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Power Electronics for Electric Vehicles 2015-2025

Notes

This report will be a great benefit for industrialists, investors, market researchers and others interested in the huge expanding electric vehicle market for power electronics technology.

Sales of pure electric cars grew over 50% in 2015, ten times the growth of the car market overall. Hybrid electric cars are already a large business. Look at electric vehicles by land, water and air and you see a huge business growing rapidly and increasingly dominated by the electrics and electronics within these vehicles as it rises from about 40% to 70% in the coming decade. This report concerns power electronics for electric vehicles with the emphasis on the largest market, that for on-road vehicles, particularly cars and buses. It is intended for those seeking to invest, support, develop, make, sell or use power electronics and their components and associated services. It will also assist those participating in the value chain of linked devices, such as batteries, supercapacitors, in-wheel systems, transmissions and electric motors, to understand the considerable opportunities for both collaborative use of their components and even merging with power electronics.

This 206 page report with 95 tables, figures and diagrams is unique in being mainly based on research in 2015 - the very latest. Only this report forecasts the key component, the traction motor inverter from 2014 to 2025 while discussing the full range of other power electronics. Coverage ranges from on board chargers to converters, battery management systems and power conditioning for the new multiple energy harvesting. Emphasis is on the present and future and distilled information with circuit diagrams and many ghost pictures of the vehicles showing layout. Ten year forecasts by numbers of no less than 37 EV categories are given. These are behind the rapid value market growth projected by IDTechEx of the traction inverter market for electric vehicles of $16 billion in 2014 leaping to $86 billion in 2025. Detailed assumptions behind all this are declared.

There are charts and tables explaining how the components interact, with trends identified, whether for pure electric, hybrid electric or fuel cell powertrains. A host of slides and 2015 poster displays from recent conferences in Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Germany and elsewhere clarify the very latest views of the participants such as Nissan, Hyundai, Toyota, Honda and Daimler but also thought leaders such as the researchers and Tier One suppliers. Original IDTechEx tables and infographics pull together the analysis. Only a global view makes sense in this subject.

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Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Focus of this report
  • 1.2. Electric vehicles
  • 1.3. Traction inverter forecasts of numbers 2014-2025
  • 1.4. Global value market for vehicle traction inverters 2014-2025
    • 1.4.1. Forecasts by type
    • 1.4.2. Cost reduction vs mix change
    • 1.4.3. Total market value 2014-2025
    • 1.4.4. Hybrid vs pure electric
    • 1.4.5. Forecasting assumptions
  • 1.5. The powertrain and externalities
  • 1.6. Power electronics proliferates
    • 1.6.1. Spectrum of choice of motors to control
    • 1.6.2. Proliferation of types of power electronics in each vehicle
  • 1.7. Overall trends
    • 1.7.1. Massive change and gaps in the market
    • 1.7.2. Multiple energy harvesting
    • 1.7.3. Inverters and converters
  • 1.8. Key players
  • 1.9. Key markets
  • 1.10. Vertical integration
  • 1.11. Integration
  • 1.12. Powertrain cost
  • 1.13. Key inverter component
  • 1.14. Disruptive SiC, GaN
  • 1.15. Semiconductor and other trends
    • 1.15.1. Device level
    • 1.15.2. SR motors become viable
  • 1.16. Motor-inverter requirements from conventional vehicle electrification to EV
  • 1.17. Power devices targeted for down sizing
  • 1.18. Universal motor controllers in 2015
  • 1.19. External charging infrastructure issues

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Types of power electronics in electric vehicles
    • 2.1.1. General
    • 2.1.2. Examples of power electronics
    • 2.1.3. Pure electric vs hybrid electric
  • 2.2. Two motors instead of one
  • 2.3. Fuel cells add complexity
    • 2.3.1. Toyota Mirai fuel cell car schematic
    • 2.3.2. Hyundai fuel cell vs battery vehicle power electronics in 2015
    • 2.3.3. A closer look at fuel cell power electronics
    • 2.3.4. Battery or supercapacitor across the fuel cell?
  • 2.4. History of the electric motor and motor control
    • 2.4.1. History
    • 2.4.2. Vector Control
    • 2.4.3. Disruptive change in 2014/5
  • 2.5. Types of traction motor drive
    • 2.5.1. Shapes of motor drives
    • 2.5.2. Size and number of motor drives
    • 2.5.3. Drive position
    • 2.5.4. Cooling systems
    • 2.5.5. Functional safety and high availability
    • 2.5.6. AC vs DC at inverter level
  • 2.6. Direct drive or gearbox
    • 2.6.1. General
    • 2.6.2. Operating efficiency
    • 2.6.3. Optimising design
  • 2.7. Comparison with a parallel market
  • 2.8. Voltage trends: 48V vs high voltage
    • 2.8.1. Overall trends
    • 2.8.2. Contrarian approach
  • 2.9. Key technologies used in traction inverters and controllers
    • 2.9.1. Basics
    • 2.9.2. The power module
    • 2.9.3. Failure modes
    • 2.9.4. Chip Design
    • 2.9.5. Die Attachment
    • 2.9.6. Double-sided cooling
  • 2.10. SiC and GaN
    • 2.10.1. High temperature capacitor for EVs
    • 2.10.1. Hitachi, Sumitomo, Panasonic
    • 2.10.2. NXP
    • 2.10.2. Analog sensors
    • 2.10.3. Position/Speed Feedback
    • 2.10.3. Adoption in EVs
    • 2.10.4. Forecast of SiC market by application
    • 2.10.4. Control DSP
    • 2.10.5. Isolated Gate drive circuit
    • 2.10.5. Projects to make it happen
    • 2.10.6. SiC inverters for in-wheel use
    • 2.10.6. Switch mode power supply
    • 2.10.7. Power distribution within the inverter
    • 2.10.7. DC Bus/Snubber capacitor
    • 2.10.8. Digital communications, regen braking, vectored drive
    • 2.10.9. EV AC drive frequency converter control Hungary
    • 2.10.10. Nanotechnology for the power components
    • 2.10.11. Siemens innovative new e-car inverters
    • 2.10.12. Volvo new integrated motor and battery charger
    • 2.10.13. Quadcopter drone motors and controls
    • 2.10.14. Agricultural and material handling vehicles
    • 2.10.15. Novel SiC MOSFET for efficiency improvement
    • 2.10.16. Evaluation of a 600V 450A hybrid SiC power module
    • 2.10.17. SiC Schottky diode
  • 2.11. Infineon leapfrogging in power electronics
  • 2.12. Power electronics lessons from EVS28 Seoul Korea May 3-6 2015
  • 2.13. Power electronics lessons from Battery Osaka, PV Expo, Smart Grid Expo Sept 3-5 2014, Osaka, Japan

3. ANALYSIS OF 68 TRACTION MOTOR/INVERTER MANUFACTURERS

4. ANALYSIS OF 24 INVERTER COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS

5. ON-BOARD CHARGERS AND DC-DC CONVERTERS

  • 5.1. On-board chargers
  • 5.2. DC-DC converters

6. BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS BMS

7. INTERVIEWS IN 2015: EXAMPLES

  • 7.1. Control Works/ New Eagle South Korea/USA
  • 7.2. Infineon Germany
  • 7.3. Mando South Korea
  • 7.4. PNE Systems South Korea
  • 7.5. RDVS UK
  • 7.6. Sevcon UK
  • 7.7. Vapel China
  • 7.8. Zytec (Continental) UK

8. COMMENTS BY VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS AND LEADING SUPPLIERS

  • 8.1. Ford and Daimler
  • 8.2. Fuji Electric
  • 8.3. Nissan
  • 8.4. Renesas
  • 8.5. Toyota
  • 8.6. Toyota - Power Electronics
  • 8.7. Volkswagen

