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Manganese: Market Outlook to 2020

World mine production of manganese (gross weight) has grown at a rate of over 7%py since 2000, reaching an estimated 53.9Mt in 2014. Although a sharp decline in production occurred between 2008 and 2009, as the world market responded to lower demand for steel following the global financial crisis, production has since recovered and supply has seen almost double-digit growth over the five years to 2014.

In terms of gross weight, China remains the largest mine producer followed by South Africa and Australia. Together these three countries accounted for nearly three-quarters of global mine production in 2014.The manganese content of ore varies between countries, however, and, as Chinese production is of mainly low-grade ore, South Africa was the world's biggest producer in contained manganese terms.

The majority of manganese ore is used in the production of ferroalloys, principally for use in steel. Most SiMn, HC FeMn and MLC FeMn production is located in Asia with China being the world's leading producer of all manganese ferroalloys, as well as EMM and EMD.

Manganese ore consumption increased at a rate of nearly 5%py over the 2000 to 2014 period, reaching 17.4Mt in 2014. As a result, consumption slightly outstripped production. Asia was by far the biggest consuming region. Most manganese (91%) is used in the production of iron and steel, with the balance of demand coming from non-ferrous alloys, batteries and other small-scale applications.

After falling sharply during the global financial crisis, the manganese price recovered, to some extent, and continued to improve through 2009 until mid-2010. However, in the second half of 2010 and throughout 2011, manganese ore prices eased. Prices dropped further in 2012 but rebounded to average around US$5.50dmtu in 2013. In 2014, prices again softened and averaged around $4.50/dmtu.

Roskill expects that manganese consumption will continue to follow global growth trends. Both global GDP and crude steel production are expected to increase at a rate of over 3% over the 2014 to 2020 period. Manganese ores, ferroalloys, metal and chemicals are also expected to enjoy modest increases over this timeframe.

SAMPLE

Manganese consumption, by end-use, 2014

Get accurate answers from independent experts

  • 1. Which are the lowest cost manganese producers?
  • 2. How has the falling manganese price affected producers?
  • 3. How will new production in Malaysia impact the market?
  • 4. Which factors impact consumption of manganese ferroalloys?
  • 5. Which companies produce and trade EMD and EMM?
  • 6. How are global steel and manganese markets expected to fare to 2020?

Table of Contents

1. Summary

  • 1.1. Manganese supply
  • 1.2. Manganese demand
  • 1.3. Outlook for manganese market to 2020
  • 1.4. Manganese price outlook

2. History, properties, occurrence and resources

  • 2.1. History
  • 2.2. Properties of manganese
  • 2.3. Occurrence of manganese
    • 2.3.1. Manganese minerals
    • 2.3.2. Types of manganese deposits
  • 2.4. Global manganese resources

3. Mining, processing and refining of manganese

  • 3.1. Manganese ore mining
  • 3.2. Manganese ore processing
  • 3.3. Manganese smelting and refining
    • 3.3.1. Manganese alloys
      • 3.3.1.1. High-carbon ferromanganese (HC FeMn)
      • 3.3.1.2. Medium-carbon (MC FeMn) and low-carbon (LC FeMn) ferromanganese
      • 3.3.1.3. Silicomanganese (SiMn)
    • 3.3.2. Electrolytic manganese metal (EMM)
    • 3.3.3. Manganese dioxide (NMD, CMD and EMD)
    • 3.3.4. Other manganese chemicals
  • 3.4. Manganese production costs
    • 3.4.1. Manganese ore production costs
      • 3.4.1.1. Mine costs
      • 3.4.1.2. Trucking and railing costs
      • 3.4.1.3. Shipping costs
      • 3.4.1.4. Royalties and sales commissions
      • 3.4.1.5. Cost curves for manganese ore
    • 3.4.2. Manganese alloy production costs
      • 3.4.2.1. Labour costs
      • 3.4.2.2. Manganese ore costs
      • 3.4.2.3. Electricity costs
      • 3.4.2.4. Reductant costs
      • 3.4.2.5. Cost curves for SiMn
      • 3.4.2.6. Cost curves for HC FeMn
  • 3.5. Manganese recycling

