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Drug Delivery in Central Nervous System Diseases - technologies, markets and companies

The delivery of drugs to central nervous system (CNS) is a challenge in the treatment of neurological disorders. Drugs may be administered directly into the CNS or administered systematically (e.g., by intravenous injection) for targeted action in the CNS. The major challenge to CNS drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits the access of drugs to the brain substance.

Advances in understanding of the cell biology of the BBB have opened new avenues and possibilities for improved drug delivery to the CNS. Other strategies for drug delivery to the brain involve bypassing the BBB. Among the three main approaches to drug delivery to the CNS - systemic administration, injection into CSF pathways, and direct injection into the brain - the greatest developments is anticipated to occur in the area of targeted delivery by systemic administration. Cell, gene and antisense therapies are not only innovative treatments for CNS disorders but also involve sophisticated delivery methods. The role of drug delivery is depicted in the background of various therapies for neurological diseases including drugs in development and the role of special delivery preparations. A special chapter is devoted to drug delivery for brain tumors.

The method of delivery of a drug to the CNS has an impact on the drug's commercial potential. The market for CNS drug delivery technologies is directly linked to the CNS drug market. Values are calculated for the total CNS market and the share of drug delivery technologies. Unmet needs for further development in CNS drug delivery technologies are identified according to the important methods of delivery of therapeutic substances to the CNS. Finally suggestions are made for strategies to expand CNS delivery markets. Profiles of 75 companies involved in drug delivery for CNS disorders are presented along with their technologies, products and 75 collaborations. These include pharmaceutical companies that develop CNS drugs and biotechnology companies that provide technologies for drug delivery. A number of cell and gene therapy companies with products in development for CNS disorders are included.

Table of Contents

0. Executive Summary

1. Basics of Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

  • Introduction
  • Historical evolution of drug delivery for CNS disorders
  • Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological basis of drug delivery
  • Neuropharmacology relevant to drug delivery

2. Blood Brain Barrier

  • Introduction
  • Features of the blood-brain barrier relevant to CNS drug delivery
  • Other neural barriers
  • Passage of substances across the blood-brain barrier
  • Factors that increase the permeability of the BBB
  • Effect of CNS disorders on BBB
  • Testing permeability of the BBB
  • Future directions for research on the BBB
  • Strategies to cross the BBB

3. Methods of Drug Delivery to the CNS

  • Introduction
  • Routes of drug delivery to the brain
  • Strategies for drug delivery to the CNS across the BBB
  • Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to CNS
  • Biochip implants for drug delivery to the CNS
  • Convection-enhanced delivery to the CNS
  • Systemic administration of drugs for CNS effects
  • Methods of delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the CNS
  • Use of microorganisms for therapeutic entry into the brain
  • Intracellular drug delivery in the brain
  • Local factors in the brain affecting drug action
  • Methods for testing drug delivery to the CNS

4. Delivery of Cell, Gene and Antisense Therapies to the CNS

  • Introduction
  • Cell therapy of neurological disorders
  • Gene therapy techniques for the nervous system
  • Antisense therapy of CNS disorders
  • Delivery aspects of RNAi therapy of CNS disorders
  • Future drug delivery strategies applicable to the CNS

5. Drug Delivery for Treatment of Neurological Disorders

  • Introduction
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Huntington's disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Drug delivery for CNS involvement in Hunter syndrome
  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Drug delivery in multiple sclerosis
  • Drug delivery in epilepsy
  • Drug delivery for pain
  • Drug delivery for migraine
  • Relief of spasticity by intrathecal baclofen
  • Drug delivery for traumatic brain injury
  • Drug delivery for spinal cord injury
  • Intrathecal antisense delivery for spinal muscular atrophy
  • Drug delivery in CNS infections
  • Drug delivery for retinal disorders
  • Drug delivery for inner ear disorders
  • Drug delivery in psychiatric disorders

6. Drug delivery for brain tumors

  • Introduction
  • Delivery of anticancer drugs across the blood-brain barrier
  • Bypassing the BBB by alternative methods of drug delivery
  • Enhancing tumor permeability to chemotherapy
  • Local delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain
  • Convection-enhanced delivery
  • Anticancer drug formulations for targeted delivery to brain tumors
  • Introduction of the chemotherapeutic agent into the CSF pathways
  • Photodynamic therapy for chemosensitization of brain tumors
  • Innovative delivery of radiotherapy to brain tumors
  • Cell therapy for glioblastoma multiforme
  • Gene therapy for glioblastoma multiforme

7. Markets for Drug Delivery in CNS Disorders

  • Introduction
  • Markets for CNS drug delivery technologies
  • Impact of improved drug delivery on CNS drug markets
  • Limitations of the current drug delivery technologies for CNS
  • Unmet needs in CNS drug delivery technologies
  • Future strategies for expanding CNS drug delivery markets

8. Companies

  • Introduction
  • Profiles of companies
  • Collaborations

9. References

Tables and Figures

Note: The Table of Contents has Been Edited for Brevity. For a Complete List of Tables and Figures Please Request a Free Sample.

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