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Global Desalination Report Ed 1 2012

Rising Demand for Desalination

This NRG Expert Report provides a global overview of Desalination. It looks at water stress, future and current markets, rising demand for desalination, costs, advantages, current and future technolo-gies and much more. Many parts of the world are experiencing severe water stress with limited fresh water supplies. In some parts of the world water use exceeds renewable water capacity - renewable water is defined as surface and underground water supplies that are replenished by rainwater. These regions often use non-renewable ground water supplies, which are also further down and require more energy to exploit, or exploit underground aquifers resulting in salt water intrusion. Increased industrialisation and urbanisation has also lead to ground water pollution in some regions.

Eighty countries are classified as suffering from severe water shortages, twenty of which are classi-fied as scarcity. According to the UK approximately 1,500 m3 of freshwater per capita per year is needed for unhindered economic development. In Europe alone two countries have considerably less water than this - Cyprus has 74 and Malta has 979 m3 per capita per year. These and many other countries use or are considering desalination to meet their fresh water needs - by definition, desalina-tion is the removal of salts from water to produce water with lower salinity.

How can NRG Expert Help?

The Global Desalination Report Ed 1 2012 describes the Desalination Market situation in countries with more than 1% of global desalination capacity or the potential for a significant desalination market. This report provides and in-depth overview of the global market, covering the following areas:

  • Desalination Technologies
  • Renewable Energy-Powered Desalination
  • Future Technologies
  • Environmental Impact of Desalination
  • Water Stress, Surplus Users
  • Private and public Sector Participation.
  • Water Types
  • Current Market
  • Global Picture
  • Country overviews
  • Costs
  • Future markets
  • Market Value
  • Barriers
  • Desalination Companies
  • Other technologies

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

1. Desalination Technologies

  • Thermal
    • Multistage Flash
    • Multi Effect Distillation
    • Vapour Compression (VC)
  • Membrane
    • Reverse Osmosis
    • Forward Osmosis
    • Electrodialysis
  • Cogeneration
  • Hybrid Systems
    • Membrane distillation
  • Intake system
  • Waste Management
  • Energy Recovery Devices
  • Mobile Desalination Plants
  • Seawater Desalination Vessels
  • Siting

2. Renewable Energy-Powered Desalination

  • Solar
    • Solar PV
    • Solar Thermal
  • Wind
  • Geothermal
  • Medring
  • Biomass/Biofuel
  • Ocean Technology
    • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    • Wave
    • Salinity Gradient
  • Hydroelectric
  • Nuclear

3. Future Technologies

  • Processes
  • Membranes

4. Environmental Impact of Desalination

5. Water Stress, Surplus and Users

  • Water stress and surplus
  • Water Users

6. Private and Public Sector Participation

7. Water Types

8. Current Market

9. Global Picture

10. Countries

11. Middle East

  • Israel and the Palestinian Territories
  • Jordan
  • Syria

12. Persian Gulf

  • Bahrain
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
    • Research
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Yemen

13. North Africa

  • Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Southern Sudan
  • Sudan
  • Tunisia

14. Southern Africa

  • Angola
  • Cape Verde
  • Chad
  • Equatorial New Guinea
  • Ghana
  • Kenya
  • Namibia
  • Nigeria
  • South Africa
  • Tanzania
  • Zambia

15. Asia Pacific

  • Australia
    • New South Wales
    • Queensland
    • Southern Australia
    • Victoria
    • Western Australia
    • Research
  • China
  • India
    • Chennai
    • Delhi
    • Mumbai
    • Gujarat state
    • Lankshadweep Islands
    • Orissa state
  • Indonesia
  • Japan
    • Research
  • Maldives
  • Pacific Islands
  • Pakistan
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Philippines
  • Seychelles
  • Singapore
  • South Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand

16. North America

  • Bermuda
  • Canada
  • Mexico
  • USA
    • California
    • Florida
    • Massachusetts
    • New Mexico
    • New York
    • Texas
    • Research

17. Caribbean

  • American Virgin Islands
  • Anguilla
  • Aruba
  • Barbados
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Cayman Islands
  • Cayman Islands
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
    • Haiti
  • Netherland Antilles
  • Puerto Rico
  • St Vincent
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • US Virgin Islands
  • Other Countries