4. World production of manganese

  • 4.1. Mine production
    • 4.1.1. Mine production (gross weight)
    • 4.1.2. Mine production (contained manganese)
  • 4.2. Manganese alloy production
    • 4.2.1. SiMn production
    • 4.2.2. HC FeMn production
    • 4.2.3. MC and LC FeMn production
  • 4.3. EMM production
  • 4.4. EMD production

5. Manganese production by country and company

  • 5.1. Argentina
  • 5.2. Australia
    • 5.2.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.2.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.2.2.1. BHP Billiton
      • 5.2.2.2. Consolidated Minerals (Consmin)
      • 5.2.2.3. OM Holdings (OMH)
      • 5.2.2.4. Process Minerals International (PMI)
    • 5.2.3. Potential mine producers of manganese
    • 5.2.4. Potential producers of manganese alloys and EMD
    • 5.2.5. International trade
  • 5.3. Bahrain
  • 5.4. Belgium
  • 5.5. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 5.6. Brazil
    • 5.6.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.6.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.6.2.1. Vale
      • 5.6.2.2. Cancana Resources
      • 5.6.2.3. Minera??o Buritirama
      • 5.6.2.4. Other producers of manganese
    • 5.6.3. Potential mine producers of manganese
    • 5.6.4. International trade
  • 5.7. Bulgaria
  • 5.8. Burkina Faso
  • 5.9. Canada
  • 5.10. Chile
  • 5.11. China
    • 5.11.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.11.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.11.2.1. CITIC Dameng Mining
      • 5.11.2.2. Hubei Changyang Hongxin
      • 5.11.2.3. Yunnan Wenshan Dounan
    • 5.11.3. Chinese manganese alloy production
    • 5.11.4. International trade
  • 5.12. Costa Rica
  • 5.13. Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • 5.14. Egypt
  • 5.15. France
  • 5.16. Gabon
    • 5.16.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.16.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.16.2.1. Eramet Comilog
      • 5.16.2.2. CITIC Dameng Mining
    • 5.16.3. Potential mine producers of manganese
    • 5.16.4. International trade
  • 5.17. Georgia
    • 5.17.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.17.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.17.2.1. Georgian American Alloys
    • 5.17.3. Potential mine producers of manganese
    • 5.17.4. International trade
  • 5.18. Germany
  • 5.19. Ghana
  • 5.20. Greece
  • 5.21. Guyana
  • 5.22. Hungary
  • 5.23. India
    • 5.23.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.23.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.23.2.1. MOIL
      • 5.23.2.2. Mangilal Rungta
      • 5.23.2.3. RBSSD & FN Das
      • 5.23.2.4. Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore (Smiore)
      • 5.23.2.5. Tata Steel
    • 5.23.3. Indian manganese alloy production
      • 5.23.3.1. Baheti Metals and Ferroalloys
      • 5.23.3.2. Balaji Electro Smelters
      • 5.23.3.3. Balasore Alloys
      • 5.23.3.4. Bhaskar Shrachi Alloys
      • 5.23.3.5. BMA Group
      • 5.23.3.6. Chhattisgarh Electricity
      • 5.23.3.7. Corporate Ispat Alloys (CIAL)
      • 5.23.3.8. Cosmic Ferro Alloys
      • 5.23.3.9. Dandeli Ferroalloys
      • 5.23.3.10. Ferroalloys Corp (Facor)
      • 5.23.3.11. GMR Technologies
      • 5.23.3.12. Hira Group
