The aim of personalized medicine or individualized treatment is to match the
right drug to the right patient and, in some cases, even to design the
appropriate treatment for a patient according to his/her genotype. This report
describes the latest concepts of development of personalized medicine based on
pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics,pharmacoproteomics, and metabolomics. Basic
technologies of molecular diagnostics play an important role, particularly
those for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Diagnosis is
integrated with therapy for selection of the treatment as well for monitoring
the results. Biochip/microarray technologies are also important and finally
bioinformatics is needed to analyze the immense amount of data generated by
Various technologies are integrated to develop personalized therapies for
specific therapeutic areas described in the report. Examples of this are
genotyping for drug resistance in HIV infection, personalized therapy of
cancer, antipsychotics for schizophrenia, antidepressant therapy,
antihypertensive therapy and personalized approach to neurological disorders.
Although genotyping is not yet a part of clinically accepted routine, it is
expected to have this status by the year 2016.
Ethical issues are involved in the development of personalized medicine mainly
in the area of genetic testing. These along with social issues and
consideration of race in the development of personalized medicine are
discussed. Regulatory issues are discussed mainly with reference to the FDA
guidelines on pharmacogenomics.
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