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Solar Storage 2013

Abstract

SUMMARY

This report provides a detailed analysis and forecast of the markets for energy storage for the solar industry with coverage of both the photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) sectors. Opportunities are identified for the full range of storage options including batteries, supercapacitors and mechanical systems.

A lot has happened since NanoMarkets last examined this market. Perhaps most dramatically, small PV installations, which just a year ago would never have considered installing any kind of storage facility are now being pushed into buying batteries because of declining feed-in tariffs (FiTs) and other subsidy reductions. At the same time, utility-scale solar - both PV and CSP - are also adopting strategies for large-scale storage solutions and in some cases such storage is even being mandated by government. Meanwhile, Smart Grid deployment is continuing to drive solar energy storage markets as grids find that they need storage a way of protecting the grid from the variability implicit in all solar generation technologies.

This report also contains discussions of how the leading firms in the energy storage space are adapting their products and product strategies for solar markets. In addition, many examples are also given of solar installations that are using storage in ways that suggest new directions for revenue generation in this sector.

Finally, this report assesses all the currently available storage technologies for the storage of solar generated power and determines how they can fit into solar industry landscape, both now and in the future. The report also quantifies all the major markets for solar-related energy storage in an eight-year market forecast in both volume and value terms. This market forecast is broken out both by technology and the region into which the solar storage products are expected to be sold.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

  • E.1 Opportunities for Lead-Acid Batteries in Solar Energy Storage: Poor Margins, Low Prices but New Hope from the Residential Sector
  • E.2 The Transition to Lead-Carbon Batteries: An Upcoming Opportunity for Solar Storage
  • E.3 Supercaps, Storage and Solar
    • E.3.1 Thoughts on Ultrabatteries
  • E.4 Lithium Batteries: The Way of the Future or Not?
    • E.4.1 Solar-Related Lithium Battery Projects in Germany
    • E.4.2 Solar-Related Lithium Battery Projects in Spain
    • E.4.3 Solar-Related Lithium Battery Opportunities in the U.S.
    • E.4.4 Solar-Related Lithium Battery Opportunities in China
  • E.5 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of Solar-Related Energy Storage
    • E.5.1 A Note on Utility-Scale Solar and Storage
  • E.6 Opportunities for Solar-Power Storage by World Region
    • E.6.1 Solar Storage in the U.S.
    • E.6.2 Solar Storage in Europe
    • E.6.3 Asia and Solar Storage

Chapter One: Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to this Report
    • 1.1.1 Why the Changing Economics of PV Will Lead to a Storage Boom
    • 1.1.2 Slouching Towards Storage at the Solar Utilities
    • 1.1.3 Some Thoughts on Technology Change in the Solar Storage Space
    • 1.1.4 An Economic Postscript
  • 1.2 Goal and Scope of this Report
  • 1.3 Methodology of this Report
    • 1.3.1 Forecasting Methodology
    • 1.3.2 Coverage of Forecasts
    • 1.3.3 Data Sources
    • 1.3.4 Alternative Scenarios
  • 1.4 Plan of this Report

Chapter Two: Technologies and Products for Solar-Related Energy Storage

  • 2.1 Technology for Storage Options Expanding in Number and in Capacity, Too
    • 2.1.1 Pricing Trends for Solar Energy Storage Technologies
  • 2.2 Lead-Acid and Lead-Carbon Batteries
    • 2.2.1 Types of Lead-Acid Battery
    • 2.2.2 The Transition to Lead-Carbon Batteries
  • 2.3 Metal Hydride Batteries
  • 2.4 Sodium Sulfur Batteries for the Solar Market
    • 2.4.1 Recent Technical Developments in NaS Batteries
  • 2.5 Sodium Metal Halide Batteries
  • 2.6 Flow Battery Systems and Solar
    • 2.6.1 Vanadium Flow Batteries
    • 2.6.2 Zinc Bromine and Other Hybrid Flow Batteries
    • 2.6.3 Supply Structure for Flow Batteries and Supplier Interest in Solar Applications
  • 2.7 Lithium-Ion Batteries for Solar Storage
    • 2.7.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries in the Solar Market
    • 2.7.2 Solar-Related Technology Evolution for the Lithium-Ion Battery
  • 2.8 Liquid Metal Batteries
  • 2.9 Supercapacitors and Solar
    • 2.9.1 Actual and Potential Applications for Supercapacitors in the Solar Sector
    • 2.9.2 Supercapacitor Supply Structure and Supplier Interest in Solar Applications
  • 2.10 Ultrabatteries in Solar
  • 2.11 Solar and Mechanical Storage
    • 2.11.1 Pumped Hydro-Electric Storage
    • 2.11.2 Compressed Air Energy Storage
  • 2.12 Flywheels
  • 2.13 Related and Competitive Technologies and Solutions
    • 2.13.1 Smart Grids and Solar Storage
    • 2.13.2 FACTS
    • 2.13.3 Renewable Integration Management Systems (RIMS)
  • 2.14 Key Points from this Chapter