      • 5.23.3.13. Indsil Hydro Power & Manganese
      • 5.23.3.14. Ispat Alloys
      • 5.23.3.15. Jalan Ispat Castings
      • 5.23.3.16. Jeypore Sugar
      • 5.23.3.17. JSL
      • 5.23.3.18. Karthik Alloys
      • 5.23.3.19. KFA Manganese
      • 5.23.3.20. Maharashtra Elektrosmelt (MEL)
      • 5.23.3.21. Modern India Con-Cast (MICL)
      • 5.23.3.22. Monnet Ferro Alloys (MIEL)
      • 5.23.3.23. Nagpur Power & Industries
      • 5.23.3.24. Natural Sugar and Allied Industries
      • 5.23.3.25. Nav Bharat Ventures (NBV)
      • 5.23.3.26. Sahjanand Ferro Alloys
      • 5.23.3.27. Sarda Energy & Minerals Limited (SEML)
      • 5.23.3.28. Sharp Ferro Alloys
      • 5.23.3.29. Shree Ganesh Metalloy
      • 5.23.3.30. Shyam Ferro Alloys
      • 5.23.3.31. SKP Group
      • 5.23.3.32. Sova Ispat Group
      • 5.23.3.33. SR Chemicals & Ferro-alloys
      • 5.23.3.34. Srinivasa Ferroalloys
      • 5.23.3.35. Universal Ferro & Allied Chemicals (UFC)
    • 5.23.4. Potential mine producers of manganese
    • 5.23.5. International trade
  • 5.24. Indonesia
  • 5.25. Iran
  • 5.26. Italy
  • 5.27. Ivory Coast
  • 5.28. Japan
  • 5.29. Kazakhstan
    • 5.29.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.29.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.29.2.1. Eurasian Natural Resources Corp (ENRC)
      • 5.29.2.2. Alash
      • 5.29.2.3. Atasuruda
      • 5.29.2.4. Arman-100
      • 5.29.2.5. Taraz Metallurgical Plant
      • 5.29.2.6. Temirtau Electrometallurgical Complex
    • 5.29.3. Potential mine producers of manganese
    • 5.29.4. Potential producers of manganese alloys
    • 5.29.5. International trade
  • 5.30. Kenya
  • 5.31. Macedonia
  • 5.32. Malaysia
  • 5.33. Mali
  • 5.34. Mexico
    • 5.34.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.34.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.34.2.1. Minera Autl?n
      • 5.34.2.2. Eramet Mexico
    • 5.34.3. Potential mine producers of manganese
    • 5.34.4. International trade
  • 5.35. Morocco
  • 5.36. Myanmar (Burma)
  • 5.37. Namibia
  • 5.38. Nigeria
  • 5.39. Norway
  • 5.40. Oman
  • 5.41. Paraguay
  • 5.42. Peru
  • 5.43. Poland
  • 5.44. Romania
  • 5.45. Russia
  • 5.46. Saudi Arabia
  • 5.47. Slovakia
  • 5.48. South Africa
    • 5.48.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.48.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.48.2.1. BHP Billiton
      • 5.48.2.2. Assmang
      • 5.48.2.3. United Manganese of Kalahari (UMK) / Transalloys
      • 5.48.2.4. Tshipi ? Ntle Manganese Mining
      • 5.48.2.5. Kudumane Manganese Resources
      • 5.48.2.6. Kalagadi Manganese
    • 5.48.3. South African manganese alloy production
      • 5.48.3.1. Mogale Alloys
      • 5.48.3.2. Delta Group EMD
      • 5.48.3.3. Greenhills Manganese
      • 5.48.3.4. Manganese Metal Company (MMC)
      • 5.48.3.5. Metmin
    • 5.48.4. Potential mine producers of manganese
    • 5.48.5. International trade
  • 5.49. South Korea
  • 5.50. Spain
  • 5.51. Togo
  • 5.52. Turkey
  • 5.53. Ukraine
    • 5.53.1. Reserves and resources
    • 5.53.2. Producers of manganese
      • 5.53.2.1. Privat Group
      • 5.53.2.2. Kramatorsk Ferroalloy Works
    • 5.53.3. International trade
  • 5.54. USA
  • 5.55. Venezuela
  • 5.56. Vietnam
  • 5.57. Zambia

