacitors value sales in 2023
  • 1.9. Breakdown of battery market by Chemistry
  • 1.10. Global market for rechargeable batteries by use in 2009 in millions of units
  • 1.11. Learning Curve for Laptop Lithium Batteries
  • 1.12. Cost Structure of 18650 Lithium-ion Cell
  • 1.13. Development Path Improved Materials
  • 1.14. Expanded focus for development paths for cost reduction in Lithium Batteries
  • 1.15. Power requirements of small electronic products including Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and GSM mobile phones and the types of battery employed
  • 1.16. Power in use vs duty cycle for portable and mobile devices showing zones of use of single use vs rechargeable batteries
  • 1.17. Comparison of energy stored per unit of volume and weight for lithium and other battery chemistry
  • 1.18. Ragone Plots for an array of energy storage and energy conversion devices
  • 1.19. Multifunctionality, Portability and Power Demand Trends
  • 1.20. "Multifunctionality all day long" in mobile marketing
  • 1.21. Average system power for different functions of selected smartphones
  • 1.22. Multifunctionality trends in the consumer electronics industry
  • 1.23. Promotion of Paramount Picture's Film "Iron Man 2", Tony Stark holding a transparent LC concept Smart Phone
  • 1.24. Transparent Battery Waseda University
  • 1.25. Nokia Kinetic
  • 2.1. Comparison of relevant parameters
  • 2.2. Active RFID patents
  • 2.3. Rapid progress in the capabilities of small electronic devices and their photovoltaic energy harvesting contrasted with more modest progress in improving the batteries they employ
  • 2.4. Rechargeable energy storage - where supercapacitors fit in
  • 2.5. Energy density vs power density for storage devices
  • 2.6. Construction of a battery cell
  • 2.7. MEMS compared with a dust mite less than one millimetre long
  • 2.8. Power in use vs duty cycle for portable and mobile devices showing zones of use of single use vs rechargeable batteries
  • 2.9. Principle of the creation and maintenance of an aluminium electrolytic capacitor
  • 2.10. Construction of wound electrolytic capacitor
  • 2.11. Comparison of construction diagrams of three basic types of capacitor
  • 2.12. Types of ancillary electrical equipment being improved to serve small devices
  • 2.13. Rapid progress in the capabilities of small electronic devices and their photovoltaic energy harvesting contrasted with more modest progress in improving the batteries they employ
  • 3.1. Volumetric energy density vs gravimetric energy density for rechargeable batteries
  • 3.2. Nominal parameters of selected rechargeable battery chemistries.
  • 3.3. Shapes of Lithium ion Batteries
  • 3.4. Scheme of a common lithium ion battery
  • 3.5. Evolution of the lithium battery sale in the consumer electronic and HEV market
  • 3.6. Learning Curve Lithium-ion 18650 typical Laptop Battery cell
  • 3.7. Cost Structure of Lithium Ion Battery Cell 18650
  • 3.8. Cost Structure of Typical Lithium Ion 18650 Battery Cell
  • 3.9. Incremental vs Disruptive breakthrough in anode active material
  • 3.10. Lithium material before and after cycling.
  • 3.11. Fine Structure of SiO Material. The SiO Material has a complex structure consisting of a mixture of Si nanoparticles and amorphous SiO2.
  • 3.12. Schematic Model of SiO Anode Charge-discharge Mechanism. During initial charging, the SiO2 Anode changes to amorphous Li4SiO4 (lithium orthosilicate) which acts as a conductor of lithium ions.
  • 3.13. Discharge characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries with High Energy Density that Use Active Anode and Cathode Materials. The ZR series uses SiO anode material and the WR series uses SiO anode and nickel-oxide cathode material.
  • 3.14. Characteristics at High Discharge Rates of Lithium-ion Batteries with SiO Anode Material. At a discharge rate of 2.5 C, the prismatic cell with an SiO anode can discharge 100% of its capacity compared to only 60% for a conventiona
  • 3.15. Potential for reductions in battery costs
  • 3.16. Summary of Li-ion Technologies
  • 3.17. Envia Cell Energy Density
  • 3.18. Envia Cell Voltage and Specific Capacity
  • 3.19. Envia's Technology Progression
  • 4.1. Lithium-ion Battery Market Trends
  • 4.2. Forecast portable consumer electronics
  • 4.3. The IBM Simon, IPhone's grandfather, the first "smartphone"
  • 4.4. Multifunctionality and Portability Trends
  • 4.5. Time line for mobile phones
  • 4.6. Specifications of Selected Portable Devices
  • 4.7. iPad from Inside
  • 4.8. iphone concept with interchangeable lenses
  • 4.9. Nokia 808 Pure View
  • 4.10. Extract from CBR Computer Business Review
  • 4.11. Power breakdown in suspended state, the aggregate power consumed is 68.6 mW.
