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Animal Biotechnology - Technologies, Markets and Companies

Notes

This report describes and evaluates animal biotechnology and its application in veterinary medicine and pharmaceuticals as well as improvement in food production.

This report describes and evaluates animal biotechnology and its application in veterinary medicine and pharmaceuticals as well as improvement in food production. Knowledge of animal genetics is important in the application of biotechnology to manage genetic disorders and improve animal breeding. Genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics are also being applied to animal biotechnology.

Transgenic technologies are used for improving milk production and the meat in farm animals as well as for creating models of human diseases. Transgenic animals are used for the production of proteins for human medical use. Biotechnology is applied to facilitate xenotransplantation from animals to humans. Genetic engineering is done in farm animals and nuclear transfer technology has become an important and preferred method for cloning animals.There is discussion of in vitro meat production by culture

Biotechnology has potential applications in the management of several animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, avian flu and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The most important biotechnology-based products consist of vaccines, particularly genetically engineered or DNA vaccines. Gene therapy for diseases of pet animals is a fast developing area because many of the technologies used in clinical trials humans were developed in animals and many of the diseases of cats and dogs are similar to those in humans.RNA interference technology is now being applied for research in veterinary medicine

Molecular diagnosis is assuming an important place in veterinary practice. Polymerase chain reaction and its modifications are considered to be important. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are also widely used. Newer biochip-based technologies and biosensors are also finding their way in veterinary diagnostics.

Biotechnology products are approved by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the FDA. Regulatory issues relevant to animal biotechnology are described.

Approximately 120 companies have been identified to be involved in animal biotechnology and are profiled in the report. These are a mix of animal healthcare companies and biotechnology companies. Top companies in this area are identified and ranked. Information is given about the research activities of 11 veterinary and livestock research institutes. Important 108 collaborations in this area are shown.

Share of biotechnology-based products and services in 2013 is analyzed and the market is projected to 2023.

The text is supplemented with 34 tables and 5 figures.Selected 250 references from the literature are appended.

Table of Contents

0. Executive Summary 13

1. Introduction to Animal Biotechnology 15

  • Introduction 15
  • Historical evolution of animal biotechnology 15
  • Basics of biotechnology 16
  • DNA 16
  • RNA 16
  • Genes 17
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms 17
  • Copy number variations in the genome 17
  • DNA sequences 18
  • Gene expression 18
  • Gene regulation 19
  • Proteins 19
  • Functions of proteins 20
  • Recombinant proteins 20
  • Monoclonal antibodies 21
  • Animal genetics 21
  • Molecular genetics 21
  • Twinning in cattle 22
  • Pig genetics 22
  • Genetic studies in dogs 22
  • Animal genomics 22
  • The mouse genome 22
  • The dog genome 23
  • Sequencing of the dog genome 23
  • Comparison of genomes of healthy and diseased dogs 25
  • Analysis of DNA copy number variation 25
  • The cat genome 26
  • Marsupial genomes 26
  • Genome of the Tibetan antelope 27
  • Genomes of non-human primates 27
  • Chimpanzee genome 27
  • Genome of the rhesus macaque 28
  • Genome of gorilla 28
  • Livestock genomics 29
  • Bovine genome 30
  • Bovine SNP map 31
  • 1,000 Bull Genomes Project 31
  • Bovine stomach microbiome genes 32
  • Camel genome 32
  • Goat genome 33
  • Horse genome 33
  • Pig genome 35
  • Sheep genome 36
  • Chicken genome 36
  • Turkey genome 37
  • Salmon genome 38
  • SNP genotyping arrays for Atlantic salmon 38
  • Whale genome 39
  • Priority genome list of the National Human Genome Research Institute 40
  • Animal proteomics 40
  • Applications of proteomics in animals 41
  • Caseins in goat milk 41
  • Lactic acid bacteria 41
  • Applications of proteomics in animal healthcare 42
  • Antigenomics 42
  • Bioinformatics 42
  • Nanobiotechnology and animal health 43
  • Biomarkers and animal health 44
  • Animal biotechnology in relation to other technologies 44

