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Advances - IEEE 802.15 and Related Developments, Technologies and Markets - Second Edition

This report addresses the progress in the development technologies, applications and markets that are emerging under the umbrella of the IEEE 802.15 standards family (wireless PAN WG).

Particularly, the following standards were explored:

  • 802.15.6: Body Area Networks
  • 802.15.4j: Medical Body Area Networks
  • 802.15.4e: WPAN Enhancements
  • 802.15.4k: Low Energy Critical Infrastructure Monitoring
  • 802.15.4g: Smart Utility Networks
  • 802.15.7: Visible Light Communications
  • 802.15.8: Peer Aware Communications.

Some of these standards are intended to support technologies with very low power consumption; and power harvesting for sensors/radios is also addressed in the report. The report also concentrates on related developments in connection with discussed standards.

This is the second edition of the report, and it reflects changes from 2010-2011 issue - the IEEE 802.15 technologies and markets are developing rapidly

The report includes a detail analysis of vendors' portfolios in the related industries.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the design and implementation of WPANs.

Table of Contents

1.0. Introduction

  • 1.1. General
  • 1.2. Wireless Body Area Networks and Medical Body Area Networks
    • 1.2.1. Definitions
    • 1.2.2. FCC Efforts
      • 1.2.2.1. Spectrum
      • 1.2.2.2. Rules
  • 1.3. Smart Utility Networks
  • 1.4. Visible Light Communications
  • 1.5. Low Energy Critical Infrastructure Monitoring (LECIM)
  • 1.6. WPAN Enhancements
  • 1.7. Peer Aware Communications
  • 1.8. Active RFID
  • 1.9. Research Methodology
  • 1.10. Target Audience

2.0. Body Area Networks and Related Issues

  • 2.1. General
    • 2.1.1. Reasons
  • 2.2. Details
    • 2.2.1. Structure
  • 2.3. Highlights
  • 2.4. Groups
    • 2.4.1. By Application
    • 2.4.2. By Transmission Media
    • 2.4.3. By Number of Nodes
    • 2.4.4. By Environment
    • 2.4.5. By Radio Type
    • 2.4.6. By Source
    • 2.4.7. By Response
    • 2.4.8. By Power Supply Type
    • 2.4.9. User Groups
  • 2.5. BAN - Standardization Process
    • 2.5.1. General
    • 2.5.2. Wireless BAN - IEEE 802.15.6
      • 2.5.2.1. Requirements
      • 2.5.2.2. IEEE 802.15.6 Activity
      • 2.5.2.3. Status and Approval
        • 2.5.2.3.1. Purpose
      • 2.5.2.4. Major Characteristics
        • 2.5.2.4.1. Traffic Types
        • 2.5.2.4.2. PHY: Details
        • 2.5.2.4.3. MAC Layer
    • 2.5.3. Medical BAN - MBAN
      • 2.5.3.1. FCC
      • 2.5.3.2. IEEE 802.15.4j Details
        • 2.5.3.2.1. Purpose
        • 2.5.3.2.2. Status
        • 2.5.3.2.3. IEEE 802.15.6 and IEEE 802.15.4j
        • 2.5.3.2.4. Technical Details
  • 2.6. ISO/IEEE 11073
    • 2.6.1. Example - ISO/IEEE 11073 - 10471:2010
  • 2.7. Continua
    • 2.7.1. ZigBee: Personal, Home and Hospital Care (PHHC) Profile
      • 2.7.1.1. Objectives
      • 2.7.1.2. Details
      • 2.7.1.3. Major Services
    • 2.7.2. Bluetooth: Medical Profile
      • 2.7.2.1. IEEE 11073 and BT
  • 2.8. WBAN Applications and Market
    • 2.8.1. Applications: Summary
      • 2.8.1.1. Applications in Healthcare and Fitness
      • 2.8.1.2. Status
    • 2.8.2. WBAN for First Responders and Military
    • 2.8.3. Market Estimate
  • 2.9. Samples: Vendors
    • Bodymedia
    • FRWD
    • GuardRFID
    • Nokia
    • Suunto
    • Toumaz
    • Vivago
    • Zarlink (Microsemi)
  • 2.10. Current and Future Trends-Getting Closer to WBAN

