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Wireless ICT and Intelligent Transportation Systems: Current and Future Trends

This report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff who are working on wireless ICT-related Intelligent Transportation Systems projects. The report aim is to present for such specialists advanced directions and trends in wireless ICT that can lead ITS into the 4G era.

The reports updates and revises Practel reports that were researching WICT-related ITS features; and were published between 2006 and 2010.

In particular, this report:

  • 1. Provides the analysis of ITS specifics.
  • 2. Analyzes technologies and markets for 5.9 GHz Short Reach Dedicated Communications (DSRC). 5.9 GHz DSRC was originally developed for the U.S. market; and currently it is at the beginning of commercialization. The report addresses this technology specifics and benefits - recently, EU also approved 5.9 GHz band for its DSRC systems. Currently, the major application for DSRC is electronic tolling; it is expected that the range of applications will grow significantly with maturing of the technology.
  • 3. Analyzes the specifics of CALM (Continuous Air-interface, Long and Medium Range) technology and its applications. This technology aims for creation of an “universal” platform for ITS services. Such a platform will be able to support multiple wireless standards.
  • 4. Concentrates on the standardization process for WICT in the ITS environment.
  • 5. Analyzes technologies and market for Long Term Evolution (LTE); the technology is being standardized and appreciated as the 4G era wireless technology. It opens a wide range of applications for ITS; currently, the auto industry R&D together with manufacturers are working on the concept of the LTE - equipped car. The technology allows creating of ITS infrastructural networking with high bit rate, QoS and other important features. Major service providers are offering LTE-based services.
  • 6. Analyzes specifics of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs), their development and markets and how they apply to ITS. It is expected that in the near - future Smart Sensors will create a basis for establishing an intelligent source of information for processing in the ITS control centers. The report provides details of WSN features and benefits.

The report addresses latest and near-future trends in wireless ICT for ITS and how the 4G developments apply to them.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1. Goal
  • 1.2. Scope
  • 1.3. Research Methodology
  • 1.4. Target Audience

2.0 Intelligent Transportation Systems

  • 2.1. General
  • 2.2. ITS History: U.S.
  • 2.3. ITS Architecture: U.S.
  • 2.4. Global ITS Development-Introduction
    • 2.4.1. Europe
    • 2.4.2. Japan
    • 2.4.3. Standardization
      • 2.4.3.1. National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP)
  • 2.5. Technologies
  • 2.6. ITS Applications

3.0 5.9 GHz DSRC Basis

  • 3.1. General
  • 3.2. IEEE 802.11p
    • 3.2.1. General
    • 3.2.2. Objectives and Status
    • 3.2.3. Details
      • 3.2.3.1. ASTM Standard
  • 3.3. IEEE 1609
    • 3.3.1. General
    • 3.3.2. Overview
    • 3.3.3. IEEE 1609 in Use
  • 3.4. Summary

4.0 5.9 GHz DSRC Development

  • 4.1. General
  • 4.2. History
  • 4.3. Equipment
  • 4.4. Details: Dedicated Short Range Communications
  • 4.5. Channel Designation
  • 4.6. Place
  • 4.7. Applications
  • 4.8. Summary: DSRC (5.9 GHz) Transmission Characteristics (U.S.)
  • 4.9. DSRC at Work
    • 4.9.1. Service Categories
    • 4.9.2. Requirements: DSRC
  • 4.10. Regulation
    • 4.10.1. Licensing
  • 4.11. Comparison

5.0 DSRC Worldwide Standard Activity

  • 5.1. General
    • 5.1.1. Coordination
  • 5.2. Process

6.0 5.9 GHz DSRC Benefits and Limitations

  • 6.1. General
    • 6.1.2. Toll Industry Benefits
  • 6.2. Limitations

7.0 Market: 5.9 GHz DSRC

  • 7.1. Market Drivers
  • 7.2. Market Requirements
  • 7.3. Data
  • 7.4. Market Estimate

8.0 DSRC Equipment Vendors

  • Arinc
  • Kapsch
  • Mark IVHS (Acquired by Kapsch in 2010)
  • Oki
  • Q-Free
  • Raytheon
  • Savari
  • Sirit
  • TransCore
  • TechnoCom

