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Transdermal Drug Delivery - Technologies, Markets, and Companies

Notes

Purchase this report to receive strategies for the developing markets of transdermal drug delivery.

Benefits of this report

  • Up-to-date one-stop information on transdermal drug delivery
  • Description of 109 companies involved and 110 collaborations in this area
  • Market analysis 2013-2023/
  • Market values in major regions
  • Strategies for developing markets for transdermal drug delivery
  • A selected bibliography of 220 publications
  • Text is supplemented by 20 tables and 12 figures

Who should read this report

  • Biotechnology companies developing transdermal technologies
  • Drug delivery companies
  • Pharmaceutical companies interested in transdermal drug delivery
  • Pharmaceutical research institutes

Summary

This report deals with transdermal drug delivery - an approach used to deliver drugs through the skin for therapeutic use as an alternative to oral,intravascular, subcutaneous and transmucosal routes. Various transdermal drug delivery technologies are described including the use of suitable formulations, carriers and penetration enhancers. The most commonly used transdermal system is the skin patch using various types of technologies. Nanoparticles as well as the use of physical agents to facilitate transcutaneous drug delivery is described. Microneedle and needleless technologies are also described. Transdermal technologies may be applied for several categories of pharmaceuticals used for the treatment of disorders of the skin or for systemic effect to treat diseases of other organs. Several transdermal products and applications include hormone replacement therapy, contraception, management of pain, angina pectoris, smoking cessation and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The market for transdermal drug delivery is analyzed according to technologies and therapeutic areas from 2013 to 2023. This market is analyzed according to geographical regions as well.

Table of Contents

0. Executive Summary 10

1. Basics of Transdermal Drug Delivery 12

  • Introduction 12
  • Historical landmarks in transdermal drug delivery 12
  • Anatomy and physiology of skin 13
  • Transcutaneous absorption 13
  • Transdermal versus other methods of drug delivery 14
  • Advantages of transdermal drug delivery 14
  • First-Pass Effect 14
  • Drawbacks of transdermal delivery 14
  • Factors that influence transdermal drug delivery 15
  • Rate of permeation across the skin 15
  • Properties of the skin 15
  • Properties of drugs 16
  • The role of pH and pharmacokinetics 17
  • Intradermal disposition of drugs after topical application 17
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in understanding basis of transdermal delivery 17