TABLES

  • 1.1. Number of hybrid and pure electric vehicles produced yearly worldwide 2014-2025 in thousands by category. Each has one battery management system and at least one electric traction inverter.
  • 1.2. Number of extra electric traction inverters on vehicles where there is more than one (in thousands) 2014-2025
  • 1.3. Number of traction inverters in thousand 2014-2025
  • 1.4. Number million of BMS inverters, converters, OBC and other 2014, 2015, 2025
  • 1.5. Price of traction inverters in $K per vehicle 2014-2025
  • 1.6. Traction inverters market value $ billion paid by vehicle manufacturer 2014-2025
  • 1.7. Typical transducer power range of the main technical options for energy harvesting transducer arrays - electrodynamic, photovoltaic and thermoelectric - and some less important ones shown in grey
  • 2.1. Examples of types of power electronics in pure and hybrid electric vehicles
  • 2.2. Comparison of key requirements in the industrial automation and automotive markets for inverters/controllers
  • 3.1. Analysis of 68 traction motor/inverter manufacturers
  • 4.1. Analysis of 24 Inverter Component Manufacturers
  • FIGURES
  • 1.1. Number of traction inverters in thousand 2014-2025
  • 1.2. Number million of BMS inverters, converters, OBC and other in 2015 (top) and 2025 (bottom)
  • 1.3. Price of traction inverters in $K per vehicle 2014-2025
  • 1.4. Traction inverters market value $ billion paid by vehicle manufacturer 2014-2025
  • 1.5. The MAN hybrid bus from Germany showing the power inverter and the use of a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) instead of a battery, putting different demands on the power electronics
  • 1.6. The drivetrain
  • 1.7. Electric vehicle modules for power transfer
  • 1.8. Why power electronics is important in the network integration of EVs
  • 1.9. Higen view of choices of traction motor and their attributes and issues
  • 1.10. More and more power electronics on-board
  • 1.11. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in land vehicles
  • 1.12. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in marine vehicles
  • 1.13. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in airborne vehicles
  • 1.14. Solar traction power
  • 1.15. EH system diagram
  • 1.16. Unified converter proposal
  • 1.17. On-going Development of Hitachi automotive inverters
  • 1.18. Electrification of powertrain May 2015 presentation
  • 1.19. Nissan slide
  • 1.20. Network integration of EVs
  • 2.1. KATECH development of Li-ion battery heater
  • 2.2. Basics of hybrid electric vehicle
  • 2.3. Components of a hybrid electric vehicle with supercapacitors and battery.
  • 2.4. Mild hybrid inverter-motor system
  • 2.5. Components of a two motor system
  • 2.6. 2015 Toyota Mirai schematic
  • 2.7. The power electronics and powertrain of the Hyundai iX35
  • 2.8. The power electronics of a Hyundai pure electric car
  • 2.9. Basic fuel cell system for a vehicle
  • 2.10. Fuel cell system for 160 kW bus (e-net)
  • 2.11. Layout of bus fuel cell system
  • 2.12. Basic car fuel cell system
  • 2.13. PAC-carII fuel economy car fuel cell system and electricity system
  • 2.14. Battery pure electric vehicle system within vehicle energy management functions shown for comparison
  • 2.15. Use of battery or supercapacitor across fuel cell in vehicle
  • 2.16. Families of power semiconductor
  • 2.17. 48V systems development shown at EVS28 Korea May 2015
  • 2.18. Overview of traction inverter
  • 2.19. IGBT Power module exposed
  • 2.20. Figure of merit for successive generations of Mitsubishi IGBT
  • 2.21. Schematic drawing of Semikron SkiN Technology
  • 2.22. Comparison of 2nd and 3rd generation Toyota Prius power module
  • 2.23. Hitachi pin fin liquid cooled power modules
  • 2.24. Hitachi IGBT Module with pin fin baseplate used on Chevrolet Volt
  • 2.25. Double sided Cooling - Denso Lexus LS600h
  • 2.26. Latest power semiconductors by frequency of use
  • 2.27. Distribution of SiC device market 2010,2015 and 2020
  • 2.28. European Commission project involving design of SiC inverters for in-wheel motors
  • 2.29. Potted film capacitor
  • 2.30. Volumetric transition of metalized polypropylene film capacitors
  • 2.31. HITECA capacitor for EV power electronics
  • 2.32. LEM Hall-Effect current sensor
  • 2.33. Contactless current sensor IC
  • 2.34. Block Diagram of Freescale' s Qorivva MPC567xK
  • 2.35. Analog Devices iCoupler Technology
  • 2.36. Potted film capacitor for traction applications
  • 2.37. Large format quadcopter
  • 2.38. Turnigy quadcopter motor
  • 2.39. Brushless outrunner motor in toy electric bike
  • 2.40. Agricultural and material handling EV inverter comparison.
  • 2.41. Faster growth by pure electric vehicles
  • 2.42. Poster sessions on power electronics
  • 2.43. Solar boats in Taiwan
  • 2.44. GaN Systems' complete family of GaN-on-Si power switches: 100V and 650V parts, E-mode and cascade solutions, High currents
  • 2.45. Unique GaN Systems bonding
  • 2.46. GaN Systems comparison of advantages and weaknesses of GaN power devices
  • 5.1. On-board charger schematic in an electric boat
  • 5.2. A cable-based Type 1 Level 1 charger for a small car or golf car
  • 5.3. Examples of on-board chargers: Lear, Mission Motors (small company) and at bottom Delphi, G-Power (China), bottom right Volvo 22kW 3ph.
  • 5.4. Chroma Level 2, power 6.6kW on-board charger
  • 5.5. Mitsubishi MiEV on-board charger and system
  • 5.6. NLG6 Fast Charger
  • 5.7. Approach of BYD China for buses and cars
  • 5.8. Volvo flexible fast charger
  • 5.9. General charging schematic
  • 5.10. Delphi EV converter
  • 5.11. Multiple converter need
  • 5.12. Prodrive flexible inverter schematic showing it coping with supercapacitor voltage changing with discharge state and the input/output of the battery and the electric motors.
  • 7.1. Trend to double sided cooling
  • 7.2. Mando details
  • 7.3. Mando 6.6 kW on-board charger for cars
  • 7.4. PNE range
  • 7.5. RDVS capability
  • 7.6. Sevcon range
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