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Rare Earths & Yttrium: Market Outlook to 2015, 14th Edition 2011

Abstract

The rare earths industry is at a turning point, as new sources of supply come on stream, industry in China consolidates under a limited number of state owned enterprises, and consumers re-evaluate the way in which rare earths are used after a period of unprecedented high prices.

Measures taken to control production in China are becoming more effective, resulting in a decline in official production of over 4%py from 2006 to 2011. In 2011, China accounted for 94% of world production and this is expected to fall to just over 70% by 2015. An increasing proportion of Chinese supply is now required for its domestic industries which will account for 70% of total demand for rare earths in 2011. New projects in the rest of the world are forecast to contribute an additional 56,000-57,000t REO to supply by 2015.

All the growth in demand between 2005 and 2010 came from China (11%py); growth in the rest of the world fell by almost 4%py, largely a consequence of the global economic downturn in 2009 and a tightening of the Chinese export quota in 2010, which restricted availability. In the years to 2015, the main demand driver will be the use of rare earths in NdFeB magnets, which are forecast to grow at 11-13%py as potential markets expand to include applications in permanent magnet motors for electric vehicles and wind turbines. Magnets could account for nearly one third of demand by 2015. Strong growth in demand is also forecast for rare earths in NiMH batteries, phosphors, optical glass and ceramics.

From June 2010, when the Chinese export quota fell by nearly 40%, prices for most rare earths began to rise sharply, particularly for the lower cost LREEs where traders limited sales in order to maximise exports of higher value HREEs. Prices for those rare earths used in magnet alloys also rose rapidly in response to strong demand within China. At the start of Q4 2011, prices underwent some correction but are still at a level that has caused end users to look at reformulation, alternative technologies and recycling.

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Get accurate answers from independent experts

  • Where are the most prospective sources of rare earths?
  • What proportion of additional supply in 2015 will be based on LREE deposits?
  • Which are the main companies involved in the consolidation of the Chinese rare earths industry?
  • What are the main factors affecting demand for rare earths in glass and polishing powders?
  • What is the outlook for the supply demand balance in the rare earth market?
  • What are the main factors affecting price trends to 2015?

Table of Contents

1 Summary

  • 1.1 Supply
  • 1.2 Demand
  • 1.3 Review of applications
  • 1.4 Prices
  • 1.5 Future trends

2 Introduction

3 Occurrence and reserves

  • 3.1 Mineral resources and reserves
  • 3.2 Rare earth occurrences
    • 3.2.1 Primary deposits
      • 3.2.1.1 Carbonatites
      • 3.2.1.2 Igneous rock
    • 3.2.2 Secondary deposits
      • 3.2.2.1 Placer deposits
    • 3.2.3 Other sources
  • 3.3 Reserves
    • 3.3.1 Rare earth reserves
    • 3.3.2 Yttrium reserves

4 Mining and processing

  • 4.1 Rare earth ores
    • 4.1.1 Bastnaesite
    • 4.1.2 Ion absorption clays
    • 4.1.3 Monazite
      • 4.1.3.1 Mining & physical separation
      • 4.1.3.2 Alkaline processing of monazite
      • 4.1.3.3 Acid processing of monazite
    • 4.1.4 Xenotime
    • 4.1.5 Eudialyte
    • 4.1.6 Apatite
    • 4.1.7 Loparite
    • 4.1.8 Uranium raffinates
  • 4.2 Solvent extraction (Liquid-liquid extraction)
  • 4.3 Ion absorption (Liquid-solid extraction)

