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Rhenium: Global Industry Markets & Outlook, 9th Edition 2013

Roskill's 9th report on Rhenium will be published within 5 weeks. If you're involved with Rhenium in any way, it will help you make the right decisions.

The NEW Roskill report on rhenium uses our comprehensive database to provide estimates of mine production of rhenium contained in molybdenum concentrates, most of which is not credited to the miner and much of which is not recovered and also secondary production. The report also assesses global rhenium resources associated with copper and molybdenum ores.

Rhenium imparts creep resistance to superalloys used at extreme temperatures in aero engines and industrial gas turbines. Because of fears concerning security of supply, rhenium prices and availability have shown periods of great volatility thereby discouraging alloy makers from relying on the metal. This report provides a perspective on the rhenium market, giving both potential and existing producers and consumers the wherewithal on which to base their decisions.

In addition to its invaluable contribution to the stability of superalloys, the safety and the efficiency of aero engines, rhenium is used in reforming catalysts in the production of high octane petroleum additives. It is also used as a promoter in catalysts in gas-to-liquid operations, which, although small currently, may assume much greater importance in the long term in the light of the rapid expansion of shale gas output in the USA and elsewhere.

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Roskill's report on rhenium will help you answer questions such as:

  • What are the long term prospects for the supply of rhenium?
  • In the event of significantly greater demand for rhenium would producers be able to meet demand?
  • What is the likelihood of further price volatility?
  • Where and in what are the main markets for rhenium?
  • What is the outlook for the rhenium markets and where are the likely growth areas?
  • Would a greater availability of rhenium stabilize the market and expand its superalloy applications?

Table of Contents

1. Summary

  • 1.1. Properties, occurrence and resources
  • 1.2. Recovery processes
  • 1.3. World supply
  • 1.4. Consumption
  • 1.5. International trade
  • 1.6. Prices

2. History, occurrence, properties and resources of rhenium

  • 2.1. Properties
  • 2.2. Reserves and resources of rhenium

3. Rhenium recovery processes

  • 3.1. Primary rhenium recovery processes
    • 3.1.1. Recovery from molybdenum concentrate roasting
    • 3.1.2. Other recovery processes
  • 3.2. Secondary rhenium recovery processes

4. World production of rhenium

  • 4.1. Primary production of rhenium
    • 4.1.1. Primary production by country
    • 4.1.2. Primary production of rhenium by company
  • 4.2. Mine production of rhenium by country
  • 4.3. Secondary production of rhenium
    • 4.3.1. Secondary production of rhenium by country
    • 4.3.2. Secondary rhenium capacity by company
  • 4.4. Outlook for the production of rhenium