2. Application of Biotechnology in Animals 47

  • Introduction 47
  • Applications of animal genomics 47
  • Bovine ankyrin 1 gene and beef tenderness 47
  • Chicken breeding based on genomics 48
  • Genomics of disease resistance 48
  • Genome wide associations and milk production in cows 48
  • Low cost genotyping for genetic improvement in dairy cattle 49
  • SNPs and longevity in dairy cattle 49
  • Share genomic data to improve cattle breeding programs 49
  • Statistical genomics to improve breeding 49
  • Genetic engineering 50
  • Livestock improvement by genetic engineering 50
  • Disease control by genetic engineering 50
  • Limitations and precautions for genetic engineering 50
  • Transgenic animal technology 51
  • Cloning animals 52
  • Nuclear transfer technology 52
  • Nuclear bisection for cloning 54
  • Zona-free cloning method 54
  • Abnormalities in cloned animals 55
  • Cloning from embyonic cells 56
  • Cloning of rabbits 56
  • Cloning the rat 57
  • Cloning the horse 57
  • Cloning the cow 57
  • Cloning the dog 58
  • Cloning in primates 58
  • Retrovector-mediated production of transgenic animals 58
  • Episomal vector-mediated gene delivery 59
  • Sperm-mediated gene transfer 59
  • Lentiviral transduction of male germ-line stem cells 60
  • Lentiviral transgenesis 61
  • Production of recombinant proteins 61
  • Transgenic pharmaceuticals 61
  • Proteins from the milk of transgenic animals 62
  • Advantages of milk as source of transgenic proteins 63
  • Therapeutic proteins from rabbit milk 64
  • Recombinant human antibodies from cows 64
  • Therapeutic proteins from goat milk 65
  • Chicken transgenesis for the production of biopharmaceuticals 65
  • Concluding remarks about production of transgenic proteins in animals 66
  • Companies involved in production of transgenic pharmaceuticals 66
  • Transgenic food products 66
  • Milking genetically modified cows 66
  • Genetically modified fish 67
  • Cloned animals as sources of milk and meat 68
  • Animal feeds from transgenic plants 68
  • Transgenic modification of plants to increase nutritional value of animal feeds 68
  • Transgenic disease models 69
  • Technologies to create transgenic disease models 69
  • Gene manipulation techniques 69
  • Embryonic stem cells for gene targeting 70
  • Homologous recombination 70
  • Animal models of human diseases 70
  • Transgenic models for studying human drug metabolism and toxicity 71
  • The Human Genome Project and the role of transgenics 72
  • Genomic and proteomic analyses of transgenic animal models 72
  • Concern about health and welfare of transgenic animals 73
  • Safety of transgenic technology 73
  • Concluding remarks about use of transgenic animals 74
  • RNA interference technology 74
  • RNAi versus antisense 74
  • Applications of RNAi in animal biotechnology 74
  • Xenotransplantation 75
  • Pigs for xenotransplantation 75
  • Genetically engineered pigs for transplants 76
  • Risks of xenotransplantation 76
  • World Health Organization and xenotransplantation 76
  • Ethical aspects of animal biotechnology 77

