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Fuel Cells for Military Applications: Soldier Wearable and Portable Power, Sensors and Surveillance, Stationary Power, Materials Handling, APUs, and UAVs: Market Analysis and Forecasts

Notice
This publication has been discontinued on March 22, 2014.

Fuel cell manufacturers and OEMs continue to benefit from an increased U.S. military emphasis on energy security and logistical efficiency associated with the complex and challenging operational conditions being encountered in remote wartime environments such as Afghanistan. At the same time, an almost complete dependence on a fragile and vulnerable commercial power grid and other national critical infrastructure places military and homeland defense missions at an unacceptably high risk of extended disruption. Reducing the strategic and tactical vulnerabilities associated with powering military equipment and strategic installations has subsequently emerged as a leading priority for the U.S. Department of Defense.

Performance is the most powerful driving force for the adoption of fuel cells by the world' s armed forces. Enhancing the overall capabilities and performance of the U.S. armed forces is the leading priority for U.S. military agencies in considering new technologies and products for funding and potential integration into various military systems. Low noise and a low heat signature represent two good examples, providing specific benefits to military users that may not be as important to other customers. Production of water as a by-product may also be of great use in remote locations. Overall though, the most attractive attribute of fuel cell systems is there high energy density, particularly when compared to standard military batteries.

This Pike Research report examines the stationary, transport and portable power applications for fuel cell technologies currently being explored and validated by the U.S. Department of Defense, including a detailed analysis of market drivers as well as potential barriers to adoption. Forecasts through 2017 are also provided for those technologies and applications that are deemed as offering a realistic possibility of being deployed within that timeframe.

Key Questions Addressed:

  • What are the advantages of fuel cells for military applications?
  • What are the funding mechanisms available to fuel cell developers?
  • What are the potential military markets for fuel cells?
  • What are the specific fuel cell technologies involved in the U.S. military market?
  • What are the barriers to military fuel cell deployment?

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Military Fuel Cell Sector Forecast

2. Market Issues

  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Regional Scope
    • 2.2.1. DOD North America
    • 2.2.2. The Rest of the World
  • 2.3. The U.S. Military Market: Trends and Drivers
    • 2.3.1. Performance
    • 2.3.2. Oil Price Volatility
    • 2.3.3. Fuel Flexibility
    • 2.3.4. A Safe Technology
    • 2.3.5. Reduced Pollutants and GHGs
    • 2.3.6. Low Noise Levels
  • 2.4. Military Funding Mechanisms
    • 2.4.1. DARPA
    • 2.4.2. SBIR and STTR
    • 2.4.3. U.S. Navy
    • 2.4.4. U.S. Army
    • 2.4.5. U.S. Air Force
    • 2.4.6. SERDP and ESTCP
    • 2.4.7. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team
  • 2.5. Military Fuel Cell Applications with Near Term Potential
    • 2.5.1. Stationary Applications for Fuel Cells
      • 2.5.1.1. Market Characteristics
        • 2.5.1.1.1. Medical Treatment Facilities
        • 2.5.1.1.2. High Security Facilities
        • 2.5.1.1.3. Communications and Data Centers
        • 2.5.1.1.4. Advanced Manufacturing Processes
        • 2.5.1.1.5. Electronics Manufacturing Processes
        • 2.5.1.1.6. Air Traffic Control
        • 2.5.1.1.7. Radar Sites
        • 2.5.1.1.8. Shipboard Services
        • 2.5.1.1.9. Research Testing Facilities
        • 2.5.1.1.10. Remote Sites and Field Operations
    • 2.5.2. Portable Applications for Fuel Cells
      • 2.5.2.1. Market Characteristics
        • 2.5.2.1.1. Soldier Wearable and Portable Power
        • 2.5.2.1.2. Remote Sensors and Surveillance
        • 2.5.2.1.3. Mobile Electric Power (MEP)
    • 2.5.3. Transport Applications for Fuel Cells
      • 2.5.3.1. Market Characteristics
      • 2.5.3.2. Unmanned Air, Ground, and Underwater Vehicles
        • 2.5.3.2.1. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs)
        • 2.5.3.2.2. Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs)
        • 2.5.3.2.3. Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs)
        • 2.5.3.2.4. DOD Investment in Unmanned Systems
      • 2.5.3.3. Auxiliary Power Units for Ground Vehicles, Ships, and Aircraft
      • 2.5.3.4. Power for Ships
      • 2.5.3.5. Materials Handling/Ground Support Equipment
  • 2.6. Non-Tactical Vehicles