6. International trade in manganese

  • 6.1. Manganese ores and concentrates
  • 6.2. Manganese alloys
    • 6.2.1. Silicomanganese (SiMn)
    • 6.2.2. High-carbon ferromanganese (HC FeMn)
    • 6.2.3. Medium- and low-carbon ferromanganese (MLC FeMn)
  • 6.3. Electrolytic manganese metal (EMM)
  • 6.4. Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD)
  • 6.5. Anti-dumping duties, import and export taxes

7. World consumption of manganese

  • 7.1. Consumption of manganese ore
  • 7.2. Consumption of manganese alloys, EMM and EMD
    • 7.2.1. Consumption of SiMn
    • 7.2.2. Consumption of HC FeMn
    • 7.2.3. Consumption of MLC FeMn
    • 7.2.4. Consumption of EMM
    • 7.2.5. Consumption of EMD
  • 7.3. Consumption of manganese by end-use

8. Use of manganese in iron, and steel

  • 8.1. Pig iron
    • 8.1.1. Pig iron production
  • 8.2. Crude steel
    • 8.2.1. Factors influencing ferroalloy additions to steel
      • 8.2.1.1. Ratio of silicon to manganese in steel specification
      • 8.2.1.2. Cost
      • 8.2.1.3. Steel plant configuration
    • 8.2.2. Crude steel production
  • 8.3. Carbon steel
    • 8.3.1. Use of carbon steels
      • 8.3.1.1. Automotive
      • 8.3.1.2. Construction
      • 8.3.1.3. Other
  • 8.4. Alloy engineering steels
    • 8.4.1. Full alloy steels
      • 8.4.1.1. Use of full alloy steels
    • 8.4.2. HSLA steels
      • 8.4.2.1. Use of HSLA steels
  • 8.5. Stainless steel
    • 8.5.1. Use of stainless steels
  • 8.6. Tool steels
    • 8.6.1. Use of tool steels
  • 8.7. Cast iron

9. Use of manganese in non-ferrous alloys

  • 9.1.1. Aluminium alloys
    • 9.1.1.1. Use of aluminium alloys
  • 9.1.2. High performance alloys (HPAs)
    • 9.1.2.1. Use of high performance alloys
  • 9.1.3. Copper alloys
    • 9.1.3.1. Use of copper alloys
  • 9.1.4. Other non-ferrous alloys

10. Use of manganese in batteries

  • 10.1. Types of batteries
    • 10.1.1. Primary batteries
    • 10.1.2. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries
  • 10.2. Production of batteries
    • 10.2.1. Producers of cathode materials
  • 10.3. Consumption of manganese in batteries

11. Other uses for manganese

  • 11.1. Colourants and pigments
    • 11.1.1. Bricks and tiles
    • 11.1.2. Frits
    • 11.1.3. Glazes
    • 11.1.4. Glass
    • 11.1.5. Pigments
    • 11.1.6. Tumbling media
  • 11.2. Ferrites
  • 11.3. Welding fluxes
  • 11.4. Agriculture
    • 11.4.1. Animal feeds
    • 11.4.2. Fertilisers
  • 11.5. Water treatment
    • 11.5.1. Manganese ore
    • 11.5.2. Potassium permanganate
  • 11.6. Hydrometallurgy
    • 11.6.1. Zinc processing
    • 11.6.2. Uranium processing
    • 11.6.3. Other uses
  • 11.7. Fuel additives
  • 11.8. Oxidising agents
  • 11.9. Odour control
  • 11.10. Catalysts
  • 11.11. Sealants
  • 11.12. Metal coating
  • 11.13. Circuit boards
  • 11.14. Sulphur dioxide removal
  • 11.15. Hydroquinone production
  • 11.16. Other minor uses

12. Outlook for manganese market to 2020

  • 12.1. Outlook for manganese ore
  • 12.2. Outlook for SiMn
  • 12.3. Outlook for HC FeMn
  • 12.4. Outlook for MLC FeMn
  • 12.5. Outlook for EMM demand
  • 12.6. Outlook for EMD demand
  • 12.7. Outlook for end-use markets
    • 12.7.1. Outlook for manganese use in iron and steel
    • 12.7.2. Outlook for non-ferrous alloys
    • 12.7.3. Outlook for batteries

