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Renewable Biogas: Municipal Solid Waste, Agricultural, Industrial, and Wastewater Market Analysis and Forecasts

Biogas is a versatile energy carrier with potential to satisfy power and fuel demand across a range of end-use applications while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from a diverse array of organic waste streams. Raw biogas captured from landfills and distributed anaerobic digesters (AD) is widely utilized today across the urban and rural landscape as a fuel for electricity and heat generation. Upgraded biogas - biomethane or renewable natural gas (RNG) - is gaining traction as an alternative to fossil natural gas for gas-to-grid injection and as a vehicle fuel in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Biogas' flexibility, growing demand for waste treatment processes, and an increased focus on greenhouse gas mitigation are generating demand on a worldwide basis and in a variety of application areas, including municipal organic waste treatment, agricultural operations, industrial processing, and wastewater treatment. In particular, the use of bio-digesters to process manure and crop residues throughout Germany has demonstrated the potential for rapid deployment of biogas capture on a distributed basis. While landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) facilities are also widely deployed, the use of bio-digesters in industrial applications like food processing, breweries, and biofuels production is showing potential as a major growth area, while municipal organic waste and wastewater treatment are poised for significant growth across Asia Pacific. The global biogas industry still faces significant barriers to broad-based scale up, however, as lower natural gas prices, challenging economics, and project-to-project variability frustrate efforts to achieve economies of scale. As of 2012, biogas production accounted for only a fraction of natural gas production with bio-digester deployments concentrated primarily in Germany and landfill gas recovery confined mostly to advanced economies throughout North America and Europe.

This Pike Research report analyzes the global market opportunity for biogas capture across four key industrial segments: municipal solid waste (MSW), agriculture, industrial, and sewage treatment. The report provides a comprehensive assessment of the demand drivers, business models, policy factors, and technology issues associated with the rapidly-developing market for biogas production and utilization. Key industry players are profiled in depth and worldwide revenue and capacity forecasts for raw biogas and RNG production, segmented by region and industrial segment, extend through 2022.

Key Questions Addressed:

  • Why does Germany lead the rest of the world in commercial bio-digester deployments?
  • Which industry segments offer the greatest low-hanging opportunities for anaerobic digestion?
  • Which regions will experience the greatest increase in biogas production capacity?
  • What key market challenges will inhibit growth in the lucrative North American market?
  • How much renewable natural gas (RNG) will be produced over the next decade?
  • How will emerging waste management policies accelerate biogas deployment?

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Overview
  • 1.2. Market Assessment
  • 1.3. Market Forecast

2. Market Issues

  • 2.1. Biogas Overview
    • 2.1.1. What is Biogas?
    • 2.1.2. Biogas Value Chain
    • 2.1.3. Biogas Feedstocks
    • 2.1.4. Biogas Applications
    • 2.1.5. Market Trends
  • 2.2. Why Biogas?
    • 2.2.1. Biogas as a Renewable Resource
    • 2.2.2. Substitute for Fossil Fuels
    • 2.2.3. Greenhouse Gas Abatement
    • 2.2.4. Environmental Benefits
    • 2.2.5. Valuable Co-Products
  • 2.3. Role of Biogas in Energy Markets
    • 2.3.1. Global Biogas Utilization
      • 2.3.1.1. AD Market Snapshot
      • 2.3.1.2. LFGTE Market Snapshot
    • 2.3.2. Electricity Markets
      • 2.3.2.1. Low Cost Power
      • 2.3.2.2. Flexible Resource
        • 2.3.2.2.1. Utility Grid
        • 2.3.2.2.2. On-site Generation
        • 2.3.2.2.3. Centralized Anaerobic Digestion (CAD)
        • 2.3.2.2.4. Renewable Natural Gas (RNG)
    • 2.3.3. Heating and Cooling Markets
    • 2.3.4. Transportation Fuels
  • 2.4. Biogas Market Drivers
    • 2.4.1. Integrated Waste Management
      • 2.4.1.1. Biogas and Waste Hierarchies
      • 2.4.1.2. Biowaste Ownership
    • 2.4.2. Environmental Regulations
    • 2.4.3. Energy Security
      • 2.4.3.1. Biogas and Natural Gas
      • 2.4.3.2. Biogas and Oil
      • 2.4.3.3. Biogas and Domestic Energy
    • 2.4.4. Incentives, Mandates, Grants, and Loans
      • 2.4.4.1. Financial Incentives
        • 2.4.4.1.1. Feed-in Tariffs
        • 2.4.4.1.2. Tax Credits
        • 2.4.4.1.3. Environmental Attributes
      • 2.4.4.2. Mandates
        • 2.4.4.2.1. Mandates - United States' Perspective
        • 2.4.4.2.2. Mandates - European Perspective
        • 2.4.4.2.3. Mandates - Chinese Perspective
      • 2.4.5. Kyoto Protocol - Clean Development Mechanism
  • 2.5. Biogas Market Barriers
    • 2.5.1. Cost
      • 2.5.1.1. AD Economics
      • 2.5.1.2. Landfill Gas Economics
      • 2.5.1.3. Biogas Upgrading
    • 2.5.2. Policy Uncertainty
    • 2.5.3. Permitting and Regulations
    • 2.5.4. Public Acceptance