5 World production of rare earths

  • 5.1 Rare earth minerals
  • 5.2 Processed rare earths
  • 5.3 Future supply

6 Production and processing of rare earths by country and company

  • 6.1 Greenland
  • 6.1 Australia
    • 6.1.1 Reserves
    • 6.1.2 Alkane Resources Limited (Dubbo Zirconia Project)
    • 6.1.3 Arafura Resources Limited (Nolans Project)
    • 6.1.4 Lynas Corporation Limited (Mount Weld Project)
      • 6.1.4.1 Kangankunde Carbonatite Complex
  • 6.2 South Africa
  • 6.2 Austria
    • 6.2.1 Treibacher Industrie AG
  • 6.3 Belgium
    • 6.3.1 Umicore Group
  • 6.4 Brazil
  • 6.5 Canada
    • 6.5.1 Avalon Rare Metals Inc.
      • 6.5.1.1 Nechalacho REE Deposit
    • 6.5.2 Great Western Minerals Group Ltd
      • 6.5.2.1 Hoidas Lake REE deposit
    • 6.5.3 Matamec Explorations Inc
    • 6.5.4 Neo Material Technologies
      • 6.5.4.1 Pitinga Tin Mine
    • 6.5.5 Quest Rare Minerals Ltd
      • 6.5.5.1 Strange Lake REE Deposit
      • 6.5.5.2 Misery Lake REE deposit
  • 6.6 China
    • 6.6.1 Reserves
    • 6.6.2 Chinese government policy for the rare earth industry
    • 6.6.3 Government controls on rare earth mining
    • 6.6.4 Government controls on processing of rare earths
      • 6.6.4.1 Environmental controls
      • 6.6.4.2 Production quotas
    • 6.6.5 Overview of mining and processing
    • 6.6.6 Consolidation of ownership of rare earth resources and processing operations
    • 6.6.7 Profiles of the main rare earth mining and processing companies in Inner Mongolia
      • 6.6.7.1 Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel Rare Earth (Group) Hi-Tech Co. (Baotou Rare Earth)
      • 6.6.7.2 Baotou Xinyuan Rare Earths Co.
      • 6.6.7.3 Baotou Rhodia Rare Earth
      • 6.6.7.4 Baotou Jinmeng Rare Earth Co.
      • 6.6.7.5 Baotou Damao Rare Earths Co
      • 6.6.7.6 Baotou Santoku Battery Material Company
      • 6.6.7.7 Baotou Showa Rare Earth Hi-Tech New Material Co.
      • 6.6.7.8 Other privately held processors
    • 6.6.8 Profiles of the main rare earth mining and processing companies in Shandong
      • 6.6.8.1 Weishan Lake Rare Earth Co.
      • 6.6.8.2 Zibo Lingzhi Rare Earth Hi-Tech Co
      • 6.6.8.3 Zibo Jiahua AMR New Material
    • 6.6.9 Profiles of the main rare earth mining and processing companies in Sichuan
      • 6.6.9.1 Sichuan Jiangxi Copper Rare Earths Co. (SJCRE)
      • 6.6.9.2 Leshan Shenge Rare Earth Science and Technology
    • 6.6.10 Profiles of the main rare earth mining and processing companies in Jiangxi
      • 6.6.10.1 China Minmetals Rare Earth (Ganzhou) Shareholding Co.
      • 6.6.10.2 Chinalco
      • 6.6.10.3 Ganzhou Qiandong Industrial Group (GQD)
      • 6.6.10.4 Ganzhou Chenguang Rare Earths New Material Co
      • 6.6.10.5 Ganzhou Dayou Rare Earths Hi-Tech Co
      • 6.6.10.6 Jiangxi Golden Century Advanced Materials Co. (JGC)
      • 6.6.10.7 Ganzhou Xinci Advanced Material Co
      • 6.6.10.8 Ganzhou Zhaori Rare Earth New Materials Co
    • 6.6.11 Profiles of the main rare earth mining and processing companies in Guangdong
      • 6.6.11.1 Guangdong Rising Non-Ferrous Metals Group Co. (GDRNM)
      • 6.6.11.2 China Non-Ferrous Metal Industry?s Foreign Engineering and Construction Co. (NFC)
      • 6.6.11.3 Guangzhou Jianfeng Rare Earths Co.
    • 6.6.12 Profiles of the main rare earth mining and processing companies in Fujian
      • 6.6.12.1 Fujian Changting Rare Earth Co
      • 6.6.12.2 Xiamen Tungsten Changting Jinlong Rare Earth Co. (JLRE)
    • 6.6.13 Profiles of the main rare earth mining and processing companies in Hunan
      • 6.6.13.1 Hunan Yiyang Hongyuan Rare Earth Shareholding Co
      • 6.6.13.2 Taojiang Rare Earth Metals Smelting Plant
      • 6.6.13.3 Hunan Yongzhou Xiangjing Rare Earth Co
      • 6.6.13.4 Yongzhou Haozhi Rare Earth Co
    • 6.6.14 Profiles of the main rare earth mining and processing companies in Guangxi
      • 6.6.14.1 Guangxi Hezhou Jinyuan Rare Earth Functional Materials Co
      • 6.6.14.2 Guangxi Qinzhou Jiahua Mining Industry Co
    • 6.6.15 Profiles of the main rare earth processing companies in Jiangsu
      • 6.6.15.1 China Rare Earth Holdings (CRE)
      • 6.6.15.2 Liyang Rhodia Founder Rare Earth New Material Co
      • 6.6.15.3 Jiangyin Jiahua AMR Co. (JAMR)
      • 6.6.15.4 Yixing Changjiang Rare Earth Smelting Co
      • 6.6.15.5 Jiangsu Guosheng Rare Earth Co
      • 6.6.15.6 Funing Rare Earth Industry Co
      • 6.6.15.7 Jiangsu Geoquin Nano Rare Earth Co
      • 6.6.15.8 Changsu Shengchang Rare Earth Smelting Plant
      • 6.6.15.9 Lianyungang Ligang Rare Earth Industry Co
    • 6.6.16 Profiles of the main rare earth processing companies in Gansu
      • 6.6.16.1 Gansu Rare Earth New Materials Co. (GSRE)
      • 6.6.16.2 Gansu Advanced Materials Company
    • 6.6.17 Profile of the main rare earth processing companies in Sha?anxi
      • 6.6.17.1 Xi?an Xijun New Materials Co
    • 6.6.18 Profiles of the main rare earth processing companies in Beijing
      • 6.6.18.1 GRIREM Advanced Materials Ltd
      • 6.6.18.2 Beijing Sanjili New Material Shareholding Co
    • 6.6.19 Domestic market for rare earths
    • 6.6.20 Factors affecting Chinese exports of rare earths
      • 6.6.20.1 Export taxes
      • 6.6.20.2 Export quotas
    • 6.6.21 Foreign trade
      • 6.6.21.1 Imports
      • 6.6.21.2 Exports
    • 6.6.22 Building rare earth stockpiles in China
  • 6.7 Estonia
    • 6.7.1 Molycorp Silmet
  • 6.8 France
    • 6.8.1 Rhodia Group
  • 6.9 Germany
    • 6.9.1 International trade
    • 6.9.2 Vacuumschmelze GmbH & Co KG
    • 6.9.3 Siemens AG
    • 6.9.4 BASF
    • 6.9.5 W.R. Grace & Co. (Grace Davison)
    • 6.9.6 MS Schramberg GmbH & Co KG
    • 6.10.1 Greenland Minerals and Energy Ltd
    • 6.10.2 Hudson Resources Inc
    • 6.10.3 Tanbreez Mining Greenland A/S
  • 6.11 India
    • 6.11.1 Reserves
    • 6.11.2 Production and trade
    • 6.11.3 Indian Rare Earths Ltd
    • 6.11.4 Kerala Minerals and Metals
    • 6.11.5 Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd
  • 6.12 Japan
    • 6.12.1 Downstream rare earth processors
      • 6.12.1.1 Anan Kasei Co Ltd
      • 6.12.1.2 Hitachi Metals Ltd
      • 6.12.1.3 Showa Denko K.K.
      • 6.12.1.4 Sojitz Corporation
      • 6.12.1.5 Aichi Steel Corporation
      • 6.12.1.6 Shin-Etsu Chemical Co Ltd
      • 6.12.1.7 Toyota Tsusho Corporation
      • 6.12.1.8 Sumitomo Corporation
      • 6.12.1.9 Santoku Corporation
      • 6.12.1.10 Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co Ltd (Mitsui Kinzoku)
      • 6.12.1.11 Nippon Yttrium Co Ltd
      • 6.12.1.12 AGC Seimi Chemical Co Ltd
      • 6.12.1.13 JGC Catalysts and Chemicals
      • 6.12.1.14 Sumikin Molycorp Inc
  • 6.13 Kazakhstan
    • 6.13.1 Reserves
    • 6.13.2 Summit Atom Rare Earth Company
    • 6.13.3 Irtysh Rare Earth Company Ltd
  • 6.14 Kyrgyz Republic
    • 6.14.1 Reserves
    • 6.14.2 Stans Energy Corporation
  • 6.15 Malawi
  • 6.16 Malaysia
  • 6.17 The Netherlands
  • 6.18 North Korea (Democratic People?s Republic of Korea)
  • 6.19 Russia
    • 6.19.1 Reserves
    • 6.19.2 Tomtor Deposit
    • 6.19.3 OJSC Uralkali (Karnasurt & Umbozero Mines)
    • 6.19.4 Minor producers
    • 6.19.5 Russian rare earth trade
    • 6.20.1 Reserves
    • 6.20.2 Frontier Rare Earths Ltd
    • 6.20.3 Great Western Minerals Group Ltd
  • 6.21 South Korea (Republic of Korea)
  • 6.22 Sweden
    • 6.22.1 Tasman Metals Ltd
  • 6.23 Tanzania
  • 6.24 Thailand
  • 6.25 Sri Lanka
  • 6.26 UK
    • 6.26.1 Less Common Metals Ltd
    • 6.26.2 Optical Surface Technologies
    • 6.26.3 Johnson Matthey
    • 6.26.4 Magnesium Elektron
    • 6.26.5 MEL Chemicals Inc
  • 6.27 USA
    • 6.27.1 Reserves
    • 6.27.2 Production
    • 6.27.3 Trade
    • 6.27.4 Molycorp Minerals
    • 6.27.5 Rare Element Resources Ltd
    • 6.27.6 Ucore Rare Metals Inc
    • 6.27.7 Great Western Technologies Inc
    • 6.27.8 W.R. Grace & Co
    • 6.27.9 Albemarle Corporation
    • 6.27.10 Blue Line Corporation
    • 6.27.11 Palm International Inc
  • 6.28 Vietnam
    • 6.28.1 Showa Denko Rare Earth Vietnam Co Ltd
    • 6.28.2 Vinacomin Group

7 World consumption

  • 7.1 Rare earths classification
  • 7.2 Global consumption
  • 7.3 Rare earth consumption by market-sector
    • 7.3.1 Permanent magnets
    • 7.3.2 Metallurgical applications
    • 7.3.3 Catalysts
    • 7.3.4 Polishing
    • 7.3.5 Glass additives
    • 7.3.6 Phosphors and pigments
    • 7.3.7 Ceramics
    • 7.3.8 Other applications
  • 7.4 Major geographical markets
    • 7.4.1 China
    • 7.4.2 Japan and other Asia
    • 7.4.3 USA
  • 7.5 Future consumption of rare earths

8 Consumption by end-use

  • 8.1 Holmium
  • 8.1 Lanthanum
  • 8.2 Cerium
  • 8.3 Praseodymium
  • 8.4 Neodymium
  • 8.5 Samarium
  • 8.6 Europium
  • 8.7 Gadolinium
  • 8.8 Terbium
  • 8.9 Dysprosium
  • 8.11 Erbium
  • 8.12 Thulium
  • 8.13 Ytterbium
  • 8.14 Lutetium
  • 8.15 Yttrium

9 Permanent magnets

  • 9.1 NdFeB magnets
  • 9.2 SmCo magnets
  • 9.3 Manufacturing process of rare earth permanent magnets
    • 9.3.1 Manufacture of magnet alloys
    • 9.3.2 Manufacture of magnets
    • 9.3.3 Intellectual property rights
    • 9.3.4 Recycling of rare earth magnets
  • 9.4 Global production of permanent magnets
    • 9.4.1 China
    • 9.4.2 Japan
      • 9.4.2.1 Demand for rare earth metals in the manufacture of rare earth permanent magnets
      • 9.4.2.2 Sintered NdFeB magnets
      • 9.4.2.3 Bonded magnets
    • 9.4.3 Other countries
  • 9.5 Producers of rare earth permanent magnets and magnetic materials
    • 9.5.1 Chinese integrated producers of rare earth permanent magnet alloys and permanent magnets
      • 9.5.1.1 Baotou Rare Earth
      • 9.5.1.2 China Minmetals
    • 9.5.2 Chinese producers of rare earth permanent magnet alloys
      • 9.5.2.1 Beijing Sanjili New Materials
      • 9.5.2.2 Ganzhou Qiandong Rare Earth Co.
      • 9.5.2.3 GRIREM Advanced Material
      • 9.5.2.4 Xiamen Tungsten Changting Jinlong Rare Earth(JLRE)
      • 9.5.2.5 Other producers of magnet alloy
    • 9.5.3 Chinese producers of NdFeB magnets
      • 9.5.3.1 Beijing Zhongke San Huan High-Tech
      • 9.5.3.2 Beijing Advanced Technology & Materials
      • 9.5.3.3 Ningbo Yunsheng High-Tech Magnetics
      • 9.5.3.4 Beijing Jingci Magnetism Technology (BJMT)
      • 9.5.3.5 Magnequench
      • 9.5.3.6 Shanghai Roco Magnetic
      • 9.5.3.7 Shanxi Huiqiang Magnets
      • 9.5.3.8 Zhejiang Innuovo Magnetics
      • 9.5.3.9 Shanxi Innuovo Magnetic
      • 9.5.3.10 Ningbo Zhao Bao Magnet Co. Ltd.
      • 9.5.3.11 Ningbo Ketian Magnet Co. Ltd.
      • 9.5.3.12 Jingyu Magnetic Corporation
      • 9.5.3.13 Shanxi Jinshan Magnetic Material Co., Ltd
      • 9.5.3.14 Daido Electronics
      • 9.5.3.15 Fujian Ningdu Xingyu S & T
      • 9.5.3.16 Baosteel Magnetic (Jiangsu)
      • 9.5.3.17 Tianhe (Baotou) Advanced Tech Magnet
      • 9.5.3.18 Jiangxi Yingguang Magnets
      • 9.5.3.19 Other magnet projects
      • 9.5.3.20 Other NdFeB magnet producers
    • 9.5.4 Chinese producers of SmCo magnets
    • 9.5.5 Japanese producers of rare earth permanent magnet alloys and permanent magnets
      • 9.5.5.1 Shin Etsu Chemical
      • 9.5.5.2 Showa Denko
      • 9.5.5.3 Santoku
      • 9.5.5.4 Hitachi Metals
      • 9.5.5.5 Chuden Rare Earth
      • 9.5.5.6 Daido Electronics
    • 9.5.6 North American producers of permanent magnet metal alloys and permanent magnets
      • 9.5.6.1 Great Western Minerals Group (GWMG)
      • 9.5.6.2 Electron Energy (EEC)
      • 9.5.6.3 Arnold Magnetic Technologies
      • 9.5.6.4 Molycorp Minerals
      • 9.5.6.5 Materials and Electrochemical Research
    • 9.5.7 European producers of rare earth permanent magnet alloys and permanent magnets
      • 9.5.7.1 Vacuumschmelze (VAC)
      • 9.5.7.2 Less Common Metals (LCM)
    • 9.5.8 Other producers of rare earth permanent magnet alloys and permanent magnets
  • 9.6 Rare earth permanent magnet applications
    • 9.6.1 Automotive related industries
      • 9.6.1.1 Standard automotive applications
      • 9.6.1.2 Hybrid and electric automotive applications
    • 9.6.2 Electronics related industries
    • 9.6.3 Electric bicycles
    • 9.6.4 Railroad related industries
    • 9.6.5 Air conditioning units and condensers
    • 9.6.6 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • 9.6.7 Wind turbines
    • 9.6.8 Other
  • 9.7 Future consumption of rare earths in permanent magnets
  • 9.8 Alternative technologies

10 Metallurgical applications

  • 10.1 Fuel cells
  • 10.1 Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries
    • 10.1.1 Production of NiMH batteries
    • 10.1.2 Producers of NiMH battery alloy
      • 10.1.2.1 China
      • 10.1.2.2 Japan
      • 10.1.2.3 USA
    • 10.1.3 Use of NiMH batteries in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
      • 10.1.3.1 HEV manufacturers
      • 10.1.3.2 Competition from Li-ions in automobiles
    • 10.1.4 Use of NiMH batteries in electronic devices
  • 10.2 Lanthanum-nickel alloys for hydrogen storage
    • 10.2.1 Production of lanthanum-nickel alloys
  • 10.3 Steel
    • 10.3.1 High strength, low alloy steels
    • 10.3.2 Stainless steel
    • 10.3.3 Other steels
  • 10.4 Cast iron
    • 10.4.1 The use of rare earths in ductile cast iron
    • 10.4.2 Ferro silicon magnesium
  • 10.5 Magnesium alloys
  • 10.6 Aluminium alloys
  • 10.7 Galfan
  • 10.8 Superalloys
    • 10.8.1 Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys
  • 10.9 Lighter flints
  • 10.11 Production of mischmetal for use as an alloy
  • 10.12 Future consumption of rare earths for metallurgical applications

11 Catalysts 28

  • 11.1 Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts
    • 11.1.1 FCCs in petroleum refining
    • 11.1.2 Structure of the FCC industry
    • 11.1.3 Producers of FCC catalysts
      • 11.1.3.1 Grace Davison
      • 11.1.3.2 BASF
      • 11.1.3.3 Albemarle
      • 11.1.3.4 JGC Catalysts & Chemicals
      • 11.1.3.5 Sinopec Catalysts (SCC)
      • 11.1.3.6 Johnson Matthey
    • 11.1.4 Future consumption of rare earths in FCCs
  • 11.2 Autocatalysts
    • 11.2.1 Types of autocatalyst
    • 11.2.2 Role of oxygen sensors in autocatalysts
    • 11.2.3 Recycling of autocatalysts
    • 11.2.4 Diesel particulate filters and fuel additives
    • 11.2.5 Structure of the autocatalyst industry
    • 11.2.6 Producers of rare earth materials for autocatalysts
      • 11.2.6.1 Rhodia Group
      • 11.2.6.2 Neo Material Technologies
      • 11.2.6.3 MEL Chemicals
    • 11.2.7 Producers of autocatalysts
      • 11.2.7.1 Johnson Matthey
      • 11.2.7.2 BASF
      • 11.2.7.3 Umicore
      • 11.2.7.4 Cataler
      • 11.2.7.5 Wuxi Weifu Lida (leader) Catalytic Convertor
      • 11.2.7.6 Chongqing Pruiting Environmental Protection Technology
      • 11.2.7.7 Taizhou Three-Way Catalytic Convertor
    • 11.2.8 Production of automobiles
    • 11.2.9 Development of emissions standards
    • 11.2.10 Future consumption of rare earths in autocatalysts
  • 11.3 Other catalytic applications
    • 11.3.1 Synthetic rubber
    • 11.3.2 Ammoxidation catalysts
    • 11.3.3 Minor catalytic applications
  • 11.4 Future consumption of rare earths in catalysts

12 Polishing

  • 12.1 Production of polishing compounds
  • 12.2 The polishing process
  • 12.3 Polishing by application
    • 12.3.1 Flat glass polishing
      • 12.3.1.1 Producers of flat glass
    • 12.3.2 Optical glass polishing
      • 12.3.2.1 Producers of optical glass
    • 12.3.3 Display panel polishing
      • 12.3.3.1 Producers of LCD glass
    • 12.3.4 Electronic component polishing
      • 12.3.4.1 Glass hard disc (GHD) drives
      • 12.3.4.2 Semiconductors and integrated circuits
      • 12.3.4.3 Lithographic photomasks
    • 12.3.5 Other polishing applications
  • 12.4 Leading producers of rare earth polishing powders
    • 12.4.1 China
      • 12.4.1.1 Baotou Rare Earth
      • 12.4.1.2 Baotou Hailiang Science and Technology
      • 12.4.1.3 Baotou Xinyuan Rare Earth High and New Material
      • 12.4.1.4 China Rare Earth Holdings
      • 12.4.1.5 Hao Zhi Group
      • 12.4.1.6 Metall Rare Earth
      • 12.4.1.7 Lanzhou Debo Chemical
      • 12.4.1.8 Others
    • 12.4.2 Japan
      • 12.4.2.1 Seimi Chemical
      • 12.4.2.2 Showa Denko
      • 12.4.2.3 Mitsui Mining and Smelting
    • 12.4.3 Europe
      • 12.4.3.1 Rhodia Electronics and Catalysis
      • 12.4.3.2 Treibacher Industrie
      • 12.4.3.3 Silmet
      • 12.4.3.4 Optical Surface Technologies
      • 12.4.3.5 Chepetsky Mechanical Plant
      • 12.4.3.6 Cerium Group
      • 12.4.3.7 OCI Materials
    • 12.4.4 USA
      • 12.4.4.1 Ferro Corporation
      • 12.4.4.2 Grace Davison
    • 12.5 Future consumption of rare earths in polishing

13 Glass additives

  • 13.1 Glass stabilisation
    • 13.1.1 Browning
    • 13.1.2 Solarisation
  • 13.2 Glass decolourising
  • 13.3 Glass colourising
  • 13.4 Other applications for rare earths in glass
    • 13.4.1 Optical glass
    • 13.4.2 Fluorescence
    • 13.4.3 Glass coating
    • 13.4.4 Speciality glass applications
  • 13.5 Trends in display panel production
  • 13.6 Future consumption of rare earths by the glass industry

14 Phosphors and pigments

  • 14.1 Phosphors
    • 14.1.1 Production of rare earth phosphors
    • 14.1.2 Consumption of rare earths in phosphor production
    • 14.1.3 Consumption of rare earth phosphors
    • 14.1.4 Producers of rare earth phosphors
      • 14.1.4.1 China
      • 14.1.4.2 Japan
      • 14.1.4.3 Europe
      • 14.1.4.4 USA
    • 14.1.5 Lighting applications for rare earth phosphors
      • 14.1.5.1 Fluorescent lighting
      • 14.1.5.2 LED lighting
      • 14.1.5.3 Use of fluorescent and LED lamps in general lighting applications
      • 14.1.5.4 Use of fluorescent and LED lamps in LCD backlighting
      • 14.1.5.5 Mercury-vapour lamps
      • 14.1.5.6 Oil and gas lamp mantles
      • 14.1.5.7 Carbon arc lamps
      • 14.1.5.8 High-pressure sodium lamps
    • 14.1.6 Display tube and panel applications for rare earth phosphors
      • 14.1.6.1 Cathode ray tubes (CRTs)
      • 14.1.6.2 Flat panel displays (FPDs)
    • 14.1.7 Medical radiography applications for rare earth phosphors
    • 14.1.8 Signage applications for rare earth phosphors
    • 14.1.9 Other applications for rare earth phosphors
    • 14.1.10 Future consumption of rare earths in phosphors
  • 14.2 Pigments
    • 14.2.1 Ceramic stains
    • 14.2.2 Opacification
    • 14.2.3 Producers of specialist rare earth pigments
    • 14.2.4 Consumption of rare earth pigments in ceramic tiles
    • 14.2.4.1 Producers of ceramic tiles
    • 14.2.5 Future consumption of rare earths in pigments

15 Advanced ceramics

  • 15.1 Refractories
  • 15.2 Electrical and electronic ceramics
    • 15.2.1 Ceramic capacitors
      • 15.2.1.1 Producers of ceramic capacitors
    • 15.2.2 Solid oxide fuel cells
    • 15.2.3 Humidity sensors
    • 15.2.4 Collision sensors
    • 15.2.5 Hydrogen production
    • 15.2.6 Electro-optic ceramics
  • 15.3 Engineering ceramics
    • 15.3.1 Yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ)
      • 15.3.1.1 Production of PSZ ceramics
      • 15.3.1.2 Tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP)
  • 15.4 SiAlONs
    • 15.4.1 Uses of SiAlON
  • 15.5 Silicon nitride
    • 15.5.1.1 Hot pressed silicon nitride
    • 15.5.1.2 Sintered silicon nitride
    • 15.5.1.3 Ceramic hybrid bearing applications for silicon nitride
  • 15.6 Producers of rare earth advanced ceramics
    • 15.6.1 Ferro
    • 15.6.2 Tosoh
    • 15.6.3 MEL Chemicals
    • 15.6.4 CeramTec
    • 15.6.5 Others
  • 15.7 Future consumption of rare earths by the ceramics industry

16 Other applications

  • 16.1 Microwave applications
  • 16.1 Defence applications
  • 16.2 Algae control
  • 16.2 Fertilisers
  • 16.3 Lasers
    • 16.3.1 Rare earth-doped lasers
    • 16.3.2 Industrial materials processing applications for rare earth-doped lasers
    • 16.3.3 Medical applications for rare earth-doped lasers
    • 16.3.4 Fusion reactor applications for rare earth-doped lasers
    • 16.3.5 Other applications for rare earth-doped lasers
  • 16.4 Optical fibres
  • 16.5 Nuclear uses
    • 16.5.1 Neutron absorbers in nuclear reactors
      • 16.5.1.1 Neutron poisons
      • 16.5.1.2 Control rods
      • 16.5.1.3 Neutron absorbing coatings
      • 16.5.1.4 Neutron radiography
      • 16.5.1.5 Measurement of ground stress
  • 16.6 Superconductors
  • 16.7 Magnetostrictive alloys
  • 16.8 Jewellery
  • 16.9 Electron microscopes
  • 16.11 Self-cleaning ovens
  • 16.12 Water purification technology
  • 16.13 Medical uses
  • 16.14 Textiles
  • 16.15 Cement additive
  • 16.16 Propulsion jets
  • 16.17 Geology
  • 16.18 Paints/coating additives
  • 16.19 Solar energy systems
  • 16.21 Potential new commercial applications for rare earths
    • 16.21.1 Magnetic refrigeration
    • 16.21.2 Other
  • 16.22 Future demand for rare earths in other applications

17 International trade in rare earths

  • 17.1 Trade in rare earth mineral concentrates
  • 17.2 Trade in cerium compounds
  • 17.3 Trade in rare earth compounds (excluding cerium)
  • 17.4 Trade in rare earth metals and alloys

18 Forecast supply and demand

19 Rare earth prices

  • 19.1 Rare earth oxides
  • 19.2 Ores and concentrates
  • 19.3 Intermediate compounds
  • 19.4 Rare earth metals
  • 19.5 Outlook for rare earth prices

