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Zero Energy Buildings

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This publication has been discontinued on April 5, 2014.

As green building practices become more commonplace in the global construction industry, the goal of designing zero energy buildings, or buildings that consume as much energy as they produce through on-site and renewable energy systems, has emerged as the next major frontier. A number of countries and regions have already established long-term targets and regulations that will require zero energy building construction that will come into effect over the coming years, some as soon as 2016. As a result, the construction industry as a whole, led by HVAC vendors, real estate developers, construction companies, as well as renewable energy developers, are in the process of developing products and service lines that will meet demand for zero energy building and ensure compliance with new regulations.

A market is already emerging for zero energy buildings today, but it remains a small fraction of the overall building construction industry. Most product and service providers agree that the technologies required to make zero energy buildings possible, from efficient lighting and HVAC systems to glazing, insulation, solar photovoltaic and other systems, can add significant upfront cost. The goal of zero energy building will become more broadly attainable as advances in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies improve system performance and reduce cost.

This Pike Research report provides data on the size and growth of the market for zero energy building markets, including HVAC systems, glazing systems, wall and roof construction, renewable energy systems, and construction soft costs, from 2011 through 2035. The study also includes a qualitative assessment of major drivers and trends for zero energy buildings in key markets, including both commercial and residential zero energy buildings. It also provides a discussion of the individual technology elements associated with zero energy building as well as the design challenges that the AEC (architecture/engineering/construction) service providers will face in delivering zero energy buildings.

Key Questions Addressed:

  • How large is the demand for zero energy buildings worldwide?
  • How will the European Union's net zero energy building regulations impact market development, and what is the current status of such regulation?
  • Will the market for commercial zero energy buildings be larger than the market for residential zero energy buildings?
  • What regulations exist worldwide for zero energy building, and what regulations are likely to come online over the next 10-20 years?
  • What is the cost premium to build a zero energy building?
  • Which companies in the AEC industry are taking a lead on developing the technologies required for zero energy buildings?

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Overview
  • 1.2. Accelerated Adoption

2. Market Issues

  • 2.1. Market Overview
  • 2.2. Definitions of Zero Energy
  • 2.3. Zero Energy Market and Legislation
  • 2.4. Market Drivers
    • 2.4.1. Zero Energy Building Codes and Regulations
    • 2.4.2. Green Building
    • 2.4.3. Technology Innovation and Cost Decreases
  • 2.5. Market Barriers
    • 2.5.1. Cost Premiums
    • 2.5.2. Payback Periods
    • 2.5.3. Grid Integration
    • 2.5.4. Construction Practices
  • 2.6. Europe
    • 2.6.1. European Union
      • 2.6.1.1. EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)
      • 2.6.1.2. Status of Zero Energy Building Definitions
      • 2.6.1.3. Analysis of EPBD and “Nearly Zero Energy”
      • 2.6.1.4. EU 20-20-20 Targets
    • 2.6.2. United Kingdom
    • 2.6.3. France
    • 2.6.4. Germany
    • 2.6.5. Passivhaus Standard
    • 2.6.6. Very Low Energy Houses
    • 2.6.7. Commercial vs. Residential Market Dynamics
  • 2.7. North America
    • 2.7.1. U.S. Federal Government
      • 2.7.1.1. U.S. General Services Administration
      • 2.7.1.2. U.S. Department of Energy and National Laboratories
    • 2.7.2. California
    • 2.7.3. Massachusetts
    • 2.7.4. Drivers
      • 2.7.4.1. Regulation
      • 2.7.4.2. PACE Financing
      • 2.7.4.3. Energy Performance Contracting
    • 2.7.5. Commercial vs. Residential Market Dynamics
    • 2.7.6. Canada
  • 2.8. Asia Pacific
    • 2.8.1. Japan
    • 2.8.2. Singapore
    • 2.8.3. China
    • 2.8.4. Rest of Asia Pacific
  • 2.9. Rest of World
    • 2.9.1. Middle East
    • 2.9.2. Latin America
    • 2.9.3. Africa