3. Technology Issues

  • 3.1. Technology Overview
    • 3.1.1. Typical System Components
    • 3.1.2. Technology Considerations
    • 3.1.3. “Smart” Process Monitoring
    • 3.1.4. Technology and Market Maturity
  • 3.2. Capture and Conversion
    • 3.2.1. Anaerobic Digesters
      • 3.2.1.1. Why AD?
      • 3.2.1.2. AD Systems
      • 3.2.1.3. AD Technical Considerations
      • 3.2.1.4. Pretreatment Technologies
      • 3.2.1.5. AD Utilization
      • 3.2.1.6. AD Innovations
    • 3.2.2. Landfill Gas Recovery
      • 3.2.2.1. Estimating LFG Potential
      • 3.2.2.2. LFG Extraction
        • 3.2.2.2.1. Vertical Wells
        • 3.2.2.2.2. Horizontal Wells
      • 3.2.2.3 LFG Collection, Flaring, and Utilization
  • 3.3. Biogas Utilization
    • 3.3.1. Direct Use
    • 3.3.2. Electricity Generation
    • 3.3.3. Vehicular Use
  • 3.4. Biogas Upgrading
    • 3.4.1. Water Scrubbing
    • 3.4.2. Organic Physical Scrubbing
    • 3.4.3. Chemical Absorption
    • 3.4.4. Pressure Swing Absorption (PSA)
    • 3.4.5. Membrane Scrubbing
    • 3.4.6. Cryogenic Technology

4. Key Industry Players

  • 4.1. Acrona Systems
  • 4.2. ADI Systems
  • 4.3. Bekon
  • 4.4. Biogas Nord
  • 4.5. BiogenGreenfinch
  • 4.6. Biothane
  • 4.7. BTA International
  • 4.8. DTE Biomass Energy
  • 4.9. DVO
  • 4.10 Clean Energy Renewable Fuels (CERF)
  • 4.11. Eisenmann Corporation
  • 4.12. EnviTec Biogas USA Inc.
  • 4.13. Farmatic
  • 4.14. Harvest Power
  • 4.15. Kompogas
  • 4.16. MT-Energie
  • 4.17. Organic Waste Systems
  • 4.18. Progressive Waste Solutions
  • 4.19. Ros Roca Environment
  • 4.20. Schmack Biogas
  • 4.21. Tamar Energy
  • 4.22. UEM
  • 4.23. Valorga
  • 4.24. Waste Management
  • 4.25. WELtec BioPower GmbH