2. Transdermal Drug Delivery Technologies 18

  • Introduction 18
  • Local application formulations 19
  • Crystalline topical formulations 19
  • Microemulsions for transdermal drug delivery 19
  • Nanoemulsions for transdermal drug delivery 20
  • Transdermal gel technology 20
  • Biphasix system 22
  • Penetration enhancers 22
  • Chemical enhancers 22
  • Nitric oxide-based transdermal drug delivery 24
  • Ionic liquids for transdermal delivery of drugs against bacterial biofilms on skin 25
  • Vesicular transdermal carriers 25
  • Liposomes 25
  • Transfersomes 26
  • Ethosomes 26
  • Elastic vesicles for transdermal drug delivery 27
  • Nanovesicles for transdermal drug delivery 27
  • Transdermal patches 28
  • Adhesives for transdermal patches 29
  • Commercial development of transdermal patches 30
  • Innovations in transdermal patches 31
  • e-Patch™ controlled release micropump system 31
  • Patchless Transdermal Delivery System 31
  • Metered-dose transdermal system 32
  • Polymers for transdermal drug delivery 32
  • Polymer membranes in transderaml patches 33
  • Film forming polymeric solutions 34
  • Use of physical modalities to facilitate transdermal transport 34
  • Transdermal electrotransport 34
  • Electroporation 35
  • Drug delivery by electroporation 36
  • Cryoelectrophoresis 37
  • Iontophoresis 37
  • Iontophoresis compared with electrophoresis 38
  • Application of iontophoresis for drug delivery 38
  • Companies with technologies for drug delivery by iontophoresis 39
  • Combination of electrophoresis and iontophoresis 40
  • Dermaportation 41
  • Radiofrequency-driven transdermal delivery 41
  • Microporation 41
  • Transcutaneous drug delivery by electropulsation 42
  • Companies involved in electroporation-based drug delivery 42
  • Electrode Scanning System 43
  • Use of electrostatic force in skin patch technology 43
  • Multiple Absorption Kinetic System 43
  • Transdermal drug delivery facilitated by heat 44
  • Controlled, heat-aided drug delivery 44
  • Ultrasound 44
  • Magnetophoresis 46
  • Use of lasers for transdermal drug delivery 46
  • Laser-induced microporation 46
  • Transdermal drug delivery by laser-induced pressure waves 47
  • Transdermal drug delivery by laser-assisted changes in skin 47
  • Transdermal delivery by gas under pressure 48
  • Transdermal delivery with PowderJect gas gun 48
  • Microscission induced by gas 48
  • Role of microelectronics in transdermal drug delivery 49
  • Microneedles and dermal microinjection technologies 49
  • Microneedle patch 50
  • Applications of microneedles 51
  • AdminPatch® microneedle array 52
  • Biodegradable microneedles 52
  • Ceramic microneedle arrays 53
  • Dissolvable microneedle patches 53
  • MicorCor 53
  • Microneedle arrays for drug delivery 54
  • MicroPyramid™ microneedles 55
  • Microstructured Transdermal Systems 55
  • Microneedle Array Patch technology 56
  • Microneedle transdermal chip 56
  • Microneedle applicator device 57
  • Nanoject™ microneedle technology 57
  • Polymer 3D microneedles 57
  • Silk microneedles 58
  • Tattooing for drug delivery 58
  • ZP Patch microprojections technology 58
  • Companies developing microneedles for transdermal drug delivery 59
  • Needlefree injections 60
  • Glide SDI® solid dose injector 60
  • Jet injection 60
  • Mini-Ject needlefree delivery system 60
  • MicroJet for painless injections 61
  • Nanoliter-volume pulsed microjets 61
  • SUMAVEL™ DosePro™ needle-less injection 61
  • Skin ablation or abrasion for drug delivery 62
  • Nanotechnology-based transdermal drug delivery 62
  • Delivery of nanostructured drugs from transdermal patches 62
  • Effect of mechanical flexion on penetration of bucky balls through the skin 62
  • Nanobiotechnology for transdermal application 63
  • Nanoparticles and nanoemulsions for skin disorders 63
  • Nanopatches 63
  • Inocyte™ epidermal drug delivery system 63
  • Ionic nanoparticle technology 64
  • SLN gel for treatment of skin disorders 64
  • Topical delivery of siRNA- nanoparticle conjugates 64
  • Transdermal nanoparticle preparations for systemic effect 65
  • Transferosomes for transdermal drug delivery 66
  • Transdermal administration of nanocarriers 66
  • Nanotechnology-based transdermal vaccination and immunotherapy 66
  • Safety issues of applications of nanomaterial carriers on the skin 67
  • Comparison of transdermal drug delivery systems 67
  • Transdermal drug design 67
  • In vitro testing of transdermal drug delivery systems 68
  • Commercially available skin models for transdermal drug testing 68
  • FDA guidelines for post-approval changes in semisold topical drugs 69
  • In vivo testing of drug delivery systems 69
  • Infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of transdermal drug delivery 69
  • Modeling of transport through the skin 70
  • Concluding remarks on transdermal drug delivery technologies 70
  • Future developments in transdermal drug delivery 71