9.0 CALM: Continuous Air-interface, Long and Medium Range

  • 9.1. Goals
    • 9.1.1. Vehicle- Infrastructure
  • 9.2. Specifics
  • 9.3. ISO TC 204 WG 16
    • 9.3.1. IPv6 and NEMO
  • 9.4. CALM: International Efforts
  • 9.5. CALM: Applications
  • 9.6. Major Features
  • 9.7. Issues

10.0 CEN and ITU

  • 10.1. General
  • 10.2. CEN and ITS
  • 10.3. ITU

11.0 ETSI

12.0 IETF

13.0 4G Technologies

  • 13.1. Wireless Revolution or Evolution?
    • 13.1.1. 4G as 3G Successor
  • 13.2. Requirements
  • 13.3. Typical Features
  • 13.4. Choice

14.0 Long Term Evolution (LTE): Technology and Market

  • 14.1. 3GPP and LTE
    • 14.1.1. LTE Timetable
    • 14.1.2. Broadband Wireless Communications-Phases
    • 14.1.3. LTE Standardization - Industry Collaboration
      • 14.1.3.1. Industry Initiative
  • 14.2. Key Features of LTE
    • 14.2.1. Details
      • 14.2.1.1. Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN)
      • 14.2.1.2. Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
      • 14.2.1.3. LTE Advanced
      • 14.2.1.4. SON
    • 14.2.2. Benefits
      • 14.2.2.1. Voice Support
        • 14.2.2.1.1. VoLTE
  • 14.3. SAE/EPS
    • 14.3.1. Functional Structure
    • 14.3.2. Interfaces
  • 14.4. Market
    • 14.4.1. Demand: Wireless Broadband
    • 14.4.2. LTE Market Projections
  • 14.5. Vendors
    • 4M Wireless
    • Agilent
    • Altair Semiconductor
    • Alcatel-Lucent-NEC
    • Altera
    • Aricent
    • Axis
    • Commagility
    • Ericsson
    • Fujitsu
    • Infineon
    • Huawei
    • Lime Microsystems
    • mimoON
    • Motorola
    • Nokia Siemens Networks
    • NXP
    • picoChip
    • Qualcomm
    • Samsung
    • Starent (Cisco)
    • TI
    • Sequans
    • Signalion
    • ZTE
  • 14.6. LTE and ITS

15.0 Smart Sensors Technology - ITS Specifics

  • 15.1. Smart Sensor Structure
    • 15.1.1. Classification - SMART SENSOR
    • 15.1.2. Details
      • 15.1.2.1. WSN-SMART SENSOR
      • 15.1.2.2. Requirements
  • 15.2. Networking
    • 15.2.1. Features of Mesh Structures
    • 15.2.2. Benefits and Limitations
  • 15.3. Details of Applications - WSN
  • 15.4. Standardization: IEEE 1451
    • 15.4.1. General
    • 15.4.2. Family
    • 15.4.3. Details
  • 15.5. ITS and WSN
  • 15.6. Challenges
  • 15.7. Market Characteristics
    • 15.7.1. General
    • 15.7.2. Market Estimate
    • 15.7.3. Trends
  • 15.8. WSN Equipment Vendors
    • BAE Systems
    • BBN
    • Crossbow - Moog Crossbow (WSN)
    • Crane - WMS (Acquired by Textron in 2010) (WSN-ZigBee)
    • Dust Networks (USG-Mesh)
    • Elta (Sensors)
    • Exensor (WSN nodes)
    • Intel (Chipsets)
    • Freescale (Sensors)
    • Harris (SMART SENSOR)
    • IWT (Mesh)
    • L3 (SMART SENSOR)
    • McQ (SMART SENSOR)
    • MeshDynamics (Mesh)
    • Millennial Net (Mesh-SMART SENSOR)
    • MeshNetics-Atmel (WSN Software)
    • Newtrax (WSN-mesh, SMART SENSOR)
    • Nelco (Sensors Systems)
    • NorthropGrumman (SMART SENSOR)
    • Octave Technologies (SW, WSN)
    • Qual-Tron (Sensors)
    • Rheinmetall (SMART SENSOR)
    • Selex (SMART SENSOR)
    • Sensys (ITS Sensors)
    • Sensicast (WSN)
    • Smart Sensor Systems (Sensor Modules)
    • SmartMicro (Radars Sensors - ITS)
    • Strix (Mesh)
    • Telonics (Sensors)
    • TextRon (SMART SENSOR)
    • Thales (SMART SENSOR)
    • Trident (SMART SENSOR-UWB)
    • Wavetronix (Sensors - ITS)
    • Zeltech (SMART SENSOR)