Chapter Three: Markets and Market Forecasts for Solar-Related Energy Storage

  • 3.1 The Current Need for Storage by Solar Systems
    • 3.1.1 Impact of Solar Non-Coincidence on the Storage Market
    • 3.1.2 Non-Dispatchability: Future Opportunities for Dispatchable Solar
    • 3.1.3 Grid Stability and Reliability
  • 3.2 PV Storage in Buildings
    • 3.2.1 It's an Ill Wind: PV's Troubles May Boost the Market for Storage
    • 3.2.2 Regulatory Trends Seem to Favor PV Storage
    • 3.2.3 What a Difference a Year Makes: New Batteries for Small PV Installations
  • 3.3 Storage for Grid-Scale Solar
    • 3.3.1 Thermal Solar/CSP and Thermal Storage
    • 3.3.2 Storage Requirements for PV Utilities
  • 3.4 Solar Energy Storage in the Americas
    • 3.4.1 Eight-Year Forecasts of Solar-Related Energy Storage in the Americas
    • 3.4.2 California Energy Storage Requirements and Activities: Regulation and Deployment
    • 3.4.3 Hawaii: Maui Electric Company Storage Project
    • 3.4.4 Pennsylvania: Philadelphia's Navy Yard Project
    • 3.4.5 New Mexico: Prosperity Energy Storage Project
    • 3.4.6 Washington DC: Navy Yard
  • 3.5 Europe and Solar Energy Storage
    • 3.5.1 Solar Storage Projects and Activity in Europe
    • 3.5.2 Eight-Year Forecasts of Solar-Related Energy Storage in Europe
  • 3.6 Asia and Solar Energy Storage
    • 3.6.1 Market Analysis and Eight-Year Forecasts of Solar-Related Energy Storage in Japan
    • 3.6.2 Market Analysis and Eight Forecasts of Solar-Related Energy Storage in China
    • 3.6.3 Market Analysis and Eight-Year Forecasts of Solar-Related Energy Storage in India and Other Parts of the Asia
  • 3.7 Other Markets for Solar Energy Storage
    • 3.7.1 Eight-Year Forecasts of Solar-Related Energy Storage in the Middle East and Africa
  • 3.8 Summary of Forecasts of Solar-Related Storage
  • 3.9 Key Points from This Chapter
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations Used In this Report
  • About the Author

List of Exhibits

  • Exhibit E-1: Worldwide Markets for Solar-Energy Related Storage by Technology
  • Exhibit 2-1: Cost Per Kilowatt Hour for Various Storage Technologies ($/kWh)
  • Exhibit 2-2: Benefits of Selected FACTS
  • Exhibit 3-1: Americas Market for Solar-Energy Related Storage
  • Exhibit 3-2: European Market for Solar-Energy Related Storage
  • Exhibit 3-3: Japanese Market for Solar-Energy Related Storage
  • Exhibit 3-4: Non-Japan Asian Market for Solar-Energy Related Storage
  • Exhibit 3-5: Middle East and Africa Market for Solar-Energy Related Storage
  • Exhibit 3-6: Worldwide Markets for Solar-Energy Related Storage by Technology
  • Exhibit 3-7: Worldwide Markets for Solar-Energy Related Storage by Region
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