13. Prices of manganese

  • 13.1. Manganese ore prices
  • 13.2. Manganese alloy prices
    • 13.2.1. SiMn prices
    • 13.2.2. HC FeMn prices
    • 13.2.3. MLC FeMn prices
    • 13.2.4. EMM prices
    • 13.2.5. EMD prices
  • 13.3. Manganese price outlook

Tables Listing

  • 1. Physical properties of manganese
  • 2. Principal manganese minerals
  • 3. Composition of ocean-floor manganese nodules by ocean
  • 4. World: Estimated manganese reserves and reserve base
  • 5. Principal producing countries: Estimated head grades of manganese ore
  • 6. Bureau of Indian Standards: Classification of manganese ore
  • 7. BHP Billiton: Typical properties of manganese ores in South Africa
  • 8. ASTM specifications for manganese alloys
  • 9. Selected manganese chemicals: Formulae, manganese content and main markets
  • 10. World: Production of Manganese ore by region, 2006 and 2014
  • 11. World: Production of Manganese ore by country, 2006 to 2014
  • 12. World: Production of Manganese ore by country, 2006 to 2014
  • 13. World: Production of SiMn, by country, 2006 to 2014
  • 14. World: Production of HC FeMn, by country, 2006 to 2014
  • 15. World: Production of MLC FeMn, by country, 2006 to 2014
  • 16. World: Production of EMM, by country, 2006 to 2014
  • 17. World: Production of EMD, by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 18. Argentina: Production of SiMn, 2009 to 2014
  • 19. Australia: Manganese production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 20. Australia: Resources of manganese ore, 2011
  • 21. Australia: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 22. Australia: GEMCO: Manganese reserves and resources at Groote Eylandt
  • 23. Australia: GEMCO: Production of Manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 24. Australia: TEMCO: Production of Manganese alloys, 2009 to 2014
  • 25. Australia: Consmin: Production of Manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 26. Australia: OMH: Manganese reserves and resources at Bootu Creek
  • 27. Australia: OMH: Production of Manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 28. Australia: MRL: Sales of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 29. Australia: Selected manganese exploration projects
  • 30. Brazil: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 31. Brazil: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 32. Brazil: Vale: Manganese ore reserves in Brazil, 2013
  • 33. Brazil: Vale: Production of manganese ore by mine, 2009 to 2014
  • 34. Bulgaria: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 35. China: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 36. Country: Overview of major Chinese manganese production operations
  • 37. China: Principal (+200ktpy ore capacity) manganese mining operations, 2014
  • 38. China: Principal (+50ktpy capacity) manganese alloy producing companies
  • 39. China: EMM capacity by principal companies
  • 40. Egypt: Production of HC FeMn, 2009 to 2014
  • 41. France: Production of manganese alloys, 2009 to 2014
  • 42. Gabon: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 43. Country: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 44. Gabon: Eramet Comilog: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 45. Georgia: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 46. Georgia: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 47. Ghana: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 48. Ghana: GCM: Manganese reserves and resources
  • 49. Greece: Production of EMD, 2009 to 2014
  • 50. India: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 51. India: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 52. MOIL: Manganese mines
  • 53. India: MOIL: Production of manganese, 2009 to 2013
  • 54. India: Known producers of manganese alloys
  • 55. Indonesia: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 56. Iran: Production of ferroalloys, 2008 to 2014
  • 57. Italy: Production of ferroalloys, 2008 to 2014
  • 58. Ivory Coast: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 59. Japan: Production of manganese alloys, 2009 to 2014
  • 60. Kazakhstan: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 61. Kazakhstan: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 62. Kazakhstan: ENRC: Manganese ore reserves, 2012
  • 63. Kazakhstan: ENRC: Production of manganese, 2009 to 2014
  • 64. Malaysia: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 65. Mexico: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 66. Mexico: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 67. Myanmar: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 68. Namibia: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 69. Norway: Production of refined manganese, 2009 to 2014
  • 70. Romania: Production of SiMn, 2009 to 2014
  • 71. Russia: Production of manganese alloys, 2009 to 2014