16.0 Conclusions

APPENDIX I: ISO ITS Standards

APPENDIX II: ITS-related National and International Standards

LIST OF FIGURES:

  • Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment
  • Figure 2: ITS Architecture
  • Figure 3: ITS Standardization
  • Figure 4: NTCIP Structure
  • Figure 5: Communications Model: WAVE
  • Figure 6: Protocol Stack
  • Figure 7: Illustration - IEEE 1609 Standards
  • Figure 8: ITS-DSRC
  • Figure 9: 5.9 GHz DSRC: Spectrum Allocation Details
  • Figure 10: Channel Assignment - 5.9 GHz DSRC
  • Figure 11: Major Categories-5.9 GHz DSRC Services
  • Figure 12: Collision Detection/Avoidance System
  • Figure 13: Work Zone Warning
  • Figure 14: “Smart” Car
  • Figure 15: 5.9 GHz DSRC Rate vs. Distance
  • Figure 16: Logical Flow
  • Figure 17: DSRC Frequencies Planning
  • Figure 18: 5.9 GHz DSRC Program Schedule
  • Figure 19: N.A. 5.9 GHz DSRC Program
  • Figure 20: TAM U.S. 5.9 GHz DSRC Tag ($B)
  • Figure 21: TAM U.S. 5.9 GHz DSRC Tag (Units Mil.)
  • Figure 22: TAM U.S. 5.9 GHz DSRC Readers (Unit Mil.)
  • Figure 23: TAM U.S. 5.9 GHz DSRC Readers ($M)
  • Figure 24: CALM: Infrastructure-Vehicle
  • Figure 25: CALM Architecture
  • Figure 26: Evolution Path
  • Figure 27: Towards Wireless Mobile Broadband
  • Figure 28: LTE - IP
  • Figure 29: Projection: Global Broadband Mobile Subscribers Base (B)
  • Figure 30: LTE Market-Subscribers' Base (M)
  • Figure 31: Projection: LTE Global Equipment Sale ($B)
  • Figure 32: Service Operation Center
  • Figure 33: Two Groups
  • Figure 34: SMART SENSOR-Functions
  • Figure 35: SMART SENSOR Technologies
  • Figure 36: WSN-SMART SENSOR Node
  • Figure 37: TAM - WSN Nodes Sales-Commercial - Global ($B)
  • Figure 38: TAM-WSN Node Sales - Commercial -Global (M Units)
  • Figure 39: SMART SENSOR Market Geographical Segmentation
  • Figure 40: SMART SENSOR Network Sizing

LIST OF TABLES:

  • Table 1: Services
  • Table 2: 5.9 GHz DSRC U.S. Characteristics
  • Table 3: Events Priorities
  • Table 4: Requirements
  • Table 5: Service-related Characteristics
  • Table 6: 915 MHz and 5.9 GHz DSRC Differences
  • Table 7: 5.9 GHz DSRC Standards
  • Table 8: DSRC Advantages
  • Table 9: DSRC Benefits
  • Table 10: CALM-WG16
  • Table 11: ETSI ITS-related Standards
  • Table 12: 3G and 4G Features
  • Table 13: 3GPP Releases
  • Table 14: Major LTE Characteristics
  • Table 15: LTE Frequency Bands
  • Table 16: Release 8 Users Equipment Categories
  • Table 17: ITS-WSN Applications
  • Table 18: SMART SENSOR Node-Price Components
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