  • 4.12. Average power consumption while in the idle state with backlight of. Aggregate power is 268.8 mW
  • 4.13. Display backlight power for varying brightness levels
  • 4.14. Power consumption of Wifi and GSM modems, CPU, and RAM for the network benchmark.
  • 4.15. GPS Energy Consumption
  • 4.16. Audio playback power breakdown. Aggregate power consumed is 320 mW.
  • 4.17. Video playback power breakdown. Aggregate power excluding backlight is 453.5 mW.
  • 4.18. GSM phone call average power. Excluding backlight, the aggregate power is 1054.3 mW
  • 4.19. Power breakdown for sending an SMS. Aggregate power consumed is 302.2 mW, excluding backlight.
  • 4.20. Power consumption for an email. Aggregate power consumption (excluding backlight) is 610.0 mW over GPRS, and 432.4 mW for Wifi.
  • 4.21. Web browsing average power over Wifi and GPRS. Aggregate power consumption is 352.8 mW for Wifi, and 429.0 mW for GPRS, excluding backlight.
  • 4.22. Average system power for different functions of selected smartphones
  • 4.23. High Power LED Supercapacitor Solution Block Diagram.
  • 4.24. CAP-XX Supercapacitor Solution Circuit Implementation
  • 4.25. Photos in low light with normal phone (left) and phone modified with CAP-XX supercapacitor-based solution (right)
  • 4.26. Battery current, LED current and supercapacitor voltage for the CAP-XX solution"
  • 5.1. Power Requirement for Small Devices
  • 5.2. Power Supply options for Wireless Sensors Networks
  • 5.3. Planar Energy Devices Battery
  • 5.4. Features of the Planar Energy devices batteries
  • 5.5. Conformable fuel cell
  • 5.6. Conformable FuelCell StickerTM
  • 5.7. Tadiran in EZ pass
  • 5.8. Tadiran's new high voltage/high rate AA-sized lithium battery
  • 6.1. Laminar lithium ion battery
  • 6.2. Typical active RFID tag showing the problematic coin cells
  • 6.3. Construction of a lithium rechargeable laminar battery
  • 6.4. Reel to reel construction of rechargeable laminar lithium batteries
  • 6.5. Internal structure of Power Paper Battery
  • 6.6. Power Paper printed manganese dioxide zinc battery that gathers moisture from the air
  • 6.7. Screen printing of Blue Spark Technology flexible, sealed, manganese dioxide zinc batteries
  • 6.8. Power Paper production line for printed batteries
  • 6.9. Power Paper skin patch that delivers cosmetic through the skin by means of a printed battery and electrodes
  • 6.10. Skin patches electronically communicating to skin patches powered by laminar batteries, coin cells being unacceptable
  • 6.11. Audio Paper TM
  • 6.12. Ultra thin lithium rechargeable battery
  • 6.13. Construction of a thin-film battery
  • 6.14. NanoEnergy® powering a blue LED
  • 6.15. Flexible battery made of nanotube ink
  • 6.16. Examples of transparent flexible technology
  • 6.17. Flexible battery that charges in one minute
  • 6.18. Paintable battery concept. (a) Simplified view of a conventional Li-ion battery, a multilayer device assembled by tightly wound 'jellyroll' sandwich of anode-separator-cathode layers. (b) Direct fabrication of Li-ion battery on th
  • 6.19. Characterisation of Components by Weight in Spray Painted Batteries
  • 6.20. Performance of Spray Painted Battery
  • 6.21. Demonstrations of paintable battery
  • 6.22. Electronic apparel - sports bra with diagnostic electronics and animated t-shirt displaying music
  • 6.23. Wireless body area network
  • 6.24. Disposable digital plaster
  • 6.25. Sensium system
  • 6.26. Microbattery built with viruses
  • 6.27. Biomimetic energy storage
  • 7.1. E-labels with capacitor and no battery
  • 7.2. Where supercapacitors fit in
  • 7.3. Energy density vs power density for storage devices
  • 7.4. Small carbon aerogel supercapacitors
  • 7.5. Bikudo supercapacitor
  • 7.6. Laminar supercapacitor one millimetre thick
  • 7.7. Mobile phone modified to give much brighter flash thanks to supercapacitor outlined in red
  • 7.8. Perpetuum energy harvester with its supercapacitors