3. Technology Issues

  • 3.1. Fuel Cell Technology Basics
    • 3.1.1. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
      • 3.1.1.1. Methanol Units - Direct and Indirect/Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell
    • 3.1.2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
    • 3.1.3. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
    • 3.1.4. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
    • 3.1.5. Alkaline Fuel Cell
  • 3.2. Barriers to Adoption
    • 3.2.1. Financial Cost
    • 3.2.2. Supply Chain
    • 3.2.3. Stack Manufacturing
    • 3.2.4. Component Standards
    • 3.2.5. Durability
    • 3.2.6. The Gap between Products and Prototypes
    • 3.2.7. Adequacy of Maintenance Resources and Serviceability
    • 3.2.8. Fuel Availability and Cost

4. Key Industry Players

  • 4.1. Adaptive Materials, Inc. (United States)
  • 4.2. AeroVironment (United States)
  • 4.3. Alumifuel Power Corp. (United States)
  • 4.4. BAE Systems (United Kingdom)
  • 4.5. Ballard Power Systems (Canada)
  • 4.6. Battelle (United States)
  • 4.7. Boeing (United States)
  • 4.8. DuPont (United States)
  • 4.9. EADS (Europe)
  • 4.10. Falck Schmidt Defence Systems (Denmark)
  • 4.11. FuelCell Energy (United States)
  • 4.12. General Atomics (United States)
  • 4.13. Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies (Singapore)
  • 4.14. Hydrogenics Corp. (Canada)
  • 4.15. IdaTech PLC (United States)
  • 4.16. iRobot (United States)
  • 4.17. Jadoo Power (United States)
  • 4.18. Lockheed Martin (United States)
  • 4.19. Logan Energy (United States)
  • 4.20. Lynntech (United States)
  • 4.21. myFC (Sweden)
  • 4.22. NanoDynamics (United States)
  • 4.23. Neah Power Systems, Inc. (United States)
  • 4.24. Northrup Grumman Corp. (United States)
  • 4.25. Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc. (United States)
  • 4.26. Plug Power Inc. (United States)
  • 4.27. Protonex Technology Corp. (United States)
  • 4.28. QinetiQ (United Kingdom)
  • 4.29. ReliOn (United States)
  • 4.30. Rolls-Royce (United Kingdom)
  • 4.31. Samsung SDI (Korea)
  • 4.32. SFC Energy (Germany)
  • 4.33. UltraCell Corp. (United States)
  • 4.34. United Defense Industries (United States)
  • 4.35. UTC Power (United States)

