This NRG Expert Report provides a global overview of Desalination. It looks at water stress, future and current markets, rising demand for desalination, costs, advantages, current and future technolo-gies and much more. Many parts of the world are experiencing severe water stress with limited fresh water supplies. In some parts of the world water use exceeds renewable water capacity - renewable water is defined as surface and underground water supplies that are replenished by rainwater. These regions often use non-renewable ground water supplies, which are also further down and require more energy to exploit, or exploit underground aquifers resulting in salt water intrusion. Increased industrialisation and urbanisation has also lead to ground water pollution in some regions.
Eighty countries are classified as suffering from severe water shortages, twenty of which are classi-fied as scarcity. According to the UK approximately 1,500 m3 of freshwater per capita per year is needed for unhindered economic development. In Europe alone two countries have considerably less water than this - Cyprus has 74 and Malta has 979 m3 per capita per year. These and many other countries use or are considering desalination to meet their fresh water needs - by definition, desalina-tion is the removal of salts from water to produce water with lower salinity.
The Global Desalination Report Ed 1 2012 describes the Desalination Market situation in countries with more than 1% of global desalination capacity or the potential for a significant desalination market. This report provides and in-depth overview of the global market, covering the following areas: