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Land Mobile Radio and Public Safety Communications - Standards, Applications, Markets and Technologies

Abstract

Research Methodology

Considerable research was done using the Internet. Information from various Web sites was studied and analyzed; evaluation of publicly available marketing and technical publications was conducted. Telephone conversations and interviews were held with industry analysts, technical experts and executives. In addition to these interviews and primary research, secondary sources were used to develop a more complete mosaic of the market landscape, including industry and trade publications, conferences and seminars.

The overriding objective throughout the work has been to provide valid and relevant information. This has led to a continual review and update of the information content.

Target Audience

This report is important for organizations using LMR. They need to understand the market dynamics and to be familiar with vendors' portfolios to make a right choice in selection of equipment.

For LMR vendors, this report provides valuable information on competition. It also supports these vendors with the market assessments.

Brief

The goal of this report is to update LMR-related reports published by Practel in 2010-2011. The report is written for a wide audience of technical, managerial and sales staff of companies involved in the design, manufacturing and utilization of Land Mobile Radio; with the emphasis on Public Safety Communications (PSC) applications.

Particular, this report includes:

1. The updated analysis of the phased development of P25 radio. The current status of the technology, markets and standards and survey of vendors are presented. Though the standardization process started almost twenty years ago, commercialization is still slow; and the market development is unsatisfactory. This situation is addressed by all parties involved in the PSC development in the U.S.

2. The updated analysis of the phased development of TETRA radio. This technology found more geographically spread market segments than P25 (and we are at the beginning of TETRA penetration into the U.S. territory). Its Release II offers a combination of voice and data transmission that brings sufficient benefits to the users; but the growth of markets still does not satisfy the TETRA community.

3. The updated analysis of narrow-banding LMR radios, including NXDN and MOTOTRBO. The NXDN radio development is a result of joint efforts of two companies, Icom and Kenwood and it is based on the FDMA technology. The companies developed two lines of products, IDAS (Icom) and NEXEDGE (Kenwood); these radios were implemented with many advanced technological features, including 6.25 kHz channels. At the same time, Motorola introduced its MOTOTRBO line of digital LMRs, which also utilized newer technologies and is based on the TDMA technology.

4. The analysis of the 4.9 GHz radio technology for broadband PSC. The FCC allocated the 4940-4990 MHz spectrum for broadband PSC. The technology can utilize the existing Wi-Fi ICs, and it supports long-reach communications with speeds 50 Mb/s and up. It utilizes a) OFDM, b) Multi-radio platforms, and c) Self-healing and self-organized mesh topology. One of the major 4.9 GHz radio applications for PSC is temporary fast-deployable networks.

5. The update on the role of LTE technologies in the development of Public Safety Communications. 4G LTE is increasingly recognized as the right wireless technology to evolve and standardize public safety communications. In January 2011, the Federal Communications Commission in the United States selected LTE as the data standard for a nationwide public safety network. LTE's ability to enable nationwide interoperability was a key factor in the FCC decision. The First Responder Network Authority board voted unanimously (2013) to start a process that could enable seven public-safety jurisdictions to resume LTE network deployments they were forced to halt in the spring of 2012.

6. Altogether, the following major trends in the development of PSC were identified:

  • a) Advancing P25 and TETRA technologies, including various interoperability methods;
  • b) Further developing of SDR - based platforms and broadband PSC;
  • c) Gradual introduction of the LTE technology;
  • d) In the analyzed time period, standardized narrowband LMR technologies (P25, TETRA, NXDN and other) will support the growing markets;
  • e) 4G technologies (such as LTE) are introducing PSC features gradually; and expect to present serious competition (to P25 and TETRA) in the 2018-2020 time frame. It is very possible that at that time the transition of these "traditional" networks to the 4G infrastructure will be in progress.