5. Market Forecasts

  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Military Stationary Market
    • 5.2.1. Unit Shipments
    • 5.2.2. MW Shipments
    • 5.2.3. Revenue
  • 5.3. Soldier Wearable and Portable Power
    • 5.3.1. Unit Shipments
    • 5.3.2. MW Shipments
    • 5.3.3. Revenue
  • 5.4. Unmanned Sensors and Surveillance
    • 5.4.1. Unit Shipments
    • 5.4.2. MW Shipments
    • 5.4.3. Revenue
  • 5.5. Mobile Electric Power (MEP)
  • 5.6. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
    • 5.6.1. Unit Shipments
    • 5.6.2. MW Shipments
    • 5.6.3. Revenue
  • 5.7. Unmanned Ground Vehicles
    • 5.7.1. Unit Shipments
    • 5.7.2. MW Shipments
    • 5.7.3. Revenue
  • 5.8. Auxiliary Power Units for Ground Vehicles
    • 5.8.1. Unit Shipments
    • 5.8.2. MW Shipments
    • 5.8.3. Revenue
  • 5.9. Materials Handling
    • 5.9.1. Unit Shipments
    • 5.9.2. MW Shipments
    • 5.9.3. Revenue
  • 5.10. Additional Markets
    • 5.10.1. Fuel Cell Unmanned Underwater Vehicles
    • 5.10.2. Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Ships
    • 5.10.3. Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Aircraft
    • 5.10.4. Fuel Cell Power for Ships
    • 5.10.5. Fuel Cell Non-Tactical Vehicles
  • 5.11. The U.S. Military Fuel Cell Market
    • 5.11.1. Fuel Cell Unit Shipment Totals
    • 5.11.2. Fuel Cell MW Shipment Totals
    • 5.11.3. Fuel Cell Revenue Totals
  • 5.12. Summary

6. Company Directory

7. Acronym and Abbreviation List

8. Table of Contents

9. Table of Charts and Figures

10. Appendix I: SBIR and STTR Focus and Awards

  • 10.1. DOD 2011.2 SBIR Solicitation
    • 10.1.1. Purification of Biogas for Fuel Cells
      • 10.1.1.1. Program Number: N112-160
    • 10.1.2. Medium-Pressure Hydrogen Generator for Portable Electrical Power Systems
      • 10.1.2.1. Program Number: AF112-183
  • 10.2. DOD 2011.A STTR Solicitation
    • 10.2.1. Biomimetic Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
      • 10.2.1.1. Program Number: A11a-T013
    • 10.2.2. Generation of Hydrogen from Methanol
      • 10.2.2.1. Program Number: A11a-T012
    • 10.2.3. New Affordable Energy Storage Technologies for Power Grids and Microgrids
      • 10.2.3.1. Program Number: N11A-T028
  • 10.3. DOD 2011.1 SBIR Solicitation
    • 10.3.1. Long Lasting Wide Temperature Range Power Source for Unattended Ground Sensors
      • 10.3.1.1. Program Number: A11-018
    • 10.3.2. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell
      • 10.3.2.1. Program Number: A11-022
  • 10.4. DOD 2010.B STTR Solicitation
  • 10.5. DOD 2010.3 SBIR Solicitation
    • 10.5.1. High Density Liquid Hydrogen Missile Fuel
      • 10.5.1.1. Program Number: A10-152
  • 10.6. DOD 2010.2 SBIR Solicitation
    • 10.6.1. Compact Lightweight Sulfur Sensor for JP-8 Fuel
      • 10.6.1.1. Program Number: A10-070
    • 10.6.2. Solid Hydrogen Fuel Cartridges
      • 10.6.2.1. Program Number: A10-099
    • 10.6.3. Plug & Play Integrated Hybrid Power System for Humanoid Robot
      • 10.6.3.1. Program Number: A10-125
    • 10.6.4. High-Performance Power Energy Device for Radio Applications
      • 10.6.4.1. Program Number: N102-191
  • 10.7. DOD 2010.1 SBIR Solicitation
    • 10.7.1. Highly Integrated, Highly Efficient Fuel Reformer/Fuel Cell System
      • 10.7.1.1. Program Number: N101-033
    • 10.7.2. Novel Volumetric and Gravimetric Oxygen Sources and Packaging Suitable for Unmanned Applications
      • 10.7.2.1. Program Number: N101-081
  • 10.8. DOD 2009.3 SBIR Solicitation
  • 10.9. DOD 2009.B STTR Solicitation
  • 10.10. DOD 2009.2 SBIR Solicitation
    • 10.10.1. Gas Phase Sulfur Sensor for JP-8 Fueled Auxiliary Power Generation System
      • 10.10.1.1. Program Number: A09-043
    • 10.10.2. Refillable Liquid Fuel Cartridges for Portable Methanol Fuel Cell Systems
      • 10.10.2.1. Program Number: A09-086
  • 10.11. DOD 2009.A STTR Solicitation
    • 10.11.1. Engineered Catalysts, Catalysts Supports, and Designs for Logistics Fuel Reforming
      • 10.11.1.1. A09A-T018
    • 10.11.2. Advanced Hydrogen Reformate Stream Purifier for Fuel Cell Applications
      • 10.11.2.1. Program Number: N09-T014
  • 10.12. DOD 2009.1 SBIR Solicitation
  • 10.13. Other Solicitations

11. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • Military Fuel Cell Revenue by Application, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Fuel Cell Installations, U.S. DOD: 2010
  • Fuel Cell Installation Power Requirements, U.S. DOD: 2010
  • Mobile Electric Power in Use, U.S. DOD: 2007
  • Mobile Electric Power in Use, U.S. DOD: 2007
  • Unmanned Ground Vehicles in Use, U.S. DOD: 2007
  • Stationary Power Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Stationary Power Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Stationary Power Fuel Cell Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Soldier Wearable and Portable Power Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Soldier Wearable and Portable Power Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Soldier Wearable and Portable Power Fuel Cell Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Unmanned Sensors and Surveillance Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Unmanned Sensors and Surveillance Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Unmanned Sensors and Surveillance Fuel Cell Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Fuel Cell Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fuel Cell Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fuel Cell Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Ground Vehicle Auxiliary Power Unit Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Ground Vehicle Auxiliary Power Unit Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Ground Vehicle Auxiliary Power per Unit Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Materials Handling Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Materials Handling Shipments, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Materials Handling Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Fuel Cell Shipments by Application, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Fuel Cell Shipments by Application, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Fuel Cell Revenue by Application, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Average Monthly Price per Barrel of Oil FOB, World Markets: 2007-2011
  • Annual Fuel Consumption (3,000 Operating Hours)
  • Emissions Comparison (g/hp-h @ 100% Power)
  • Comparison of Efficiencies for Electric Power Plants
  • The Jenny ND Terra
  • Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Designated Vehicle Classes, U.S. Navy: 2004
  • U.S. DOD Investment in UAV R&D: 2005-2009
  • U.S. DOD Annual Funding Profile for UAVs: 1998-2011 (Projected)
  • Comparison of Efficiencies for Electric Power Plants
  • The Proposed Ship Service Fuel Cell Program Schedule, U.S. Navy
  • Fuel Cell Electrolyte Types
  • PEM Fuel Cell Schematic
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Schematic
  • Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Schematic
  • Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Schematic
  • Alkaline Fuel Cell Schematic
  • FuelCell Energy Published Cost-Down

List of Tables

  • Fuel Cell Market Revenue by Application, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Fuel Cell Market Fuel Cell Shipments by Application, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Fuel Cell Market Shipments by Application, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Power Requirements of U.S. DOD Installations: 2010
  • Mobile Electric Power in Use, U.S. DOD: 2007
  • Mobile Electric Power in Use, U.S. DOD: 2007
  • Mobile Electric Power in Use, U.S. DOD: 2007
  • Unmanned Ground Vehicles in Use, U.S. DOD: 2007
  • Stationary Power Shipments and Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Soldier Wearable and Portable Power Shipments and Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Unmanned Sensor and Surveillance Shipments and Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Shipments and Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Unmanned Ground Vehicle Shipments and Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Ground Vehicle Auxiliary Power Shipments and Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • Materials Handling Unit Shipments and Revenue, U.S. DOD: 2011-2017
  • ATO Fuel Cell Technology Areas
  • Mobile Electric Power in Use, U.S. DOD: 2007
  • FY 2009 President' s Budget for Unmanned Systems
  • U.S. Naval Vessels: 2011
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