3. Technology Issues

  • 3.1. Technology Overview
  • 3.2. Energy Efficiency
    • 3.2.1. Building Envelope and Passive Energy Efficiency Technologies
      • 3.2.1.1. Wall Insulation and the “Thermos” Effect
      • 3.2.1.2. Glazing
        • 3.2.1.2.1. Double- and Triple-Pane Glass
        • 3.2.1.2.2. Smart Glass
        • 3.2.1.2.3. Glazing System Framing
      • 3.2.1.3. Thermal Mass Storage Systems
      • 3.2.1.4. Daylighting
      • 3.2.1.5. Roofs
      • 3.2.1.6. Building Orientation and Architectural Design
    • 3.2.2. Active Energy Efficiency Technologies
      • 3.2.2.1. HVAC Systems and Integrated Design
        • 3.2.2.1.1. Heating
        • 3.2.2.1.2. Cooling
        • 3.2.2.1.3. Ground-Source Heat Pumps
      • 3.2.2.2. Electrical Lighting Systems
      • 3.2.2.3. Hot Water
      • 3.2.2.4. Building Controls
      • 3.2.2.5. Energy Management Software and Systems
        • 3.2.2.5.1. Architectural Design Software Development Trends
        • 3.2.2.5.2. Continuous Commissioning
      • 3.2.2.6. Plug Loads
        • 3.2.2.6.1. Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards
        • 3.2.2.6.2. Smart Appliances
  • 3.3. Renewable Energy
    • 3.3.1. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
    • 3.3.2. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)
    • 3.3.3. Solar Thermal Systems
    • 3.3.4. Biomass and CHP
    • 3.3.5. Other Renewable Energy Sources
    • 3.3.6. Energy Storage Systems

4. Key Industry Players

  • 4.1. Arup
  • 4.2. Autodesk
  • 4.3. CB Richard Ellis
  • 4.4. Daikin Industries
  • 4.5. Danfoss
  • 4.6. Eaton
  • 4.7. Honeywell
  • 4.8. Johnson Controls
  • 4.9. Jones Lang LaSalle
  • 4.10. Masdar
  • 4.11. Meritage Homes
  • 4.12. Samsung Everland
  • 4.13. Schneider Electric
  • 4.14. Serious Materials
  • 4.15. Siemens Building Technologies
  • 4.16. Soladigm
  • 4.17. Trane
  • 4.18. United Technologies Corporation

5. Market Forecasts

  • 5.1. Overview
  • 5.2. Methodology
    • 5.2.1. Segmentation Definitions
    • 5.2.2. Costs
  • 5.3. Europe
    • 5.3.1. Commercial
    • 5.3.2. Residential
  • 5.4. North America
    • 5.4.1. Commercial
    • 5.4.2. Residential
  • 5.5. Asia Pacific
    • 5.5.1. Commercial
    • 5.5.2. Residential
  • 5.6. Middle East
    • 5.6.1. Commercial
    • 5.6.2. Residential
  • 5.7. Rest of World
  • 5.8. Global Outlook

6. Company Directory

7. Acronym and Abbreviation List

8. Table of Contents

9. Table of Charts and Figures

10. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2011-2035
  • Annual LEED Certified Space by Category, World Markets: 2000-2010
  • Building Stock Growth by Sector, Western Europe: 2010-2020
  • Commercial Construction Index by Metropolitan Market, World Markets: 2010
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, Europe: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, Europe: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, North America: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, North America: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, Asia Pacific: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, Asia Pacific: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, Middle East: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, Middle East: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, World Markets: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Concept
  • Existing and Prospective Zero Energy Building Regulation by Country
  • Zero Energy Building Concept
  • Member States of the European Union: 2011
  • Comparison of Passivhaus Standard vs. Other European Standards
  • Conceptual Market Diffusion for Zero Net Energy Targets
  • Commercial Building Space by Owner, United States: 2003
  • LEED/Green Building Requirements by State, United States: 2011
  • Double Pane Window Example
  • Underground Labyrinth System, NREL Research Support Facility
  • NREL Research Support Facility Total Power Consumption: December 2010
  • Solar PV Panel Cost: 1998-2010
  • Existing and Prospective Zero Energy Building Regulation by Country

List of Tables

  • Annual LEED Certified Space by Category, World Markets: 2000-2010
  • Building Stock Growth by Sector, Western Europe: 2010-2020
  • Commercial Building Space by Owner, United States: 2003
  • Building Stock Growth by Sector, North America: 2010-2020
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, Europe: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, Europe: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Total Markets, Europe: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, North America: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, North America: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Total Markets, North America: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, Asia Pacific: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, Asia Pacific: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Total Markets, Asia Pacific: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, Middle East: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, Middle East: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Total Markets, Middle East: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Commercial Markets, Rest of the World: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Residential Markets, Rest of the World: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, Total Markets, Rest of the World: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue, Commercial Markets by Region, World Markets: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue, Residential Markets by Region, World Markets: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Region, World Markets: 2011-2035
  • Zero Energy Building Revenue by Product/Service, World Markets: 2011-2035
  • Status of EPBD and NZEB Legal Compliance, Europe: June 2011
  • Low-Rise Low-Energy Model Energy Efficiency Measure Selections (abridged)
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