Practel will continue the analysis of LMR technologies and markets trends: dynamics of developments require a periodic update of reports.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Current Situation
  • 1.2 Requirements to Public Safety Radio
  • 1.3 Scope and Goals
  • 1.4 Research Methodology
  • 1.5 Target Audience

2.0 PSC Spectrum

  • 2.1 U.S.
    • 2.1.1 FCC
    • 2.1.2 800 MHz Band
    • 2.1.3 700 MHz Band
  • 2.2 EU

3.0 Project P25

  • 3.1 Standardization Process and Technologies
    • 3.1.1 General: P25 Standard
    • 3.1.2 Process
    • 3.1.3 Beginning
    • 3.1.4 Project 25/TIA 102: Scope
      • 3.1.4.1 Efforts
      • 3.1.4.2 Phased Approach
        • 3.1.4.2.1 Phases
        • 3.1.4.2.2 Phase I
        • 3.1.4.2.3 Phase II
    • 3.1.5 Status
    • 3.1.6 CAP

4.0 P25 Development-Phase I

  • 4.1 General Mission and Objectives
    • 4.1.2 Compliance
    • 4.1.3 Benefits and Issues
  • 4.2 Technical Highlights- Interfaces
    • 4.2.1 Common Air Interface
    • 4.2.2 Fixed Station Interface
    • 4.2.3 Console Sub-system Interface (CSSI)
    • 4.2.4 RF Sub-system
    • 4.2.5 Inter-system Interface (ISSI)
    • 4.2.5.1 ISSI Technology
    • 4.2.6 Telephone Interconnect Interface
    • 4.2.7 Network Management Interface
    • 4.2.8 Host and Network Data Interfaces
    • 4.2.9 Summary: Interfaces
  • 4.3 Security
  • 4.4 Coding
  • 4.5 Frequency Bands
    • 4.5.1 Spectrum: Problems
    • 4.5.2 700 MHz Band
  • 4.6 P25 Voice Messaging
  • 4.7 Major Improvements
  • 4.8 Services
  • 4.9 Network Scenario
  • 4.10 Summary

5.0 P25 Phase II

  • 5.1 Transition
  • 5.2 Scope
    • 5.2.1 Air Interface - Phase II
    • 5.2.2 Attributes
    • 5.2.3 Data Services Standards
    • 5.2.4 Enhancements
  • 5.3 Time

6.0 P25 Radio Market Analysis

  • 6.1 General
  • 6.2 Geography
  • 6.3 Market Drivers
  • 6.4 Market Forecast
    • 6.4.1 Developments
    • 6.4.2 Model Assumptions
    • 6.4.3 Addressable Market Estimate

7.0 P25 Industry

  • Avtec
  • Catalyst
  • Cassidian Communications
  • Daniels (acquired by Coden in 2012)
  • Datron
  • Digital Voice System
  • EF Johnson (Acquired by FP-EF Holding in 2010)
  • Etherstack
  • Harris
  • Kenwood
  • Midland
  • Motorola Solutions
  • Northern Airborne
  • Objective Interface Systems
  • PowerTrunk
  • Pyramid Communications
  • Relm
  • Raytheon JPS
  • Simoco
  • Technisonic Industries
  • Thales
  • Tait Electronics
  • Teltronic
  • Vertex Standard
  • Westel
  • Wireless Pacific

8.0 TETRA

  • 8.1 General
    • 8.1.1 Major Milestones
  • 8.2 TETRA: Scope-Release I
    • 8.2.1 General
    • 8.2.2 Spectrum Regulations
    • 8.2.3 TETRA and GSM
    • 8.2.4 Main Features
    • 8.2.4.1 General
    • 8.2.4.2 Technical Details
    • 8.2.4.3 Services
    • 8.2.5 Benefits
    • 8.2.6 Networking
    • 8.2.7 Release I Details
    • 8.2.7.1 General
    • 8.2.7.2 Interfaces
    • 8.2.7.3 Infrastructure
    • 8.2.7.4 Spectrum Allocation
    • 8.2.7.5 Mobiles
  • 8.3 P25 and TETRA
    • 8.3.1 General
    • 8.3.2 Characteristics
    • 8.3.3 Modifications
    • 8.3.4 TETRA in North America
    • 8.3.4.1 FCC Position
  • 8.4 Security
  • 8.5 Summary
  • 8.6 TETRA Release II
    • 8.6.1 Drivers
      • 8.6.1.1 Rational
    • 8.6.2 Applications
    • 8.6.3 Trunked Mode Operation (TMO) Range Extension
    • 8.6.4 Adaptive Multiple Rate (AMR) Voice Codec
    • 8.6.5 Mixed Excitation Liner Predictive, Enhanced (MELPe) Voice Codec
    • 8.6.6 Data Services Development
      • 8.6.6.1 TAPS
      • 8.6.6.2 TEDS
    • 8.6.7 Comparison
    • 8.6.8 Standardization Status
  • 8.7 Market Analysis
    • 8.7.1 General
    • 8.7.2 Certification
    • 8.7.3 Geography
    • 8.7.4 Market Drivers-Industries-Applications
    • 8.7.5 Market Forecast
      • 8.7.5.1 Model Assumptions
      • 8.7.5.2 Market Estimate
    • 8.7.6 Vendors
      • 3T Communications (acquired by Sepura in 2012)
      • Artevea
      • Cassidian
      • ClearTone
      • DAMM Cellular
      • EtherStack
      • Groupco
      • Hytera
      • Motorola (Motorola Solutions)
      • Niros
      • Pegasus Network
      • Portalify
      • Rohill
      • Sepura
      • Selex ES
      • Teltronic
      • Team Simoco
      • Thales