3. A Biotechnology Perspective of Animals Diseases 79

  • Introduction 79
  • Infections in animals 79
  • Viral infections 80
  • Avian viral infections 80
  • Avian influenza 80
  • Animal surveillance of influenza 82
  • Animal biotechnology implications of H1N1 influenza 83
  • Animal corona viruses and human SARS 84
  • Avian coronavirus 84
  • Acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle 85
  • Bluetongue virus 85
  • Canine virus infections 86
  • Classical swine fever 86
  • Developing new treatments against FMD 86
  • Equine viruses 87
  • Feline virus infections 88
  • Foot-and-mouth disease 88
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 90
  • Rabies 90
  • Rinderpest 91
  • Schmallenberg virus 91
  • Virus infections in fishes 92
  • Bacterial infections 92
  • Bovine tuberculosis 92
  • Mycoplasmal pneumonia 92
  • Fungal infections 93
  • Protozoal infections 93
  • Coccidiosis 93
  • Neosporosis 94
  • Toxoplasmosis 94
  • Trypanosomiasis 94
  • Nematodes 95
  • Infections that cross the species barrier 95
  • Complications of bacterial infections and antibiotic use in animals 95
  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) 96
  • Inter-species transfer of prions 96
  • Scrapie 96
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy 97
  • Epidemiology of BSE 97
  • Biomarkers in the urine of BSE infected cattle 98
  • Human health implications of BSE 98
  • Breeding animals protected against BSE 99
  • TSE research 99
  • Prion gene haplotyping 99
  • Pharmacological approaches to TSE research 99
  • Molecular diagnostic approach to TSE research 100
  • RNAi for knockdown of the bovine prion gene 100
  • Chronic wasting disease 101
  • Chronic wasting disease in wildlife 101
  • Chronic wasting disease of the cattle 102
  • Genetic disorders in farm animals 103
  • Genetic predisposition to acquired diseases in animals 103
  • Diseases of pet animals 103
  • Canine anemia 103
  • Canine neuropsychiatric disorders 104
  • Canines, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism 104
  • Canine dementia 104
  • Canine epilepsy 105
  • Canine glaucoma 105
  • Canine cardiovascular disease 105
  • Heart failure 105
  • Cardiac complications of canine babesiosis 106
  • Diabetes 106
  • Role of biotechnology in management of diabetes 107
  • Arthritis 107
  • Cancer in cats and dogs 108
  • Cancer clinical trials in dogs 108
  • Canine Comparative Oncology Genomics Consortium 109
  • Preventive veterinary medicine 109
  • Prevention of introduction of foreign animal diseases 109
  • Producing transgenic cattle resistant to BSE 110
  • Zoonotic diseases 110
  • Global impact of zoonotic diseases 110
  • Viruses that emerge in animals and spread to humans 111
  • Collaborative management of animal and human health 111
  • Vaccines for zoonotic viral diseases 112

4. Molecular Diagnostics in Animals 113

  • Introduction 113
  • Nucleic acid technologies 113
  • The polymerase chain reaction 113
  • Basic Principles of PCR 113
  • Target selection 114
  • Detection of amplified DNA 114
  • Real-time PCR systems 114
  • LightCycler PCR system 115
  • Molecular beacons 115
  • Applications of PCR in veterinary medicine 115
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization 116
  • Immunodiagnostics 118
  • Enzyme-linked immunoassays 118
  • Bovine Gamma Interferon Test 118
  • Antigen diagnosis of trichinosis 119
  • Parachek™ for the diagnosis of Johne's disease 119
  • Antibodies for differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals 120
  • Biochip/microarray technology 120
  • Applications of microarrays in animal biotechnology 121
  • Cattlearray3800 for functional genomics 121
  • eSensor™ electrochemical biochip 122
  • FR 48 microfluidic biochip 122
  • Biosensors 122
  • Immunosensors 123
  • Biosensor for ovulation prediction in dairy cows 123
  • Flow cytometry for animal diagnostics 124
  • Molecular imaging in animals 124
  • Veterinary cytogenetics 125
  • Applications of sequencing for veterinary diagnostics 126
  • Role of sequencing in detection of cancer biomarkers 126
  • DNA sequencing for study of bacterial epidemics 126
  • Role of sequencing in epidemic of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli 127
  • Role of sequencing in the study of genetic disorders in animals 127
  • Applications of molecular diagnostics in animals 128
  • Canine DNA testing 128
  • Cat pedigree determined by gene tests 129
  • Diagnostic aids to selective breeding 129
  • Selection of desirable traits 129
  • Gene variations and fat content of beef 130
  • Using genetic markers for improved milk production in dairy cattle 130
  • Application of bovine genomics for improving milk yield 131
  • Recognition of hereditary syndromes 131
  • Genetic markers in animals 131
  • SNP genotyping in animals 132
  • SNP genotyping for selective breeding of chicken 132
  • Animal identity and parentage analysis 132
  • Animal species identification in food 133
  • Diagnosis of infections 133
  • Bacterial infections 133
  • Diagnosis of fungal infections in animals 134
  • Diagnosis of viral infections 134
  • Molecular diagnosis of avian influenza 136
  • Molecular diagnosis of swine influenza 137
  • Diagnosis of parasitic infections 137
  • Detection of natural or bioterror threats to livestock 138
  • Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus DNA in cattle 139
  • Molecular diagnosis of prion diseases 139
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy 139
  • Testing for BSE in living animals 141
  • Prions in urine 141
  • Diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in wildlife 141
  • Developing new tests for prion diseases 142
  • Differentiation among various types of TSEs 142
  • Protein cyclic amplification 142
  • Antibody tests for prion diseases 142
  • Scrapie genotyping 143
  • A real-time ultrasonic method for prion protein detection 143
  • Companies involved in developing molecular diagnostics for TSEs 144
  • Diagnosis of genetic disorders 145
  • Genetic screening of companion animals 145
  • Genes associated with exercise-induced collapse 145
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 145
  • Diagnosis of cancer in animals 145
  • Diagnosis of skin cancer 146
  • Diagnosis of canine mammary carcinoma 146
  • Diagnosis of food-borne pathogens 146
  • Introduction 146
  • Molecular diagnostic methods used in food-borne infections 147
  • Detection of Listeria-contaminated foods 148
  • Optical biosensor for detection of Listeria 148
  • Real-time PCR for detection of Listeria 148
  • Detection of Salmonella 148
  • MicroSEQ® Salmonella Detection Kit 149
  • Detection of toxoplasmosis 149
  • E. Coli detection 149
  • DuPont Bax system 149
  • MLG method for detection of multiple STEC strains 150
  • MicroSEQ® E. Coli Detection Kit 150
  • RapidFinder™ STEC 150
  • A genomic approach to study of animal food-borne illness in humans 151
  • Limitations of use of molecular probes in food analysis 151
  • Companies with technologies for food pathogen detection 151
  • Biotechnology-based novel diagnostics for aquatic animals 152
  • Detection of chemicals in foods of animal origin 153
  • Companies developing molecular diagnostics for animals 153

