Drug delivery to the cardiovascular system is different from delivery to other systems because of the anatomy and physiology of the vascular system; it supplies blood and nutrients to all organs of the body. This report starts with an introduction to molecular cardiology and discusses its relationship to biotechnology and drug delivery systems.
Drug delivery to the cardiovascular system is approached at three levels: (1) routes of drug delivery; (2) formulations; and finally (3) applications to various diseases. Formulations for drug delivery to the cardiovascular system range from controlled release preparations to delivery of proteins and peptides. Devices for drug delivery to the cardiovascular system are also described.
Role of drug delivery in various cardiovascular disorders such as myocardial ischemia, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia is discussed. Controlled release systems are based on chronopharmacology, which deals with the effects of circadian biological rhythms on drug actions.A full chapter is devoted to drug-eluting stents as treatment for restenosis following stenting of coronary arteries.Fifteen companies are involved in drug-eluting stents.
Cell therapy approaches include attempts to reinitiate cardiomyocyte proliferation in the adult, conversion of fibroblasts to contractile myocytes, conversion of bone marrow stem cells into cardiomyocytes, and transplantation of myocytes or other cells into injured myocardium.
Gene therapy is not only a sophisticated method of drug delivery; it may at time need drug delivery devices such as catheters for transfer of genes to various parts of the cardiovascular system.
The cardiovascular drug delivery markets are estimated for the years 2012 to 2022 on the basis of epidemiology and total markets for cardiovascular therapeutics. Markets for drug-eluting stents are calculated separately. Role of drug delivery in developing cardiovascular markets is defined and unmet needs in cardiovascular drug delivery technologies are identified.