9.0 NXDN and MOTOTRBO

  • 9.1 FCC Requirements
  • 9.2 NXDN Forum
    • 9.2.1 Specifications
    • 9.2.2 Overview
  • 9.3 Origin and Technologies
    • 9.3.1 NEXEDGE and IDAS
    • 9.3.2 Initiatives
  • 9.4 Major Differences
  • 9.5 Spectrum
  • 9.6 NXDN and dPMR
  • 9.7 Updates
  • 9.8 NEXEDGE
    • 9.8.1 The Company
    • 9.8.2 NEXEDGE Major Features
    • 9.8.3 Technology
      • 9.8.3.1 Air Interface
      • 9.8.3.2 Operation Modes
        • 9.8.3.2.1 Digital Conventional Mode
        • 9.8.3.2.2 Digital Trunked Mode
        • 9.8.3.2.3 Digital Trunked Wide Area IP Networks
    • 9.8.4 Benefits
    • 9.8.5 Licensing
    • 9.8.6 Products
  • 9.9 IDAS
    • 9.9.1 Background
    • 9.9.2 Technology
      • 9.9.2.1 General
      • 9.9.2.2 Major Features
      • 9.9.2.3 Major Benefits
      • 9.9.2.4 Products
    • 9.9.3 Future Enhancements
  • 9.10 Industry
    • Aeroflex
    • CML Microcircuits
    • Digital Voice Systems, Inc
    • Ritron
    • Twisted Pair
    • Zetron
  • 9.11 NXDN Market Perspective and Applications
    • 9.11.1 Applications
      • 9.11.1.1 General
      • 9.11.1.2 RR Applications
      • 9.11.1.3 Plans
    • 9.11.2 Market
  • 9.12 MotoTRBO
    • 9.12.1 General
    • 9.12.2 Major Features
      • 9.12.2.1 Abilities
      • 9.12.2.2 Progress
    • 9.12.3 Basis-TDMA Potentials
    • 9.12.4 Sales
    • 9.12.5 Products
    • 9.12.6 MOTOTRBO Services
    • 9.12.7 Availability
    • 9.12.8 Applications

10.0 Public Safety - 4.9 GHz Radio for Broadband

  • 10.1 General
  • 10.2 Spectrum Allocation
  • 10.3 4.9 GHz Public Safety Radio Applications
  • 10.4 FCC Process
  • 10.5 International
  • 10.6 Eligibility
  • 10.7 Conditions
  • 10.8 Frequencies Allocations
  • 10.8.1 Public Safety Bands
  • 10.9 Users
  • 10.10 Benefits of the 4.9 GHz Band
  • 10.11 4.9 GHz Radio Standards and Related Technologies
    • 10.11.1 Details
    • 10.11.2 Mesh Networks
      • 10.11.2.1 Specifics
      • 10.11.2.2 IEEE 802.11s
        • 10.11.2.2.1 Approval
    • 10.11.3 OFDM
    • 10.11.4 Multi-radio Platforms
    • 10.11.5 WiMax
  • 10.12 4.9 GHz Radio Market
    • 10.12.1 General
    • 10.12.2 Forecast
  • 10.13 4.9 GHz Radio Industry
    • Airaya
    • Alvarion
    • Aperto
    • Azuretec
    • Belair (acquired by Ericsson in 2012)
    • Carlson Wireless
    • Cisco
    • Exalt
    • Firetide
    • Fluidmesh Networks
    • Hautespot Networks
    • MeshDynamics
    • Motorola Solutions
    • Proxim Wireless
    • Redline
    • RadWin
    • SkyPilot - Trilliant
    • Solectek
    • Strix
    • Teletronics
    • Trango Systems
    • Tranzeo
    • Tropos (acquired by ABB in 2012)