Tables Listing

  • 1 Properties of the rare earth elements and yttrium
  • 2 Formulae of major minerals containing rare earths
  • 3 Rare earth content of major source minerals
  • 4 World reserves of rare earths (excluding yttrium) 2011
  • 5 World reserves of yttrium, 2011
  • 6 Dubbo Zirconia Project: Proposed output
  • 7 Arafura Resources: Total resources for the Nolans Project
  • 8 Arafura Resources: Distribution of REOs in the Nolans rare earth project
  • 9 Lynas Corporation Limited: Mineral resource at the Central Lanthanide Deposit and the Duncan Deposit at 2.5% REO cut-off
  • 10 Lynas Corporation Limited: IAEA recommendation from June 2011 study of Lynas Advanced Minerals Plant necessary for a pre-operation licence
  • 11 Austria: Inferred export statistics of rare earth compounds as reported by importing countries, 2005-2010
  • 12 Austria: Treibacher Industrie: Sales, capital cost and export figures, 2006-2010
  • 13 Belgium: Exports of rare earth metals to trade partners, 2001-2010
  • 14 Avalon Rare Metals Inc.: Mineral resource at the Nechalacho rare element deposit, Thor Lake
  • 15 Great Western Minerals Group: Summary of exploration projects
  • 16 Matamec Exploration Inc.: REE scenario mineral resource at Kipawa REE-Zr deposit, Quebec
  • 17 Matamec Exploration Inc.: Zr scenario mineral resource at Kipawa REE-Zr deposit, Quebec
  • 18 Neo Material Technologies: Separated rare earth products from the ZAMR facility
  • 19 Neo Material Technologies: Trade and sales data for 2006-2010
  • 20 Quest Rare Minerals: Mineral Resource at Strangle Lake Rare Earth Deposit, Canada
  • 21 China: Growth of the rare earths industry
  • 22 China: Rare earth distribution for major ores
  • 23 China: Mining Quota issued by the Ministry of Land and Resources, 2006-2011
  • 24 China: Production quota, 2007-2011
  • 25 China: Production quotas by province, 2010 & 2011
  • 26 China: Comparison of mining and production quotas and reported production, 2007-2010
  • 27 China: Mine production of rare earths, 2010
  • 28 China: Leading rare earth processing companies
  • 29 China; Summary of activities designed to consolidate control of mining and processing
  • 30 Baotou Rare Earth: Processing capacity
  • 31 Baotou Rare Earth: Details of main operations
  • 32 China: Production of added-value downstream rare earth products, 2006-2010
  • 33 China: Consumption of rare earth oxides in all rare earth products, 2006-2010
  • 34 China: Exports taxes on rare earth products effective 2010, 2011, changes highlighted
  • 35 China: Total annual rare earth export quota granted to Chinese and foreign invested companies, 2005 to 2011
  • 36 China: Rare earth export quota granted to Chinese companies, 2011
  • 37 China Imports of rare earth ores, intermixtures, oxides, salts and metals, 2006-2010
  • 38 Chinese exports of rare earth compounds and metals 2006-2011
  • 39 Value of Chinese rare earth exports, 2006-2010
  • 40 Unit value of Chinese rare earth exports, 2006-2010
  • 41 Chinese exports of rare earth compounds and metals 2006-2010
  • 42 Value of Chinese rare earth exports, 2006-2010
  • 43 Unit value of Chinese rare earth exports, 2006-2010
  • 44 Destination of Chinese rare earth exports, 2001-2010
  • 45 Estonia: Exports of rare earth compounds to partner countries, 2000-2010
  • 46 Molycorp Silmet: Production of rare earth products in Estonia
  • 47 France: Chinese exports of rare earth compounds to France, 2002-2010
  • 48 France: Chinese export quota for foreign invested companies, 2007-2011
  • 49 Germany: German imports of rare earth compounds and metals, 2005-2010
  • 50 BASF catalyst division manufacturing facilities
  • 51 Greenland Minerals and Energy: Mineral Resource at Kvanefjeld Deposit
  • 52 Tanbreez Mining Greenland A/S: Reported grades for Tanbreez multi-element deposit
  • 53 India: Exports of rare earth products, 2002-2010
  • 54 India: Indian imports of rare earth products, 2002-2010
  • 55 Indian Rare Earths: Annual production of individual minerals
  • 56 Japan: Imbalance between Japanese-Chinese imports and exports of rare earth oxides, 2001-2010
  • 57 Japan: Demand for rare earths by industry, 2007-2011
  • 58 Japan: Production of end products containing rare earths, 2008-2010
  • 59 Nippon Yttrium: Co-precipitate rare earth products
  • 60 Summit Atom Rare Earth Company: Projected rare earth oxide distribution in LREO and HREO concentrates
  • 61 Kyrgyz Republic: Kutessay II: Measured and indicated resource estimation
  • 62 Russia: List of major rare earth element deposits
  • 63 Russia: Shareholder structure of Uralkali on 24th May 2011 after Silvinit merger
  • 64 Russia: Minor producers and past producers of rare earth products in Russia
  • 65 Frontier Rare Earths: Mineral resource at Zandkopsdrift rare earth project
  • 66 Frontier Rare Earths: Separated mineral resources for ZC1-A, ZC1-B and ZC1-C, Zandkopsdrift
  • 67 Great Western Minerals Group: Steenkampskraal resource estimation
  • 68 Great Western Minerals Group: Projected distribution of Steenkampskraal processing output
  • 69 Tasman Metals: Norra Krr project resource estimation, Nov 2010
  • 70 UK: Imports of rare earth compounds, 2004-2010
  • 71 UK: Exports of rare earth compounds and metal, 2004-2010
  • 72 Magnesium Elektron, UK: Rare earth bearing magnesium alloy products, their characteristics and uses
  • 73 USA: Imports of rare earth products, 2006-2010
  • 74 USA: Exports of rare earth products, 2006-2010,
  • 75 Molycorp Minerals LLC: Mineral Resource at the Mountain Pass deposit
  • 76 Molycorp Minerals LLC: Production of REO at Molycorp facilities for Q1-Q2 2011 and forecast production for Q3-Q4 2011
  • 77 Molycorp Minerals: Major customers for Mountain Pass production, 2009-2010
  • 78 Rare Element Resources: Mineral Resource at Bear Lodge REE deposit in Wyoming
  • 79 Ucore Rare Metals Inc.: Dotson Ridge resource estimation, March 2011
  • 80 Vietnam: Identified deposits of rare earth deposits
  • 81 World: Estimated demand for rare earths in China and ROW, 2000 and 2005 to 2010
  • 82 World: Rare earths markets by region, estimated for 2010
  • 83 China: Growth of Chinese demand within a global context, 2006 to 2010
  • 84 China: Consumption of rare earths by end use, 2007-2010
  • 85 Japan: Demand for rare earths by end-use, 2007-2011
  • 86 World: Estimated demand for rare earths in China and ROW, 2006 to 2010 and 2015
  • 87 World: Forecast demand for rare earths, 2010 and 2015
  • 88 Consumption of rare earths by application
  • 89 Main applications for NdFeB magnets
  • 90 Comparison of permanent magnet types
  • 91 Expiration date of patents for major NdFeB compositions
  • 92 World: Estimated output of NdFeB magnets, 2006, 2008 and 2010
  • 93 World: Production of sintered NdFeB magnets 2000-2006
  • 94 China: Production of rare earth magnets by type, 1996-2010
  • 95 China: Exports of rare earth permanent magnets to major destinations, 2010
  • 96 Japan: Demand for rare earth metals in sintered NdFeB magnets, 2008-2011