18. South America

  • Argentina
  • Ascension Island
  • Brazil
  • Bolivia
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Honduras
  • Peru
  • Venezuela

19. Europe

  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Cyprus
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Malta
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Spain
  • Turkey
  • United Kingdom

20. CIS

  • Afghanistan
  • Azerbaijan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan

21. Costs

  • Thermal versus reverse osmosis
  • Brackish versus seawater reverse osmosis
  • Seawater reverse osmosis
  • Costs and projections
  • Costly projects

22. Future Markets

23. Market Value

24. Barriers

25. Desalination Companies

  • Top Ten Players
    • Veolia
    • Doosan
    • Fisia Italimpianti
    • GE Water
    • Suez Environnement
    • IDE Technologies
    • Acciona
    • Befesa Agua
    • Hyflux
    • Biwater
  • Other Players
    • Cadagua
    • Wabag
  • Membranes
    • Dow Filmtec
    • Fluid Systems
    • Hydranautics
    • Osmonics
    • Rochem
    • Toray
    • Toyobo
    • Other companies
    • Norit
    • Osmoflo
  • Energy Recovery
    • Energy Recovery Inc.
    • Fedco
    • Flowserve

26. Other Technologies

  • Pros and cons of desalination
  • Dams
  • River Basin Transfers
  • Water Conservation and Demand Management
  • Water Reuse
  • Water Imports
  • Long-Distance Water Piping/Transport

Tables

  • Table 1-1: Comparison of membrane materials
  • Table 1-2: Comparison of cellulose, composite polyamide and thin film materials
  • Table 1-3: Energy consumption by desalination technology
  • Table 1-4: Project cost comparison for a 190,000 m3 per day seawater reverse osmosis plant
  • Table 1-5: Comparison of different filtration and membrane systems
  • Table 1-6: Comparison of the different desalination technologies
  • Table 1-7: Benefits of different hybrid configurations
  • Table 1-8: Capacity, size and weight of containerised mobile desalination units
  • Table 2-1: Comparison of different renewable sources for desalination
  • Table 2-2: Development stages of the main renewable energy desalination technologies
  • Table 2-3: Possible combinations of renewable energy with desalination technologies
  • Table 2-4: Examples of pilot solar desalination projects
  • Table 2-5: Pilot wind desalination projects and hybrids
  • Table 3-1: Recent desalination innovations
  • Table 3-2: Desalination needs and opportunities
  • Table 5-1: Water scarce countries
  • Table 6-1: Types of public and private sector participation in the desalination industry
  • Table 6-2: Desalination contracts
  • Table 6-3: Typical desalination contracts in major markets
  • Table 6-4: Key decision makers for desalination plant applications in countries with a significant potentially significant desalination market
  • Table 8-1: Drivers and restraints on desalination growth
  • Table 8-2: Summary of factors facilitating seawater desalination
  • Table 12-1: Cumulative investment in water desalination in selected MENA countries, using 2004 prices as a baseline, USD billion
  • Table 15-1: Large and medium-sized current and proposed desalination plants in Australia
  • Table 21-1: Factors that affect desalinated water costs
  • Table 21-2: Distribution of cost factors in desalination
  • Table 25-1: Top desalination companies in terms of total capacity
  • Table 25-2: Overview of suppliers of RO membranes