  • 72. Saudi Arabia: Production of SiMn, 2009 to 2014
  • 73. Slovakia: Production of manganese alloys, 2009 to 2014
  • 74. South Africa: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 75. South Africa: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 76. South Africa: HMM: Manganese reserves and resources
  • 77. South Africa: HMM: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 78. South Africa: Metalloys: Production of manganese alloys, 2009 to 2014
  • 79. South Africa: Assmang: Summary of manganese reserves, 2014
  • 80. South Africa: Assmang: Production of manganese, 2009 to 2014
  • 81. South Africa: Mogale Alloys: Production of SiMn, 2008 to 2013
  • 82. South Korea: Production of refined manganese, 2009 to 2014
  • 83. Spain: Production of refined manganese, 2009 to 2014
  • 84. Ukraine: Production, trade and apparent consumption, 2009 to 2014
  • 85. Ukraine: Overview of manganese production operations
  • 86. USA: Production of manganese alloys, 2009 to 2014
  • 87. Venezuela: Production of SiMn, 2009 to 2014
  • 88. Vietnam: Production of manganese ores, 2009 to 2014
  • 89. World: Exports of manganese ore by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 90. Top ten reported importers of manganese ore, 2008 to 2014
  • 91. World: Trade matrix for manganese ores, 2013
  • 92. World: Exports of SiMn by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 93. World: Reported imports of SiMn by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 94. World: Trade matrix for SiMn, 2013
  • 95. World: Exports of HC FeMn by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 96. World: Reported imports of HC FeMn by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 97. World: Trade matrix of HC FeMn, 2013
  • 98. World: Exports of MLC FeMn by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 99. World: Imports of MLC FeMn by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 100. World: Trade matrix for MLC FeMn, 2013
  • 101. World: Exports of EMM by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 102. World: Imports of EMM by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 103. World: Trade matrix of EMM, 2013
  • 104. World: Exports of EMD by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 105. World: Imports of EMD by country, 2008 to 2014
  • 106. World: Trade matrix of EMD, 2013
  • 107. World: Production and consumption of manganese ore, 2008 to 2014
  • 108. World: Production and consumption of SiMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 109. World: Production and consumption of HC FeMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 110. World: Production and consumption of MLC FeMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 111. World: Production and consumption of EMM, 2008 to 2014
  • 112. World: Production and consumption of EMD, 2008 to 2014
  • 113. World: Crude steel production, by region, 2008 to 2014
  • 114. World: Top-20 crude steel producing companies, 2013
  • 115. World: Production of passenger vehicles and light commercial vehicles, by region, 2008 to 2014 H1
  • 116. Typical compositions of full alloy steels
  • 117. Effects of alloying additions in HSLA steels
  • 118. Alloying additions and properties of ASTM grades of HSLA steels
  • 119. World: Gas pipeline construction by region, 2005 to 2014
  • 120. SAE grades for HSLA steel
  • 121. Effects of alloying elements on stainless steel properties
  • 122. Selected manganese-bearing hot-work die steels
  • 123. Selected manganese-bearing cold work tool and die steels
  • 124. Selected high-speed steels
  • 125. Compositions for typical cast irons
  • 126. Compositions of selected high-performance alloys containing Mn
  • 127. Characteristics of primary lithium batteries
  • 128. Japan: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2013
  • 129. South Korea: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2013
  • 130. China: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2013
  • 131. Specifications and typical analysis of NMD, EMD and CMD
  • 132. World: Forecast Manganese ore production and consumption, 2014 to 2020
  • 133. World: Forecast SiMn production and consumption, 2014 to 2020
  • 134. World: Forecast HC FeMn production and consumption, 2014 to 2020
  • 135. World: Forecast MLC FeMn production and consumption, 2014 to 2020
  • 136. World: Forecast EMM production and consumption, 2014 to 2020
  • 137. Selected monthly manganese ore prices, 2013 and 2014
  • 138. Selected monthly SiMn prices, 2013 and 2014
  • 139. Selected monthly HC FeMn prices, 2013 and 2014
  • 140. Selected monthly MC FeMn prices, 2013 and 2014
  • 141. EMM monthly average prices, 2013 and 2014
  • 142. Forecast manganese ore prices, 2014 to 2020
  • 143. Forecast manganese ore prices, 2014 to 2020