5. Biotechnology-based Veterinary Medicine 155

  • Introduction 155
  • Biotechnology versus pharmaceutical products 155
  • Role of biotechnology in drug discovery and development 156
  • Cost of veterinary vs. human drug discovery and development 156
  • Advantages and disadvantages of testing biotech products in animal models 157
  • Biotechnolgoy-based antiparasitic drugs 157
  • Non-antibiotic strategies for control of infections in animals 157
  • Probiotics 158
  • Potential role for probiotics in the human gut 158
  • Potential role for probiotics in animals 158
  • Probiotic bacteria for control of pathogens in cattle 158
  • Nonantibiotic drugs for infections in animals 159
  • Immunomodulation as an alternative to antibiotics in infections 160
  • Cathelicidins: effector molecules of mammalian innate immunity 160
  • Bacteriophage therapy for antibiotic resistance 160
  • Biotechnology for treating tendon injuries 161
  • Use of growth factors to facilitate tendon injuries 161
  • Productivity enhancers 161
  • Bovine somatotropin for increasing milk production in dairy cows 162
  • Increasing milk production in cows by feeding propionibacteria 163
  • Use of growth factors 163
  • Transgenic plant products for use in animals 163
  • Biotechnology-based vaccines 164
  • Modern vaccines without viral non-structural proteins 164
  • Plant-derived vaccines for use in animals 165
  • Nano-bead vaccine adjuvant 166
  • Genetically engineered vaccines 166
  • Application of nucleic acid vaccines in veterinary medicine 166
  • DNA vaccines 166
  • DNA vaccine for tuberculosis 168
  • DNA vaccines for West Nile encephalitis 169
  • DNA vaccines for cancer 169
  • Gene-based vaccine for Marek's disease 170
  • Genetic engineering of live rabies vaccines 170
  • Genetically engineered vaccines for equine encephalitis 170
  • Genetically engineered vaccines for Johne's disease 171
  • Rational engineering of virus capsids to produce FMD vaccine 171
  • Vaccines against avian influenza 172
  • Vaccines against parasitic infections 173
  • Recombinant marker vaccines 173
  • Marker vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease 173
  • Marker vaccine for Newcastle disease 174
  • Vaccines for classical swine fever 174
  • Vaccines for tick control 174
  • Vaccination to protection swine from H1N1 influenza virus infection 175
  • Vaccination of cattle to prevent E. coli transmission to consumers in meat 175
  • Vaccines for bacterial equine respiratory infections 176
  • Use of RNAi to develop vaccines for viral infections in prawns 176
  • Companies developing biotechnology-based vaccines 176
  • Biotechnology in treatment of parasitic infections 177
  • Biotechnology in the treatment of CNS injuries in pet animals 177
  • Paraplegia due to acute spinal cord injury in dogs 178
  • Role of biotechnology in veterinary oncology 178
  • VDC-1101 for treatment of lymphoma in dogs 178
  • Cell Therapy 179
  • Umbilical cord blood stem cells 179
  • Application of stem cells in veterinary medicine 179
  • Use of stem cells to repair tendon injuries in horses 180
  • Stem cells for spinal cord injury in dogs 180
  • Gene therapy 181
  • Gene therapy vectors 181
  • Gene therapy by mitochondrial transfer 182
  • In utero gene therapy 182
  • Applications of gene therapy in veterinary medicine 182
  • Gene therapy for arthritis 183
  • Gene therapy for blindness in dogs due to Leber congenital amaurosis 183
  • Gene therapy for cardiomyopathy in dogs 183
  • Gene therapy for diabetes in dogs 184
  • Gene therapy for endocrine disorders 184
  • Gene therapy for hematological disorders 184
  • Gene therapy for inherited disorders of metabolism in dogs 185
  • Gene therapy to increase disease resistance 186
  • Gene therapy for infections 186
  • Gene therapy for renal failure 186
  • Cancer gene therapy 187
  • Antiangiogeneic cancer gene therapy in dogs 187
  • Brain tumors in cats and dogs 188
  • Breast cancer in dogs 188
  • Canine hemangiosarcoma 189
  • Canine melanoma 189
  • Canine soft tissue sarcoma 190
  • Melanoma in horses 190
  • Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer in dogs 191