  • 97 Japan: Production of NdFeB alloys and sintered NdFeB magnets, 2008-2011
  • 98 Japan: Sales and prices of sintered NdFeB magnets, 2000-2006
  • 99 Japan: Estimated NdFeB sintered magnet production by application, 2001-2006
  • 100 Japanese production of bonded magnets by type, 2005-2010
  • 101 Japanese companies: Production of bonded rare earth permanent magnets both domestically and overseas, 2005-2010
  • 102 Baotou Rare Earth: Plants producing rare earth metals, alloys and magnetic materials
  • 103 China: Typical suppliers of NdFeB magnets by major application, 2010
  • 104 Japan: Major producers of permanent magnet alloys and permanent magnets
  • 105 Applications for rare earth permanent magnets
  • 106 Typical weight of NdFeB magnets by application
  • 107 Standard automotive applications using large NdFeB magnets, 2005
  • 108 Magnet consumption per standard vehicle, 2005 & 2008
  • 109 Consumption of NdFeB magnets in hybrid and electric vehicle motor 2008
  • 110 New models offered by major wind turbines manufacturers, 2010
  • 111 Japan: Demand for rare earth metals in metallurgical applications, 2008-2010
  • 112 Japan: Production of major alloy, iron, and steel end-products containing rare earth metals, 2008-2010
  • 113 Typical properties of secondary battery systems
  • 114 Japan: Production of small secondary batteries, 2005-2010
  • 115 China: Production of La-NiMH batteries, 2000-2005
  • 116 Types of hybrid vehicle
  • 117 Nominal energy density of energy sources for use in automobiles
  • 118 World: Current and planned HEV models, 2009
  • 119 Comparison of storage parameters for several methods of hydrogen storage
  • 120 China: Production of LaNi5 alloys, 2000 to 2009
  • 121 World production of crude steel by region and country 2006-2011
  • 122 Leading producers of iron castings 2005-2009
  • 123 World: Forecast sales of HEVs, Evs and PHEVs 2010-2016
  • 124 Major FCC manufacturers, 2010
  • 125 The function of rare earths in autocatalysts
  • 126 Rhodia: Catalyst products
  • 127 Johnson Matthey: Catalyst technologies for vehicle, engine and stationary source emissions
  • 128 BASF: Catalyst technologies
  • 129 World: Production of cars and light commercial vehicles 2005 to 2010
  • 130 EU: Emission standards for passenger vehicles
  • 131 Rhodia: Structure of polishing powder for different glass applications
  • 132 World: Manufacturers and processors of bevelled and wired glass products
  • 133 World: Manufacturers of optical glass
  • 134 World: Manufacturers of photovoltaic glass
  • 135 Typical lanthanum oxide concentrations of selected optical glasses
  • 136 World: Penetration of LCD televisions by region, 2008 to 2010
  • 137 China: Output of CRT and LCD display panels and televisions, 2000 to 2008
  • 138 Use of rare earth phosphors in electronic applications
  • 139 World: Fluorescent phosphor market, 2002 to 2011
  • 140 China: Estimated consumption of rare earth phosphors, 2003 to 2010
  • 141 Nichia Chemical: Phosphor products
  • 142 Mitsubishi Chemical: Phosphor products
  • 143 China: Output of tri-colour phosphors for fluorescent lamps, 1999 to 2009
  • 144 China: Output of CFLs, 1996 to 2008
  • 145 LED phosphors
  • 146 Selected Asian markets for white LEDs by value, 2008 to 2012
  • 147 World: White LED lighting market value, 2004 to 2014
  • 148 Approximate comparisons of incandescent, fluorescent and LED lighting, 2011
  • 149 Lifespan and efficiency of major indoor lighting types, 2011
  • 150 CRI of major lamp types
  • 151 Backlight installations in LCD televisions by major manufacturer, Q4 2010
  • 152 World: Shipments of television and monitor displays, 2004 to 2010
  • 153 Specifications of phosphors for colour CRTs
  • 154 China: Output of phosphors for CRTs, CRT monitors, and CRT televisions, 1998 to 2008
  • 155 China: Output of PDP televisions, 2005-2008
  • 156 PDP unit share by major manufacturer, 2009 and 2010
  • 157 World: Production of mobile phones with 3 or larger screens
  • 158 Forecast value of the global lighting market by type, 2008 to 2015
  • 159 Forecast improvement in LED design, 2010-2015
  • 160 Typical rare earth oxide content of ceramic colour stains
  • 161 World: Production of ceramic tiles by leading country, 2006 to 2010
  • 162 China: Production, exports and consumption of ceramic tiles, 2006 to 2010
  • 163 World: Major manufacturers of ceramic tiles, 2008
  • 164 Selected applications for rare earths in the advanced ceramics industry
  • 165 Selected physical properties of engineering ceramics and some competing materials, typical values
  • 166 Properties of zirconia ceramics
  • 167 World: Selected producers of zirconia ceramics containing rare earth oxides
  • 168 Properties of an yttria stabilised oxygen sensor electrolyte
  • 169 USA: Use of rare earth elements in the defence/military sector
  • 170 China: Imports of thorium ores (monazite), 2000-2010
  • 171 World: Recorded exports of cerium compounds divided by country of origin, 2010
  • 172 France: Inferred exports of cerium compounds as reported by partner countries 2001-2010
  • 173 Global exports of cerium compounds, 2001-2010
  • 174 Discrepancy between Japanese and Chinese trade figure for cerium compounds, 2005-2010
  • 175 World: Recorded imports of cerium compounds divided by country of origin, 2010
  • 176 Global imports of cerium compounds, 2001-2010
  • 177 World: Recorded exports of rare earth compounds (excluding cerium) divided by country of origin 2010
  • 178 World: Exports of rare earth compounds (excluding cerium) 2001-2010
  • 179 Estonia: Imports of rare earth compounds (excluding cerium) from Russia and the USA, 2008-2011e
  • 180 Leading imports of rare earth compounds excluding cerium by value, 2004-2010
  • 181 World: Recorded imports of rare earth compounds (excluding cerium) divided by country of origin, 2010
  • 182 Global imports of rare earth compounds (excluding cerium), 2001-2010
  • 183 Global exports of rare earth metals, scandium and yttrium 2001 to 2010
  • 184 World: Recorded exports of rare earth metals divided by country of origin, 2010
  • 185 Global imports of rare earth metals, scandium and yttrium, 2001 to 2010
  • 186 World: Recorded imports of rare earth metals divided by country of origin, 2010
  • 187 China: Annual average fob price of rare earth oxides, 2001 to 2011
  • 188 China: Annual average internal price of rare earth oxides, 2005 to 2011
  • 189 World: Significant events that have affected rare earth prices
  • 190 China: Trends in domestic and export prices for selected rare earth oxides, 2007-2011 Jan-Sept
  • 191 China: Monthly exports of selected rare earth oxides, Jan-Sept 2011
  • 192 Price of Y-medium and Eu-enriched minerals
  • 193 China: Annual average internal price of mischmetal, 2007 to 2011
  • 194 China: Annual average fob price of mischmetal, 2001 to 2011
  • 195 China: Annual average internal price of rare earth metals, 2005 to 2011
  • 196 China: Annual average fob price of rare earth metals, 2001 to 2011
  • 197 China: Annual average internal price of rare earth alloys, 2009 to 2011