Figures Listing

  • 1. World: Consumption of manganese ore, by product, 2014
  • 2. World: Consumption of manganese ore, by region, 2014
  • 3. World: Distribution of estimated manganese reserves by country, 2013
  • 4. Applications for manganese ores
  • 5. Manganese ore cash production costs by component, global average, 2011 vs. 2015
  • 6. Global average seaborne Manganese ore cash production costs, FOB and CIF China basis, 2006 to 2015
  • 7. Oil prices, Brent Crude, monthly, January 2007 to January 2015
  • 8. Baltic Dry Shipping Index, monthly, January 2010 to January 2015
  • 9. Cash cost curve for manganese ore, 2015
  • 10. Manganese ore cash costs by region and component, 2015
  • 11. SiMn and HC FeMn ex-plant cash production costs by component, global average, 2015
  • 12. Global average SiMn and HC FeMn FOB cash production costs, 2006 to 2015
  • 13. Exchange rate movements versus US$
  • 14. Average electricity tariffs for ferroalloy producers, 2006 to 2015
  • 15. Average spot prices for metallurgical coke and energy coal since 2007
  • 16. Global FOB cash cost curve for SiMn, 2015
  • 17. SiMn ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2015
  • 18. Global FOB cash cost curve for HC FeMn, 2015
  • 19. HC FeMn ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2015
  • 20. World: Mine production of manganese, 2000 to 2014
  • 21. World: Mine production of manganese and production of crude steel, 2000 to 2014
  • 22. World: Correlation between manganese mine production and crude steel production, 2000 to 2014
  • 23. World: Index comparison of growth rates in mine production of manganese, production of crude steel and GDP growth, 2000 to 2014
  • 24. World: Average Manganese ore grade, by country, 2014
  • 25. World: Production of manganese ore (contained manganese), by company, 2014
  • 26. World: Production of manganese alloys, 2000 to 2014
  • 27. World: Production of manganese alloys, by region, 2014
  • 28. World: Production of SiMn, by producer (ex-China and India), 2014
  • 29. World: Production of HC FeMn, by producer (ex-China and India), 2014
  • 30. World: Production of MLC FeMn, by producer (ex-China and India), 2014
  • 31. Australia: Exports of Manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 32. Brazil: Exports of manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 33. Brazil: Exports of SiMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 34. China: Manganese alloy capacity by province, 2014
  • 35. China: Imports of manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 36. China: Exports of EMM, 2008 to 2014
  • 37. Gabon: Exports of Manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 38. Georgia: Exports of SiMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 39. India: Imports of manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 40. India: Exports of SiMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 41. Kazakhstan: Exports of manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 42. Kazakhstan: Exports of SiMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 43. Mexico: Imports of manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 44. South Africa: Exports of manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 45. South Africa: Exports of HC FeMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 46. South Africa: Exports of MLC FeMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 47. South Africa: Exports of EMM, 2008 to 2014
  • 48. South Africa: Exports of EMD, 2008 to 2014
  • 49. Ukraine: Imports of manganese ores and concentrates, 2008 to 2014
  • 50. Ukraine: Exports of SiMn, 2008 to 2014
  • 51. World: Top exporters and importers of manganese ore, 2014