6. Research in Animal Biotechnology 193

  • Introduction 193
  • Research institutes 193
  • Animal and Natural Resources Institute (USDA) 193
  • Center for Animal Biotechnology at University of Melbourne (Australia) 194
  • CSIRO Livestock Industries 195
  • Easter Bush Research Consortium 196
  • Danish Veterinary Institute 196
  • Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute 197
  • Indian Veterinary Research Institute 197
  • Institute for Animal Health of UK 198
  • Kimron Veterinary Institute 198
  • Korean National Livestock Research Institute 199
  • National Agricultural & Veterinary Biotechnology Center of Ireland 199
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 200
  • Veterinary Laboratories Agency of UK 200
  • Veterinary Medical University of Vienna 201
  • Ethical issues of research in animal biotechnology 201
  • Future prospects 202
  • Genome wide association studies for investigation of declining fertility in cattle 202
  • Strategies for control of twining in cattle 203
  • Future developments of molecular diagnostics 203
  • Future of vaccine application in veterinary medicine 203
  • Promotion of innate immunity in animals 203
  • Identification of key parasite antigens for eliciting immune response 204
  • Virus-like particle vaccines for lasting immune response 204
  • Control of respiratory virus infections 204
  • Control and prevention of bioterrorism diseases in animals 205
  • Genetic control of disease resistance 205
  • Production of cattle lacking prion protein 206
  • Application of genetics and biotechnology to wildlife management 206
  • Future of animal genomics 207
  • Future prospects of in vitro meat production 207

7. Animal Biotechnology Markets 209

  • Introduction 209
  • Markets for biotechnology-based products for animal healthcare 210
  • Markets for biopharmaceuticals for animals 211
  • Markets for recombinant proteins for animal healthcare 211
  • Markets for vaccines for animals 212
  • Markets for animal diagnostics 212
  • Test for bovine spongiform encephalopathy 212
  • Animal biotechnology markets according to therapeutic areas 213
  • Markets for biotechnology-based animal products for humans 213
  • Transgenic proteins 214
  • Market for xenotransplantation 214
  • Strategies for promoting use of animal biotechnology 215
  • Financial losses from death and disease in animals 215
  • Losses in farm animals 215
  • Losses in poultry 215
  • Losses in equine industry 215
  • The emerging role of pet owners 216
  • Improvement in cattle through application of biotechnology 216
  • Economic aspects of genomic evaluation of dairy cattle 216
  • Pig market 216
  • Cattle Market 217
  • Poultry market 217
  • Milk from genetically modified cows 217
  • Impppact of biotechnology on fish markets 218
  • Role of biotechnology in livestock performace enhancer market 218
  • Gene transfer technologies 218
  • In vitro meat production and animal biotechnology markets 218
  • Cost-benefit aspects of transgenic proteins 219
  • Lower costs of transgenic production 219
  • Lower costs of treatment 219
  • Unmet needs in animal biotechnology 219
  • Future prospects of animal biotechnology 220
  • Farm animals 220
  • Global trends in epidemiology of livestock diseases 221
  • Genetic engineering of animals 221
  • Companion animals 221
  • Animal molecular diagnostic markets 222