3. Transdermal Therapeutics 72

  • Introduction 72
  • Drugs that can be administered transdermally 72
  • Skin disorders 75
  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis 75
  • Hair loss 75
  • Iontophoretic drug delivery for nail disorders 76
  • Psoriasis 76
  • Nanoemulsions for paclitaxel delivery in psoriasis 76
  • Iontophoresis for treatment of psoriasis 76
  • Cardiovascular disorders 76
  • Transdermal estrogen for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease 77
  • Transdermal drug delivery for angina pectoris 77
  • Transdermal drug delivery for hypertension 78
  • Transdermal clonidine 79
  • Transdermal delivery of Β-blockers for hypertension 79
  • Transdermal delivery of calcium channel blockers for hypertension 80
  • Transdermal drug delivery for congestive heart failure 80
  • Transdermal beta blockers 80
  • Transdermal anticoagulants 81
  • Respiratory diseases 81
  • Asthma 81
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 82
  • Neurological and psychiatric disorders 82
  • Parkinson's disease 82
  • Transdermal drug delivery for Parkinson's disease 83
  • Transdermal dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease 83
  • Levodopa transdermal delivery systems 84
  • Rotigotine for Parkinson disease 84
  • Rotigotine for restless legs syndrome 86
  • Transdermal administration of other drugs for Parkinson disease 86
  • Depression 86
  • Antidepressants 87
  • Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors 87
  • Transdermal fluoxetine 87
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors 88
  • Transdermal selegiline 88
  • Trazodone hydrochloride 89
  • Venlafaxine 89
  • Bupropion 90
  • Bipolar disorder 90
  • Transdermal lithium 90
  • Schizophrenia 91
  • Transdermal haloperidol 91
  • Transdermal risperidone for treatment of schizophrenia 91
  • Transdermal blonanserin for treatment of schizophrenia 92
  • Restless legs syndrome 92
  • Alzheimer's disease 92
  • Transdermal rivastigmine 92
  • Transdermal donepezil 93
  • Transdermal arecoline 94
  • Transdermal nicotine for Tourette syndrome 94
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 94
  • Transdermal methylphenidate 94
  • Migraine 95
  • Transdermal sumatriptan 95
  • Transdermal zolmitriptan 96
  • Epilepsy 96
  • Tinnitus/Vertigo 96
  • Transdermal nitroglycerin for vasospasm due to subarachnoid hemorrhage 97
  • Musculoskeletal disorders 97
  • Osteoporosis 97
  • Transdermal alendronate 97
  • Transdermal estrogen 97
  • Transdermal human parathyroid hormone 98
  • Osteoarthritis 98
  • Transdermal therapy of diabetes 99
  • V-Go® disposable insulin delivery device 99
  • Transdermal insulin delivery in diabetes 99
  • Transdermal GLP1 agonist 100
  • Male disorders 100
  • Erectile dysfunction 100
  • Topical and transdermal preparation for erectile dysfunction 100
  • Hypogonadism in the male 101
  • Topical testosterone 101
  • Benign prostatic hypertrophy 102
  • Tamsulosin TDS 102
  • Women's health 103
  • Female sexual arousal disorder 103
  • Menopause 104
  • Hormone replacement therapy for menopause 104
  • Effect of transdermal estradiol on bone density 106
  • Transdermal PTH for postmenopausal osteoporosis 106
  • Transdermal testosterone for low libido in postmenopausal women 106
  • Breast disorders 107
  • Dysmenorrhea 107
  • Female infertility 107
  • Contraception 108
  • Female contraception 108
  • Ortho Evra™ 108
  • AG200-15 109
  • BAY86-5016 109
  • Desogestrel 109
  • Male contraception 109
  • Transdermal progestin plus testosterone 110
  • Cancer 110
  • Delivery of the photosensitizer drug δ-amino levulinic acid 110
  • Intradermal delivery of cancer vaccines by adenoviral vectors 110
  • Nanoemulsion-based delivery of caffeine for skin cancer 111
  • Topical interferon α2b for cervical cancer and precancerous lesions 111
  • Transcutaneous electroporation for delivery of anticancer drugs 111
  • Transdermal delivery of peptide cancer vaccines 112
  • Transdermal drug delivery for prostate cancer 112
  • Transdermal nitroglycerine for prostate cancer 112
  • Transdermal estradiol gel for prostate cancer 112
  • Transdermal leuprolide acetate for prostate cancer 112
  • Transdermal drug delivery for breast cancer 113
  • Afimoxifene topical gel for breast cancer 113
  • Pain 113
  • Relief of pain associated with minor medical procedures 113
  • Transdermal Lidoderm® for postherpectic neuralgia 114
  • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs 114
  • Topical NSAIDs 114
  • Transdermal ketoprofen 115
  • Topical opioids 116
  • Cancer pain 116
  • Transdermal fentanyl 116
  • Transdermal nitroglycerine as an adjuvant to opioids 118
  • Transdermal buprenorphine 118
  • Chronic pain of non-malignant origin 118
  • Transdermal local anesthetics 118
  • Postoperative pain 119
  • Transdermal fentanyl for the management of postoperative pain 119
  • Fibromyalgia 119
  • Nausea and vomiting 119
  • Motion sickness 120
  • Postoperative vomiting 120
  • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting 120
  • Antiaging strategies 120
  • Smoking cessation 121
  • Transdermal nicotine replacement 121
  • Use of nicotine patch for smoking cessation in pregnancy 122
  • Other methods of nicotine replacement 122
  • Other treatments for smoking cessation 122
  • Miscellaneous uses of transdermal drug delivery 123
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome 123
  • Overactive bladder and urinary incontinence 123
  • Transdermal oxybutynin 123
  • Viral infections 124
  • Transdermal nanoparticles for immune enhancement in HIV 124
  • Transdermal IQP-0410 for HIV/AIDS 125
  • Transdermal gene therapy 125
  • Transdermal delivery of plasmid DNA by electroporation 125
  • Transdermal antisense therapy 126
  • Transdermal vaccination 126
  • The skin as an immune organ 127
  • Technologies for transdermal vaccination 127
  • Dissolvable microneedle array for vaccine delivery 127
  • Electroporation for administering DNA vaccines 127
  • Microneedles for transdermal delivery of vaccines 128
  • Needle-free delivery of vaccines 129
  • Applications of transdermal vaccination 130
  • HIV/AIDS vaccination by topical application 130
  • Transdermal DNA influenza vaccine 131
  • Transdermal AΒ vaccination for Alzheimer's disease 131
  • Transdermal vaccination for traveller's diarrhoea 131
  • Transdermal nutraceuticals 132
  • Complications of transdermal therapy 132
  • Adverse effects of drugs 132
  • Overdose effect 133
  • Skin complications 133
  • MRI-induced skin burns from transdermal patches 133

