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Key Issues and Innovations in Photovoltaic Metallization

Existing photovoltaic (PV) metallization techniques are far from optimal across the three incumbent technologies - crystalline silicon (x-Si), copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) - resulting in efficiency loss, high cost of metallization materials, and low yields. With the push for cost reductions across the entire PV value chain, optimization is needed. This report covers innovations in metallization techniques which address the key metallization issues.

Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary
  • Landscape
    • Metallization Pastes and Inks are the Most Process Critical and Expensive Materials in Cell Production besides the Wafer Itself
    • Current Metallization Techniques for x-Si, CIGS, and CdTe Technologies
      • Conventional x-Si cell Front and Back Metallization Does the Job but Remains Suboptimal
      • Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide Utilizes Sputtering and Screen Printing for Metallization
      • Copper Back Contact Diffusion is a Key Issue in CdTe Metallization
    • Landscape Conclusions
  • Analysis
    • Across the PV Industry, Metallization Techniques are being Optimized to Reduce Production Costs and Improve Margins
      • Advanced Front-Contact Metallization for Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells
      • Copper Metallization will Enable Cheaper Production Costs and Low Temperature Cell Processing
      • Electrically Conductive Adhesives and Backsheets will Enable Module Integration without Soldering
      • Advanced Front-Contact Metallization for CIGS Photovoltaic Cells
      • Copper Diffusion from Back Contact Remains a Challenge for CdTe PV Manufacturers and Researchers
  • Outlook
  • About Lux Research
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