11.0 PSC and LTE

  • 11.1 FirstNet
  • 11.2 Progress
    • 11.2.1 U.S.
    • 11.2.2 Europe
  • 11.3 Major Benefits
  • 11.4 Industry and Service Providers
    • AT&T
    • CalAmp
    • Cassidian
    • Harris
    • Motorola Solutions
    • NIST
    • Verizon Wireless
  • 11.5 Timeline
  • 11.6 Standardization

12.0 Conclusions

  • Attachment I: P25 Service Availability Matrix
  • Attachment II: P25 Standards
  • Attachment III: Countries with P25-Compliant Radio
  • Attachment IV: FCC Ruling- 4.9 MHz Radio
  • Attachment V: TETRA Networks
  • Attachment VI: TETRA Standards
  • Figure 1: FCC PSC Spectrum Allocation
  • Figure 2: 800 MHz Reconfiguration Plan
  • Figure 3: 700 MHz Band
  • Figure 4: APCO Project 25 Interface Committee
  • Figure 5: Generic-P25 System Structure
  • Figure 6: P25 System - Major Interfaces
  • Figure 7: ISSI-P25 System-to-System
  • Figure 8: ISSI-Roaming
  • Figure 9: State and Local PSC Spectrum
  • Figure 10: Revised Frequency Plan
  • Figure 11: Revised Spectrum (Upper 700 MHz sub-band)
  • Figure 12: 700 MHz Auction
  • Figure 13: Example-Network Scenario
  • Figure 14: Phase II Modulation
  • Figure 15: Family
  • Figure 16: CAI Details
  • Figure 17: Capacity
  • Figure 18: Vocoders
  • Figure 19: TAM: PSC P25 Equipment Sales (U.S. and Canada, $B)
  • Figure 20: P25 Radio Major Applications
  • Figure 21: TETRA Association Structure
  • Figure 22: TETRA Release I
  • Figure 23: TETRA Interworking Illustration
  • Figure 24: TETRA Interoperability Interfaces
  • Figure 25: Network Scenarios
  • Figure 26: TETRA Release I Interfaces
  • Figure 27: TETRA: Spectrum Allocation
  • Figure 28: Phased Approach - TETRA and P25
  • Figure 29: TETRA RII Application Developments
  • Figure 30: Directions
  • Figure 31: TAPS
  • Figure 32: TEDS RF Channel Characteristics
  • Figure 33: Spectral Efficiency
  • Figure 34: Rates and Range
  • Figure 35: TETRA TEDS Characteristics
  • Figure 36: Illustration of TETRA Market Geography (2012)
  • Figure 37: TETRA Segmentation by Industries (2012)
  • Figure 38: TAM: TETRA Equipment Global Sales ($B)
  • Figure 39: TAM: TETRA BS & Associated Equipment Global Sales ($B)
  • Figure 40: TAM: TETRA BS & Associated Equipment Global Sales (Unit 000)
  • Figure 41: Vendors Segmentation
  • Figure 42: FCC Timeline
  • Figure 43: Adopted Frequency Band Plan (UHF)
  • Figure 44: Adopted Frequency Band Plan (VHF)
  • Figure 45: TAM: U.S. NXDN Equipment Sales ($B)
  • Figure 46: Mesh Network Diagram
  • Figure 47: TAM: U.S. Mobile and Hand-held 4.9 GHz Radio Sales ($B)
  • Figure 48: 4.9 GHz Network Infrastructure Dynamics
  • Figure 49: D-Band Illustration
  • Figure 50: Converged Network
  • Table 1: P25 Advantages and Issues
  • Table 2: CAI Characteristics
  • Table 3: PSR Bands
  • Table 4: P25 Services
  • Table 5: Phase II Documentation
  • Table 6: Structure of Purchasing
  • Table 7: TETRA Established
  • Table 8: TETRA Release I-Major Characteristics
  • Table 9: TETRA Needs122
  • Table 10: Applications (Release II)
  • Table 11: Evolution of TETRA Applications
  • Table 12: IDAS Products
  • Table 13: Emergency Services
  • Table 14: Requirements
  • Table 15: Power Limits
  • Table 16: Frequencies Allocations: 4.9 GHz Band
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