5. Current and potential rhenium-producing countries and companies

  • 5.1. Argentina
    • 5.1.1. Minera Alumbrera
    • 5.1.2. Minera Alumbrera/Yamana Gold - Agua Rica Project
    • 5.1.3. Other
  • 5.2. Armenia
    • 5.2.1. Armenian Molybdenum Production (AMP)
    • 5.2.2. Yerevan Pure Iron Plant (YPIP)
  • 5.3. Australia
    • 5.3.1. Ivanhoe Australia Ltd.
    • 5.3.2. Other projects
  • 5.4. Austria
  • 5.5. Belgium
  • 5.6. Burkina Faso
  • 5.7. Canada
    • 5.7.1. Rhenium resources
    • 5.7.2. Rhenium production
      • 5.7.2.1. Molycorp
  • 5.8. Chile
    • 5.8.1. Resources of rhenium
    • 5.8.2. Rhenium production
      • 5.8.2.1. Molibdenos y Metales S.A (Molymet)
    • 5.8.3. Production of rhenium-bearing molybdenum concentrate
      • 5.8.3.1. Codelco
      • 5.8.3.2. Antofagasta plc
      • 5.8.3.3. Cia Minera Doa Ins de Collahuasi
      • 5.8.3.4. Anglo American Sur
      • 5.8.3.5. Amerigo Resources
      • 5.8.3.6. Potential new sources of rhenium
  • 5.9. China 1
    • 5.9.1. Producers of primary rhenium
  • 5.10. Colombia
  • 5.11. Estonia
  • 5.12. France
  • 5.13. Germany
    • 5.13.1.1. Buss & Buss Spezialmetalle GmbH
    • 5.13.1.2. Heraeus Precious Metals
    • 5.13.1.3. H.C. Starck GmbH & Company KG
  • 5.14. Iran
  • 5.15. Japan
  • 5.16. Kazakhstan
    • 5.16.1. Zhezkazganredmet
  • 5.17. South Korea
  • 5.18. Mexico
    • 5.18.1. Minera Mexico
    • 5.18.2. Molymex
  • 5.19. Mongolia
    • 5.19.1. Erdenet Corp
    • 5.19.2. Erdene Resource Development - Zuun Mod
    • 5.19.3. Mongolyn Alt Group - Tsagaan-Suvraga
  • 5.20. Netherlands
  • 5.21. Papua New Guinea
  • 5.22. Peru
    • 5.22.1. Rhenium resources in Peru
    • 5.22.2. Production of rhenium contained in molybdenum concentrates
      • 5.22.2.1. Southern Copper Corporation
      • 5.22.2.2. Ca Minera Antamina SA
      • 5.22.2.3. Freeport McMoRan - Cerro Verde
    • 5.22.3. Potential new sources of rhenium
  • 5.23. Poland
    • 5.23.1. KGHM Ecoren
  • 5.24. Russia
  • 5.25. Serbia
  • 5.26. Tadjikistan
  • 5.27. Turkey
  • 5.28. UK
  • 5.29. USA
    • 5.29.1. Resources
    • 5.29.2. Primary production of rhenium
      • 5.29.2.1. Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold
      • 5.29.2.2. Rio Tinto - Kennecott Utah Copper
      • 5.29.2.3. Other producers of rhenium-bearing concentrates
    • 5.29.3. Potential future sources of primary rhenium
    • 5.29.4. Producers of secondary rhenium in the USA
      • 5.29.4.1. AAA Molybdenum Products, Inc.
      • 5.29.4.2. Gemini Industries
      • 5.29.4.3. Colonial Metals Inc.
      • 5.29.4.4. Titan Metal Recovery
      • 5.29.4.5. CP Chemicals Group
      • 5.29.4.6. Heraeus Metal Processing
    • 5.29.5. Fabricators of rhenium
      • 5.29.5.1. BASF
      • 5.29.5.2. Concept Alloys L.L.C
      • 5.29.5.3. H. Cross Company
      • 5.29.5.4. Powmet Incorporated
      • 5.29.5.5. Rhenium Alloys Incorporated
      • 5.29.5.6. Ultramet
  • 5.30. Uzbekistan

6. Consumption and supply and demand of rhenium

  • 6.1. Consumption of rhenium by end-use
  • 6.2. Consumption of rhenium by country
  • 6.3. Rhenium supply and demand balance