4. Markets for Transdermal Drug Delivery 136

  • Introduction 136
  • Global markets for drug delivery 136
  • Geographical distribution of transdermal drug delivery markets 137
  • Emerging transdermal drug delivery markets in Asia 137
  • Transdermal technology markets in therapeutic areas 137
  • Angina pectoris 138
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 138
  • Erectile dysfunction 139
  • Hypertension 139
  • Osteoporosis 139
  • Pain therapeutics 139
  • Parkinson's disease 139
  • Smoking cessation 140
  • Transdermal hormone replacement therapy for menopause 140
  • Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in the male 140
  • Transdermal contraceptive market 140
  • Markets according to transdermal technologies 141
  • Markets for microneedle-based transdermal drug delivery 141
  • Marketing strategies for transdermal drug delivery 141
  • Marketing advantages of transdermal drug delivery 142
  • Unmet needs in transdermal drug delivery 143
  • Future prospects of transdermal drug delivery 144
  • Growth of new technologies used in transdermal drug delivery 144
  • Prospects of transdermal delivery for drugs coming off patents 144
  • Transdermal delivery of biologicals 144
  • Transdermal delivery of cosmetics 145

5. Companies involved in transdermal drug delivery 146

  • Profiles of companies 146
  • Top companies in transdermal drug delivery 146
  • Collaborations 268

6. References 272

Tables

  • Table 1-1: Historical landmarks in the development of transdermal drug delivery 12
  • Table 1-2: Transdermal vs oral and intravenous drug delivery 14
  • Table 1-3: Size ranges of molecules that can be delivered by transdermal route 16
  • Table 2-1: Technologies for transdermal drug delivery 18
  • Table 2-2: Chemical enhancers of skin penetration 23
  • Table 2-3: Drug-in-adhesive versus reservoir type of transdermal patch 28
  • Table 2-4: Companies developing transdermal patches for drug delivery 30
  • Table 2-5: Companies with technologies for drug delivery by iontophoresis 40
  • Table 2-6: Companies involved in electroporation-based drug delivery 43
  • Table 2-7: Companies developing microneedles for transdermal drug delivery 59
  • Table 2-8: Comparison of transdermal drug delivery systems 67
  • Table 3-1: Approved transdermal products 72
  • Table 3-2: Transdermal drugs in clinical trials or approval process 74
  • Table 4-1: Worldwide drug delivery market growth 2013 to 2023 136
  • Table 4-2: Transdermal drug delivery markets for geographical regions 2013 to 2023 137
  • Table 4-3: Markets for transdermal products for therapeutic areas 2013-2023 138
  • Table 4-4: Markets according to transdermal technologies 2013-2023 141
  • Table 4-5: Marketing strategies based on transdermal drug delivery technologies 142
  • Table 5-1: Top ten companies in transdermal drug delivery 146
  • Table 5-2: Collaborations in transdermal drug delivery 268

Figures

  • Figure 1-1: Basic structure of the skin 13
  • Figure 1-2: Events governing transcutaneous drug absorption 15
  • Figure 2-1: Basic structure and function of transdermal drug delivery systems 28
  • Figure 2-2: Transdermal system for delivery of liquid drugs 29
  • Figure 2-3: A schematic view of electroporation 35
  • Figure 2-4: Depiction of breakdown of the stratum corneum during electroporation 36
  • Figure 2-5: A schematic drawing of Iontophoresis 37
  • Figure 2-6: SonoPrep ultrasonic skin permeation 45
  • Figure 2-7: Drug delivery using different types of microneedles (MN) 50
  • Figure 2-8: A schematic drawing of the microneedle patch 51
  • Figure 3-1: Oral versus transdermal administration of a drug in Parkinson's disease 85
  • Figure 4-1: Unmet needs in transdermal drug delivery 143
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