3.0. Visible Light Communications

  • 3.1. General
    • 3.1.1. Free Space Optics and VLC
  • 3.2. Details
    • 3.2.1. Communications Channel
    • 3.2.2. Transmitter
    • 3.2.3. Receiver
  • 3.3. VLC Channel Parameters
    • 3.3.1. Frequencies and Modulation
    • 3.3.2. Characteristics
    • 3.3.3. Advances
    • 3.3.4. Limiting Factors
  • 3.4. LED Evolution
    • 3.4.1. General
    • 3.4.2. Development and Market
  • 3.5. Applications
  • 3.6. VLC Standards Development
    • 3.6.1. The IEEE
      • 3.6.1.1. Conditions
      • 3.6.1.2. Project
        • 3.6.1.2.1. General
          • 3.6.1.2.1.1. Highlights
      • 3.6.1.3. Details
        • 3.6.1.3.1. PHYs
        • 3.6.1.3.2. MAC Sub-layer
        • 3.6.1.3.3. Summary
    • 3.6.2. Jeita (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
    • 3.6.3. Visible Light Communications Consortium (VLCC)
      • 3.6.3.1. General
      • 3.6.3.2. Experimental Systems - VLCC Projects
    • 3.6.4. Companies and Organizations
      • Universities
      • ECMA
      • ITU-T SG16
      • Casio
      • Intel
      • LVX System
      • Nakagawa Laboratories
      • NEC
      • Siemens
      • Tamura
      • Wireless Word Research Forum (WWRF)

4.0. IEEE 802.15.4g: ICT for Smart Grid

  • 4.1. Structure
  • 4.2. Requirements
  • 4.3. IEEE-802.15.4g-Smart Utility Networks
    • 4.3.1. General
    • 4.3.2. Purpose
    • 4.3.3. Need
    • 4.3.4. Value
    • 4.3.5. Overview - PHY
    • 4.3.6. Regions
      • 4.3.6.1. Frequencies Allocations
    • 4.3.7. Details
      • 4.3.7.1. Requirements: Major Characteristics
      • 4.3.7.2. Considerations
      • 4.3.7.3. Network Requirements
      • 4.3.7.4. PHY/MAC Modifications
      • 4.3.7.5. Market
    • 4.3.8. Summary
    • 4.3.9. Wi-SUN
    • 4.3.10. Examples: Manufacturers
      • Accent
      • Analog Devices
      • Elster
      • NICT

5.0. IEEE 802.15 - Role of Power Harvesting

  • 5.1. General
  • 5.2. Methods
  • 5.3. Batteries
  • 5.4. Power Harvesting Technologies
    • 5.4.1. Energy Sources
    • 5.4.2. Market
    • 5.4.3. Industry
      • AdaptivEnergy
      • Advanced Cerametrics
      • Advanced Linear Devices
      • AD Hoc Electronics
      • AmbioSystems
      • Ambient Micro
      • Cymbet
      • EnOcean
      • GreenPeak
      • GreyStone
      • KCF
      • Microstrain
      • Micropelt
      • Noliac
      • Nokia
      • Perpetuum
      • Perpetua
      • Powercast
      • Schneider Electric
      • TI
      • Zarlink (Microsemi)

6.0. 802.15.4k: Low Energy Critical Infrastructure Monitoring (LECIM)

  • 6.1. General
  • 6.2. Goal
    • 6.2.1. Scope
  • 6.3. Requirements
  • 6.4. Future

7.0. IEEE 802.15.4e

  • 7.1. General
    • 7.1.1. Chinese WPAN
  • 7.2. Major Features
    • 7.2.1. Minimizing Power Consumption
  • 7.3. Summary