7. End-uses of rhenium

  • 7.1. Superalloys
    • 7.1.1. Use of rhenium in nickel-based superalloys
    • 7.1.2. Markets for rhenium-containing superalloys
      • 7.1.2.1. Aero engines
      • 7.1.2.2. Industrial gas turbines
      • 7.1.2.3. Other markets for superalloys
  • 7.2. Consumption of rhenium in catalysts
    • 7.2.1. Rhenium use in catalytic reforming of naphtha
      • 7.2.1.1. Catalytic reforming processes
      • 7.2.1.2. Principal platinum-rhenium catalytic reforming processes
      • 7.2.1.3. Market for reforming catalysts
    • 7.2.2. Rhenium use in catalysts for BTX production
    • 7.2.3. Gas-to-liquid catalysts
    • 7.2.4. Rhenium use in catalysts for the direct oxidation of ethylene
    • 7.2.5. Catalyst regeneration and recycling
  • 7.3. Consumption of rhenium in other end-uses
    • 7.3.1. Use of tungsten-rhenium and molybdenum-rhenium alloys
      • 7.3.1.1. Use of rhenium alloys in lamp filaments
      • 7.3.1.2. Use of rhenium alloys in other filament applications
      • 7.3.1.3. Use of rhenium alloys in heater elements
      • 7.3.1.4. Use of rhenium alloys in X-ray tubes and targets
      • 7.3.1.5. Use of rhenium alloys in thermocouples
      • 7.3.1.6. Use of rhenium and rhenium alloys in electrical contacts
    • 7.3.2. Use of rhenium in booster rocket nozzles
    • 7.3.3. Uses of rhenium compounds

8. Market outlook for rhenium to 2018

  • 8.1.1. Outlook for rhenium use in superalloys
    • 8.1.1.1. Outlook for rhenium use in aero engines
    • 8.1.1.2. Outlook for rhenium use in land-based IGT
  • 8.1.2. Outlook for rhenium in catalysts
  • 8.1.3. Outlook for rhenium consumption in other uses

9. International trade in rhenium

  • 9.1. Rhenium metal
  • 9.2. Ammonium perrhenate (APR)
  • 9.3. Other

10. Rhenium prices

  • 10.1. Contract pricing
  • 10.2. Spot pricing
    • 10.2.1. Rhenium spot price history
  • 10.3. Customs values of rhenium
  • 10.4. Rhenium price forecast to 2018

List of Tables:

  • 1. Properties of rhenium
  • 2. World: Rhenium reserves by country
  • 3. World: Estimated rhenium content of principal copper-molybdenum porphyry deposits
  • 4. World: Estimated production of primary and secondary rhenium, 2002 to 2012
  • 5. World: Estimated primary production/supply of rhenium by country, 2002 to 2012
  • 6. World: Estimated primary rhenium capacity by company, 2012
  • 7. World: Estimated mine production of rhenium by country, 2002 to 2011
  • 8. World: Estimated secondary production of rhenium, 2002 to 2011
  • 9. Estimated rhenium recycling capacity by company
  • 10. World: Planned new/expanded primary rhenium capacity, 2012
  • 11. Mining projects with potential for rhenium recovery, 2012
  • 12. Argentina: Estimated rhenium resources at Cu-Mo deposits
  • 13. Armenia: Estimated rhenium resources at Cu-Mo deposits
  • 14. Canada: Estimated rhenium resources at Cu-Mo deposits
  • 15. Chile: Exports of rhenium metal by destination, 2005 to 2012
  • 16. Chile: Estimated rhenium resources at Cu-Mo deposits
  • 17. Molymet: Imports of raw molybdenum concentrates by country and company, 2006 to 2011
  • 18. Chile: Estimated rhenium content of imports of raw molybdenum concentrate, 2006 to 2011
  • 19. Molymet: Details of rhenium products supplied
  • 20. Chile: Estimated mine production of rhenium by mine, 2004 to 2011
  • 21. Chile: Min. Los Pelambres: Estimated rhenium content of exports of raw molybdenum concentrates, 2005 to 2011
  • 22. Germany: Inferred exports of rhenium to the USA, 2001 to 2010
  • 23. Kazakhstan: Production and inferred exports of rhenium to the USA, 2002 to 2011
  • 24. Mongolia: Estimated rhenium resources at Cu-Mo deposits
  • 25. Papua New Guinea: Estimated rhenium resources in molybdenum-copper mining projects
  • 26. Peru: Exports of unroasted molybdenum concentrates containing rhenium, 2006 to 2012
  • 27. Peru: Estimated resources of rhenium
  • 28. Peru: Estimated mine production of rhenium by mine, 1995-2012
  • 29. UK: Imports and exports of rhenium, 2004 to 2011
  • 30. USA: Production and imports of rhenium and APR, 2006 to 2012
  • 31. USA: Estimated rhenium resources at copper-molybdenum
  • 32. USA: Estimated mine production of rhenium by mine, 2004 to 2011
  • 33. USA: Companies recycling rhenium
  • 34. USA: Companies fabricating and trading rhenium
  • 35. Consumption of rhenium by end-use, 2002 to 2012
  • 36. World: Consumption of rhenium by in the USA and the rest of the world, properties, 2002 to 2012
  • 37. World: Estimated rhenium supply and demand balance, 2002 to 2012
  • 38. Composition of selected single crystal nickel-base superalloys containing rhenium
  • 39. Deliveries of aero engines by producer, 2000 to 2012
  • 40. Commercial aero engines by thrust, aircraft type and manufacturer
  • 41. Companies participating in surveys of gas turbine orders, 2008 to 2011
  • 42. Size and applications of gas turbines ordered by participating companies, 2011
  • 43. Rhenium-bearing catalysts used in catalytic reforming of naphtha
  • 44. World: Catalytic reforming capacity by region, 2002 to 2006, 2009 and 2011
  • 45. Uses of BTX compounds
  • 46. World: Production capacity for aromatics by principal countries, start of 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2011
  • 47. World: Forecast of rhenium demand by application, 2012 to 2018
  • 48. Forecast demand for rhenium in aero engines, 2012 to 2018
  • 49. USA: Imports of rhenium metal by country of origin, 2001 to 2009
  • 50. Chile: Exports of rhenium metal by destination, 2004 to 2012
  • 51. USA: Imports of ammonium perrhenate by country, 2002 to 2012
  • 52. Chile: Exports of APR by country, 2006 to 2012
  • 53. Chile: Average values of exports of rhenium metal, 2005 to 2012
  • 54. Chile: Exports of ammonium perrhenate by country, 2006 to 2012
  • 55. USA: Average value of rhenium metal imports by country of origin, 2003 to 2012
  • 56. USA: Average value of ammonium perrhenate imports by country of origin, 2003 to 2012
  • 57. Forecast rhenium metal prices, 2012 to 2018