  • 52. World: Top exporters and importers of SiMn, 2014
  • 53. World: Top exporters and importers of HC FeMn, 2014
  • 54. World: Top exporters and importers of MLC FeMn, 2014
  • 55. World: Top exporters and importers of EMM, 2014
  • 56. World: Top exporters and importers of EMD, 2014
  • 57. World: Manganese ore production, consumption, and stock change, 2000 to 2014
  • 58. World: Consumption of manganese ore, by region, 2014
  • 59. World: Consumption of manganese ore, by product, 2014
  • 60. USA: Consumption of manganese, by product, 2012
  • 61. World: SiMn production, consumption, and stock change, 2000 to 2014
  • 62. World: Consumption of SiMn, by region, 2004, 2009 and 2014
  • 63. World: HC FeMn production, consumption, and stock change, 2000 to 2014
  • 64. World: Consumption of HC FeMn, by region, 2004, 2009 and 2014
  • 65. World: MLC FeMn production, consumption, and stock change, 2000 to 2014
  • 66. World: Consumption of MLC FeMn, by region, 2004, 2009 and 2014
  • 67. World: EMM production, consumption, and stock change, 2000 to 2014
  • 68. World: Consumption of EMM, by region, 2004, 2009 and 2014
  • 69. World: EMD production, consumption, and stock change, 2000 to 2014
  • 70. World: Consumption of EMD, by region, 2014
  • 71. World: Estimated division of manganese consumption by sector, 2014
  • 72. World: Manganese consumption in steel, by end-use 2014
  • 73. World: Production of pig iron, 2004 to 2014
  • 74. Europe: Price of SiMn versus price of equivalent amount of FeSi and HC FeMn, 2000 to 2014
  • 75. Estimated use of manganese in crude steel by region, 2000 to 2014
  • 76. Estimated use of manganese in crude steel by form, 2000 to 2014
  • 77. Index of growth in construction output, by region, 2005 to 2014
  • 78. World: Alloy engineering steels, by end-use, 2013
  • 79. World: Stainless steel consumption by end-use, 2014
  • 80. World: Tool steel consumption, by end-use, 2013
  • 81. World: Estimated division of aluminium consumption, by end-use, 2013
  • 82. World: Consumption of superalloys, by end-use, 2013
  • 83. World: Estimated division of copper alloy consumption, by end-use, 2013
  • 84. Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries
  • 85. Lithium-ion battery schematic
  • 86. World: Production of secondary batteries, 1995 to 2014
  • 87. World: Rechargeable Li-ion battery production by country, 2000 to 2013
  • 88. World: Production of lithium cathode materials by type, 2000 to 2013
  • 89. World: Outlook for global GDP, steel production and manganese consumption, by form, 2014 to 2020
  • 90. World: Production and consumption of manganese ore, 2014 to 2020
  • 91. World: Consumption of SiMn, 2014 to 2020
  • 92. World: Consumption of HC FeMn, 2014 to 2020
  • 93. World: Consumption of MLC FeMn, 2014 to 2020
  • 94. World: Consumption of EMM, 2014 to 2020
  • 95. World: Production and consumption of EMD, 2014 to 2020
  • 96. World: Crude steel production forecasts, 2014 to 2020
  • 97. World: Crude steel production and Mn consumption forecasts, 2014 to 2020
  • 98. Forecast growth in vehicles, by region, 2000 to 2020
  • 99. Index of growth in construction output, by region, 2005 to 2020
  • 100. World: Production of secondary batteries, 2000 to 2020
  • 101. World: Manganese ore prices, 2000 to 2014
  • 102. Europe: SiMn prices, 2000 to 2014
  • 103. World: Nominal SiMn prices, 2006 to 2014
  • 104. Europe: HC FeMn prices, 2006 to 2014
  • 105. World: Nominal HC FeMn prices, 2006 to 2014
  • 106. Europe: MC FeMn prices, 2000 to 2014
  • 107. World: Nominal Ref. FeMn prices, 2006 to 2014
  • 108. Europe: EMM prices, 2004 to 2014
  • 109. China: Monthly EMD prices, 2013 to 2014
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