Figures Listing

  • 1 Global supply of rare earths 1985-2011
  • 2 Estimated year-on-year growth in global consumption of rare earths, 2000-2010
  • 3 World: Projected supply of rare earths 2010-2015
  • 4 World: Forecast supply demand balance to 2015
  • 5 Typical composition of bastnaesite ore
  • 6 Typical composition of Mt Weld weathered monazite ore
  • 7 Typical composition of Longnan (high-Y) ion-adsorption clay
  • 8 Typical composition of Guangdong (high-Eu) ion-adsorption clay
  • 9 Baiyun Obo simplified rare earth processing sheet for bastnaesite ore
  • 10 Pond and pile method flowsheet for South Chinese ion absorption clay
  • 11 Generalised flowsheet for monazite recovery from heavy mineral sands
  • 12 Ion absorption: Simplified diagram of the displacement chromatography method
  • 13 Global supply of rare earths 1985-2011
  • 14 World: trends in output of rare earths, 2000-2011
  • 15 World: Production of rare earth minerals by type, 2010
  • 16 World: Projected supply of rare earths 2010-2015
  • 17 Review of current future supply and demand for rare earths by element, 2010 and 2015
  • 18 Canada: Reported imports and exports of rare earth compounds, 2000-2010
  • 19 China: Trends in mine output and domestic consumption 2000-2010
  • 20 Baotou Rare Earth: Corporate structure 2011
  • 21 China: Year-on-Year change in demand for rare earth oxides by application
  • 22 China: Imports of thorium ores (monazite) 2000-2010
  • 23 Chinese exports of rare earth compounds and metals, 2000-2011
  • 24 China: Unit value of exports of rare earths, 2006-2011 January-August
  • 25 China: Impact of export quotas on exports of rare earth metals, 2004-2010
  • 26 China: Value of exports of rare earth compounds and metals by destination, 2001-2010
  • 27 France: Inferred exports of rare earth compounds including cerium, 2005-2010
  • 28 Japan: Imports of rare earth compounds and metals, 1994-2010
  • 29 Kazakhstan: Summit Atom Rare Earth Company initial processing flowsheet
  • 30 Kyrgyz Republic: Distribution of rare earth elements in Kutassay II ore
  • 31 Russia: Production of loparite concentrate by OJSC Uralkali contained REO, 1997-2010
  • 32 Russia: Exports of rare earth compounds including yttrium and scandium, 2005-2010
  • 33 Thailand: Chinese imports of thorium ores and concentrates, 1995-2010
  • 34 Ucore Rare Metals: Distribution of rare earth elements at Dotson Ridge
  • 35 Estimated year-on-year growth in global consumption of rare earths, 2001-2010
  • 36 World: Estimated rare earths consumption by end-use, 2010
  • 37 World: Division of rare earth consumption by major end use, selected years, 2000-2015
  • 38 China: Proportion of rare earths used in each end-use sector in 2007 and 2010
  • 39 China: Increasing rare earth consumption relative to Japan and other Asia expressed as a percentage of global demand in 2006 and 2010
  • 40 Japan: Breakdown of rare earths consumption 2010
  • 41 Japan and other Asia: Breakdown of rare earths consumption 2010
  • 42 USA: Estimated rare earths consumption by end-use, 2010
  • 43 China and ROW: Forecast growth in GDP and demand for rare earths, 2010 to 2015
  • 44 World: Forecast demand for rare earths by region, 2015
  • 45 Types of permanent magnet
  • 46 Development of permanent magnet strength
  • 47 Price/performance for NdFeB
  • 48 Process from rare earth ore to NdFeB Magnet
  • 49 Typical NdFeB component alloy mix
  • 50 Production of rare earth alloys for use in magnets
  • 51 Manufacture process for sintered NdFeB/SmCo rare earth magnets from magnet alloy
  • 52 Magnequench: US patent expiration timeline for NdFeB magnets
  • 53 Recycling methods for NdFeB magnets
  • 54 Application of NdFeB Magnets in the Chinese Domestic Market, 2008
  • 55 Japan: Average number of motors per vehicles, 2008 and 2014
  • 56 World: Installed wind power capacity, 1996 to 2009
  • 57 Comparison of secondary battery energy densities
  • 58 World: Forecast sales of HEVs, Evs and PHEVs, 2008-2016
  • 59 Production of FCC catalysts
  • 60 World: Crude oil refining capacity, 1970-2009
  • 61 Use of FCCs in the petroleum supply chain
  • 62 Manufacture of autocatalysts
  • 63 Market share of diesel vehicles in selected European countries, 1990 to 2008
  • 64 USA (California): Emissions standards for light duty vehicles
  • 65 Elements of the glass slurry polishing process
  • 66 Polishing efficiency for different types of glass
  • 67 Structure of LCD FPDs
  • 68 World: Major producers of TFT-LCD glass substrates, end 2009
  • 69 World: Shipments of LCD by application, 2004 to 2010
  • 70 Japan: Production of LCD televisions, 1999 to 2009
  • 71 Comparison of standard and advanced production of LAP green phosphors for lamps
  • 72 World: Estimated consumption of rare earths in phosphors by end-use, 2010
  • 73 LED systems used to produce white light
  • 74 World: Forecast output of LCD backlights, 2010-2015
  • 75 Structure and raw materials used in a flat plate solid oxide fuel cell
  • 76 China: Value of rare earth exports, 1995-2010
  • 77 China: Trends in the value and quantity of exports of rare earth compounds and metals, 1995-2010
  • 78 USA: Imports of rare earth compounds and metals, 2001-2011
  • 79 Japan: Imports of rare earth compounds and metals, 2001-2011
  • 80 China: Exports of cerium products by destination, 2010
  • 81 Japan: Imports of cerium compounds 2000-2010
  • 82 China: Exports of RE compounds (excluding cerium) by destination, 2010
  • 83 Major importing countries: Unit value of rare earth compounds excluding cerium, 2001-2011e
  • 84 China: Exports of RE metals by destination, 2010
  • 85 World: Forecast supply/demand balance to 2015
  • 86 Supply demand balance in China and the ROW, 2010-2015
  • 87 China: Prices of cerium oxide, July 2009-October 2011
  • 88 China: Prices of lanthanum oxide, July 2009-October 2011
  • 89 China: Prices of praseodymium oxide, July 2009-October 2011
  • 90 China: Prices of neodymium oxide, July 2009-October 2011
  • 91 China: Prices of europium oxide, July 2009-October 2011
  • 92 China: Prices of dysprosium oxide, July 2009-October 2011
  • 93 China: Prices of terbium oxide, July 2009-October 2011
  • 94 China: Prices of rare earth carbonate, January 2007-October 2011, compared with export trends
  • 95 China: Monthly prices for rare earth chlorides in 2011
  • 96 Comparison of export price trends for dysprosium and neodymium metals and oxides, 2009-2011
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