Figures

  • Figure 1-1: Summary of water desalination processes
  • Figure 1-2: Diagram of Multistage Flash distillation plant
  • Figure 1-3: Diagram of Multi Effect Distillation plant
  • Figure 1-4: Diagram of Vapour Compression desalination plant
  • Figure 1-5: Diagram demonstrating the principles of osmosis
  • Figure 1-6: Diagram demonstrating the principles of reverse osmosis
  • Figure 1-7: Flow diagram of a reverse osmosis system
  • Figure 1-8: Diagram of a cross-flow membrane compared to a conventional membrane
  • Figure 1-9: Application Ranges of Separation Membranes
  • Figure 1-10: Cumulative installed seawater reverse osmosis capacity with ultra filtration pre-treatment, m3 per day
  • Figure 1-11: Diagram demonstrating the principles of forward osmosis
  • Figure 1-12: FO/RO Hybrid
  • Figure 1-13: Diagram of Electrodialysis desalination
  • Figure 1-14: Typical hybrid plant set up
  • Figure 1-15: Membrane distillation process flow
  • Figure 1-16: Shipboard Desalination
  • Figure 2-1: Support for renewable energy-powered desalination
  • Figure 2-2: Development stage and capacity range of the main renewable energy-desalination technologies
  • Figure 2-3: Solar thermal power plant configuration for (a) electricity generation and for (b) the combined generation of power and water with backup fuel and energy storage
  • Figure 2-4: Wind powered desalination potential in water scarce countries
  • Figure 2-5: Global hotspots for geothermal activity
  • Figure 2-6: The Medring
  • Figure 2-7: Potential sites for OTEC desalination plants: Caribbean, China, India, Northern Australia, South Western American States and Countries in the Persian Gulf
  • Figure 2-8: Wave-powered desalination models
  • Figure 3-1: Conceptual drawing of Thin Film Nanocomposite (TFN) reverse osmosis membranes
  • Figure 4-1: Carbon emissions of water produced in cogeneration plants, kg CO2 per m3 of water produced
  • Figure 5-1: Percentage of population facing severe water stress, 2007 and 2030
  • Figure 5-2: Proportion of renewable water resources withdrawn (MDG water indicator): surface water and groundwater withdrawal as percentage of total actual renewable water resources, 2001
  • Figure 5-3: Global water needs including potential climate change/pollution-driven change, 2005 to 2030, km3
  • Figure 5-4: Aggregated global gap between existing accessible, reliable supply (1) and 2030 water withdrawals, assuming no efficiency gains, 1,000 billion m3
  • Figure 5-5: Water footprint for different energy sources
  • Figure 8-1: Growth in contracted and commissioned desalination capacity by period, %
  • Figure 8-2: Annual growth in new contracted and commissioned desalination capacity by year, 2000 to 2010, %
  • Figure 9-1: Total desalination capacity by country, m3 per day
  • Figure 11-1: Government targets for annual desalination production capacity, million m3 per year
  • Figure 11-2: Seawater desalination in each desalination facility in Israel in 2010 and 2014, million m3 per year
  • Figure 11-3: Planned seawater desalination capacity from 2004 to 2020, m3 per day
  • Figure 11-4: Cost comparison of large-scale seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants built between 1997 and 2010, USD per m3
  • Figure 12-1: Share of combined water and power in power-generation capacity additions in selected MENA countries, 2004 to 2030, GW
  • Figure 12-2: Water demand in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the UAE, Qatar, Algeria and Libya (not including agricultural), million m3
  • Figure 12-3: SWCC desalination plants and status
  • Figure 12-4: Growth in annual water and electricity production, 1980 to 2009, million m3 and million MWh
  • Figure 15-1: Rainfall percentages, January to May 2010
  • Figure 15-2: Desalination capacity in different states and territories, 2008 and 2013
  • Figure 15-3: Australian desalination sites, outlook to year 2013
  • Figure 15-4: Cost of recent desalination projects, m3 per day
  • Figure 16-1: Location and extent of saline aquifers
  • Figure 16-2: US drought monitor, December 2008
  • Figure 19-1: Simulated land average maximum number of consecutive dry days for different European regions: 1860 to 2100
  • Figure 21-1: Estimated seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant construction costs as a function of capacity, USD million per million gallons per day capacity
  • Figure 21-2: Typical costs for a very large salt water thermal desalination plant
  • Figure 21-3: Costs of water production for a 100,000 m3 per day seawater RO desalination plant
  • Figure 21-4: Present and project costs for desalinated water from seawater reverse osmosis plants, USD per m3
  • Figure 21-5: Cost of water by source, USD per m3
  • Figure 22-1: Predicted growth in desalination capacity, billion m3 per day
  • Figure 22-2: Worldwide installed desalination capacity, million m3 per day
  • Figure 23-1: Global market forecast for seawater and brackish water desalination plants, 2005 to 2015, USD billion
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