List of Figures:

  • 1. World: Estimated supply and demand and spot prices of rhenium, 2002 to 2012
  • 2. World: Estimated division of rhenium resources contained in copper-molybdenum porphyry deposits
  • 3. World: Supply of primary and recycled rhenium, 2002 to 2012
  • 4. World: Primary production/supply of rhenium, 2000 to 2012
  • 5. World: Estimated production/supply of primary rhenium by country, 2002 to 2012
  • 6. World: Estimated division of primary rhenium production/supply by country, 2012
  • 7. World: Division of estimated mine production of rhenium, 2011
  • 8. World: Estimated demand for rhenium, 2000 to 2012
  • 9. Consumption of rhenium by end-use, 2002 to 2012
  • 10. Supply and demand of rhenium, 2002 to 2012, with forecast to 2018
  • 11. World: Use of superalloys by sector
  • 12. Deliveries of aero engines by producing company, 2000 to 2012
  • 13. World: Aircraft deliveries, 1980 to 2012 (units)
  • 14. Participating companies: Gas turbine orders, 1979 to 2011
  • 15. Size and applications of gas turbines ordered by participating companies, 2012
  • 16. World: Consumption of energy by fuel, 2005 to 2012
  • 17. World: Catalytic reforming capacity by region, 2011
  • 18. World: Forecast of demand for rhenium, 2018
  • 19. USA: Division of imports of rhenium metal by country of origin for period from 2002 to October 2012
  • 20. Chile: Division of exports of rhenium metal by country of destination for period from 2004 to 2012
  • 21. USA: Division of imports of APR by country of origin for the period 2003 to 2012
  • 22. Prices for rhenium in the spot market, 2004 to 2012
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