8.0. Active RFID

  • 8.1. Definition and Classification
  • 8.2. General - Active RFID
  • 8.3. DASH7 Technology and Applications
    • 8.3.1. General
    • 8.3.2. Specifics
    • 8.3.3. DASH7 Alliance
      • 8.3.3.1. Specification
        • 8.3.3.1.1. Physical Layer - PHY
        • 8.3.3.1.2. Data Layer
        • 8.3.3.1.3. Network Layer
        • 8.3.3.1.4. Higher Layers
        • 8.3.3.1.5. General Characteristics
        • 8.3.3.1.6. 433 MHz Transmission
  • 8.4. ISO/IEC 18000-7:2009
    • 8.4.1. Purpose
    • 8.4.2. Applications and Industry
      • Agaidi
      • Evigia
      • Hi-G-Tek
      • Identec Solutions
      • Savi
      • TI
      • WiHart Systems
  • 8.5. IEEE 802.15.4f
    • 8.5.1. Status
    • 8.5.2. Major Features
    • 8.5.3. Purpose
    • 8.5.4. PHY
    • 8.5.5. Beginning
      • Zebra Technologies
    • 8.5.6. Market Characteristics

9.0. IEEE 802.15.8

  • 9.1. Scope
  • 9.2. Purpose
  • 9.3. Structure: Layers
  • 9.4. Topology
  • 9.5. Operating Frequencies
  • 9.6. Range and Data Rate
  • 9.7. Power management
  • 9.8. Security
  • 9.9. Mobility Requirements

10.0. Conclusions

Appendix I: IEEE802.15.4g Characteristics

LIST OF FIGURES:

  • Figure 1: TAM: U.S. WICT Spending in Health Care ($B)
  • Figure 2: Sensor
  • Figure 3: BAN Characteristics
  • Figure 4: Architecture
  • Figure 5: Timeline
  • Figure 6: Proposed Spectrum - WBAN
  • Figure 7: PHYs
  • Figure 8: ISO/IEEE 11073 Protocol Family
  • Figure 9: BT HDP Building Blocks
  • Figure 10: TAM: U.S. WBAN Equipment Sales-In-home Fitness (Age Group 20-45 years) $M US
  • Figure 11: TAM: U.S. WBAN Equipment Sales-In-home Fitness (Age Group 45 and up) $M US
  • Figure 12: Addressable Market: U.S. WBAN Equipment Sales-Hospitals- $M US
  • Figure 13: Addressable Market-U.S. First Responders WBAN Equipment Sales ($M)
  • Figure 14: TAM: Medical Semiconductors ($B)
  • Figure 15: LED Modulation
  • Figure 16: Illustration-VLC Channel
  • Figure 17: Radio Spectrum
  • Figure 18: TAM - U.S. LED Sales ($B)
  • Figure 19: TAM - U.S. LED Sales (Mil Units)
  • Figure 20: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources
  • Figure 21: SUN Place
  • Figure 22: TAM Global SG SUN (IEEE802.15.4g) ($B)
  • Figure 23: Major Sources of Pollutions
  • Figure 24: TAM: Power Harvesting Network Elements Sales ($M)
  • Figure 25: Classification
  • Figure 26: Transmission Ranges
  • Figure 27: TAM: Global RFID/Active RFID ($B)

LIST OF TABLES:

  • Table 1: IEEE 802.15 WGs (sample)
  • Table 2: Classification
  • Table 3: Spectrum Details
  • Table 4: NB PHY Spectrum
  • Table 5: NB Data Rates
  • Table 6: UWB PHY Frequencies
  • Table 7: UWB Characteristics
  • Table 8: HBC PHY
  • Table 9: MAC QoS
  • Table 10: Comparison- 802.15.6 and 802.15.4j
  • Table 11: Modulation
  • Table 12: WBAN Medical Applications
  • Table 13: VLC Properties
  • Table 14: VLC and RF Communications Applications Comparison
  • Table 15: Locations Technologies-VLC Place
  • Table 16: Sources
  • Table 17: Active Tag vs. Passive Tag
  • Table 18: Active RFID - Applications
  • Table 19: Mode 1 and Mode 2
  • Table 20: DASH7 - PHY
  • Table 21: 433 MHz Band Parameters
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