5. Market Forecasts

  • 5.1. Methodology
    • 5.1.1. Influence of Waste Management Policies
    • 5.1.2. Other Market Assumptions
  • 5.2. Biogas Market Revenue Forecasts
    • 5.2.1. By Region
    • 5.2.2. By Industry
  • 5.3. Raw Biogas Production Capacity Forecasts
    • 5.3.1. Production by Region
    • 5.3.2. Production by Industry
      • 5.3.2.1. North America
      • 5.3.2.2. Europe
      • 5.3.2.3. Asia Pacific
  • 5.4. Installed Generation Capacity Forecast
  • 5.5. Renewable Natural Gas Production Capacity Forecast
  • 5.6. Country Forecasts
    • 5.6.1. Germany
    • 5.6.2. China
    • 5.6.3. United States

6. Company Directory

7. Acronym and Abbreviation List

8. Table of Contents

9. Table of Charts and Figures

10. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

  • Biogas Market Value by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Typical Composition of Biogas from Landfill Gas Recovery
  • Potential Biogas Yield by Substrate
  • LFG Biogas Utilization by Application, United States: 2003
  • Share of Biogas Systems by Type, World Markets: 2011
  • Share of Anthropogenic Methane Emissions by Source, World Markets: 2010
  • Potential Reduction of Baseline Emissions by Source, United States
  • Share of Commercial AD Deployments by Industry Segment, World Markets: 2011
  • Share of LFGTE Deployments by Region, World Markets: 2011
  • Methane-Powered Vehicles in Use by Region, World Markets: 2009
  • Spot Price of Natural Gas by Market, World Markets: 2001-2010
  • Average Gasoline Gallons Equivalent Price by Fuel, United States: 2011
  • Biogas Tariffs by Country, World Markets: 2011
  • On-Farm AD Deployments by System Design, United States: 2011
  • Share of Biogas Upgrading Deployments by Technology, World Markets: 2009
  • Biogas Market Value CAGR by Region, World Markets: 2012-2012
  • Biogas Market Value by Industry, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, North America: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, Asia Pacific: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, Asia Pacific: 2012-2022
  • Installed Biogas Generation Capacity by Industry, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • RNG Annual Production Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity, Europe: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, Germany: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, Asia Pacific: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, China: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, United States: 2012-2022
  • Biogas Value Chain
  • EU Waste Management Hierarchy
  • Snapshot of Waste Lifecycle
  • Anaerobic Digestion Process Stages
  • Pretreatment Options
  • Biogas Utilization Pathways

List of Tables

  • Typical Composition of Biogas from Landfill Gas Recovery
  • Biogas Potential of Substrates
  • LFG Biogas Utilization by Application, United States: 2003
  • Share of Biogas Systems by Type, World Markets: 2011
  • Share of Anthropogenic Methane Emissions by Source, World Markets: 2010
  • Potential Reduction of Baseline Emissions by Source, United States
  • Spot Price of Natural Gas by Market, World Markets: 2001-2010
  • Share of Commercial AD Deployments by Industry Segment, World Markets: 2011
  • Share of LFGTE Deployments by Region, World Markets: 2011
  • Energy Projects and Candidate Landfills by State, United States: 2011
  • Commercial Biogas Facilities Forecast by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Spot Price of Natural Gas by Market, World Markets: 2001-2010
  • Average Gasoline Gallons Equivalent Price by Fuel, United States: 2011
  • Biogas Tariffs by Country, World Markets: 2011
  • On-Farm AD Deployments by System Design, United States: 2011
  • Share of Biogas Upgrading Deployments by Technology, World Markets: 2009
  • Biogas Market Revenue Forecast by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Biogas Market Revenue Forecast by Industry, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Region and Industry, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Installed Biogas Generation Capacity by Industry, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • RNG Production by Region, World Markets: 2012-2022
  • Raw Biogas Annual Production Capacity by Industry, China: 2012-2022
  • Raw Annual Biogas Production Capacity by Industry, Germany: 2012-2022
  • Raw Annual Biogas Production Capacity by Industry, United States: 2012-2022
  • Summary of Renewable Portfolio Standards, United States: 2012
  • Typical LFG Project Costs
  • Characteristics of LFG Extraction Strategies
  • LFG Collection Efficiencies
  • Biogas Utilization Efficiency in Conversion Technologies
  • Typical Upgraded Biogas Composition (RNG)
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