  • 7.9. Citizen Eco-DriveTM solar powered wristwatch with rechargeable battery
  • 7.10. Symmetric supercapacitor construction
  • 7.11. Symmetric compared to asymmetric supercapacitor construction
  • 7.12. Single sheets of graphene
  • 7.13. Graphene supercapacitor cross section
  • 7.14. Flexible supercapacitor
  • 7.15. Flexible, transparent supercapacitors - bend and twist them like a poker card
  • 7.16. The UCLA printed supercapacitor technologies on a ragone plot
  • 7.17. Illustration of a core-shell supercapacitor electrode design for storing electrochemical energy
  • 7.18. MnO2-CNT-sponge electrodes
  • 7.19. The energy storage membrane
  • 7.20. The Linear Technology surge power solution. LTC4425 charger IC manages a series pair of supercapacitors, charges them from Li-ion/polymer cells, USB port, or DC source
  • 7.21. Block diagram of energy harvesting power architecture with a supercapacitor
  • 7.22. CAP-XX GZ215 Supercapacitor leakage current over time
  • 7.23. Charging at low currents
  • 7.24. Time to charge CAP-XX HZ102 A constant current to 2.5V with no pre-charge (5μA 0 supercapacitors with 5 min), and varying times for pre-charge from 1 minute to 50 minutes.
  • 7.25. Low current active balance circuit
  • 7.26. Ageing, capacitance loss over time at room temperature, ambient relative humidity. Sizing the supercapacitor
  • 7.27. Model for solving the constant power case. Note that VSUPERCAP is not physically measureable, since C & ESR are idealized parameters within the supercapacitor.
  • 7.28. Output Power vs Output Voltage for Perpetuum Microgenerator which harvests vibration energy at 100Hz or 120Hz, ideal for AC machines. Maximum power is delivered when the output voltage is between 4V - 5V. Open circuit voltage is 9
  • 7.29. Example of a supercapacitor interface circuit
  • 8.1. Blue Spark laminar battery
  • 8.2. Cap-XX Technology
  • 8.3. Celxpert notebook battery pack
  • 8.4. Interchangeable notebook battery pack
  • 8.5. The Cymbet EnerChip™
  • 8.6. Enercard EH Double-sided Module
  • 8.7. Tiny Energy Harvesting powered wireless sensors
  • 8.8. Duracell NiOx batteries
  • 8.9. Enfucell SoftBattery™
  • 8.10. Integrated printed electronics concept in business card format
  • 8.11. Thin-film solid-state batteries by Excellatron
  • 8.12. The world's thinnest self standing rechargeable battery claims FET
  • 8.13. Light in Africa
  • 8.14. Silicon based anode material for lithium battery
  • 8.15. LiTE STAR™
  • 8.16. Solar-powered and Mechanical Storage: Lifeplayer and Prime Radi
  • 8.17. Murata supercapacitors
  • 8.18. Researchers from Planar Energy -Devices, Inc., insert a sample into the vacuum chamber of the company's thin-film deposition system
  • 8.19. Planar Energy Devices has advanced the solid-state lithium battery from NREL's crude prototype (below) to a miniaturized, integrated device (bottom)
  • 8.20. Flexible battery that charges in one minute
  • 8.21. Nippon Chemi-Con ELDCs - supercapacitors
  • 8.22. First generation product: PowerPatch™
  • 8.23. New Planar Energy Devices high capacity laminar battery
  • 8.24. Renata Batteries
  • 8.25. Flexion ™
  • 8.26. Surveillance bat
  • 8.27. Sensor head on COM-BAT
  • 8.28. Waseda founder
  • 9.1. Global market for all small batteries for use in small devices $ billion
  • 9.2. Forecast portable consumer electronics
  • 9.3. Global Market for Energy Storage for Smart Consumer Electronic Devices $ billion
  • 9.4. Global Market for Energy Storage for Wireless Sensor Networks and RFID
  • 9.5. Global Market for supercapacitors for use in smart and portable electronic devices
  • 9.6. Pie chart of primary use batteries, secondary batteries and supercapacitors value sales in 2013
  • 9.7. Pie chart of primary batteries, secondary batteries and supercapacitors value sales in 2023
  • 9.8. Global market for active RFID tags and wireless sensors
Show More
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