8. Regulatory issues 223

  • Introduction 223
  • Regulatory agencies for veterinary biotechnology in the US 223
  • FDA regulatory issues in agricultural biotechnology 224
  • FDA guidlines on use of antibiotics in food-producing animals 225
  • FDA and veterinary stem cell therapy 226
  • Food safety evaluation of transgenic animals 227
  • Food from cloned animals 228
  • FDA investigation of drug transfer into eggs 229
  • Animal feed safety 230
  • Medicated feeds 231
  • Regulatory issues for production of transgenic proteins 231
  • Risks of animal biotechnology 231
  • FDA regulation of bovine products 232
  • Worldwide biotechnology regulatory and trade issues 232

9. Companies Involved in Animal Biotechnology 235

  • Introduction 235
  • Biotechnology at top veterinary pharmaceutical companies 235
  • Profiles of selected companies 235
  • Collaborations 367

10. References 371

Tables

  • Table 1-1: Landmarks in the evolution of animal biotechnology in the 20th century 15
  • Table 1-2: Applications of proteomics in livestock industry and veterinary medicine 41
  • Table 1-3: Selected animal genomics and proteomics databases (DB) 43
  • Table 2-1: Applications of genomics in livestock industry and veterinary medicine 47
  • Table 2-2: Expression systems for production of recombinant proteins 61
  • Table 2-3: Recombinant proteins obtained from milk of transgenic animals 63
  • Table 2-4: Companies involved in the production of transgenic pharmaceuticals 66
  • Table 2-5: A comparison of gene knockout and transgenic techniques 70
  • Table 2-6: Examples of transgenic mouse models of non-neoplastic human diseases 71
  • Table 3-1: Diseases of dairy cattle 79
  • Table 3-2: Causes of chronic wasting disease in animals 101
  • Table 4-1: Applications of microarrays in animal biotechnology 121
  • Table 4-2: Biosensor technologies with potential applications in molecular diagnostics 123
  • Table 4-3: Applications of molecular diagnostics in animals 128
  • Table 4-4: Viruses that can be detected by molecular diagnostics 134
  • Table 4-5: Testing for harmful prions in brain tissue from dead cattle 139
  • Table 4-6: Companies involved in developing molecular diagnostics for TSEs 144
  • Table 4-7: Pathogenic bacteria in food and targets for molecular diagnostic probes 147
  • Table 4-8: Companies involved in molecular diagnostics for food-borne infections 151
  • Table 4-9: Companies developing molecular diagnostics for veterinary medicine 153
  • Table 5-1: Veterinary biotechnology products 155
  • Table 5-2: Pharmaceutical versus biotechnology products 156
  • Table 5-3: Nonantibiotic strategies for control of infections 157
  • Table 5-4: Experimental DNA vaccines tested in animals 167
  • Table 5-5: Companies developing biotechnology-based vaccines for animals 176
  • Table 6-1: Areas for future research applications of animal biotechnologies 202
  • Table 7-1: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based products for farm animals: 2013-2023 210
  • Table 7-2: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based products for pet animals: 2013-2023 210
  • Table 7-3: Biotechnology-based markets for animal healthcare according to regions: 2013-2023 211
  • Table 7-4: Biotechnology markets for farm animals according to therapeutic areas: 2013-2023 213
  • Table 7-5: Biotechnology markets for pet animals in therapeutic areas: 2013-2023 213
  • Table 7-6: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based animal products for humans: 2013-2023 214
  • Table 9-1: Ranking of top veterinary companies with biotechnology products 235
  • Table 9-2: Selected collaborations of companies in animal biotechnology 367

Figures

  • Figure 1-1: Relation of animal biotechnology to other technologies and human health 45
  • Figure 2-1: Nuclear transfer technology 52
  • Figure 2-2: Generation of transgenic animals by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer 60
  • Figure 2-3: Production of therapeutic proteins in the milk of transgenic animals 62
  • Figure 7-1: Unmet needs in animal biotechnology 220
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