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Green Building Materials and Construction, 3rd Edition

“Green” construction has a crucial role to play in the transition toward low carbon economy.

Presently, the global building sector uses almost one third of the global energy and is the main single contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG).

In the United States, commercial and residential buildings account for 39% of GHG emissions. This is more than any other sector of economy. To address this issue, the U.S. government has set an ambitious target to make all new buildings carbon neutral (or zero emissions) by 2030 and to improve existing building stock efficiency by 25%.

The situation is not much different in the European Union, where residential and non-residential buildings are responsible for nearly 40% of final energy consumption and 36% of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, buildings provide the second largest untapped cost-effective potential for energy savings at the time when the Union is struggling to meet its carbon emissions and energy efficiency targets.

Taking these facts under consideration, it is anticipated that the role of buildings in the energy efficiency policy is expected to grow in the next years, both at national level and globally.

In addition to addressing environmental concerns, the development of “green” construction market has also important socio-economic implications. It was estimated that investments in improved energy efficiency of buildings can generate an additional 2 to 3.5 million green jobs in Europe and the United States alone. This factor should not be underestimated in the present situation, when several economies are recovering from the global financial crisis 2008-2009.

Regulatory instruments, governmental initiatives and financial support mechanisms together with growing customer's awareness and expectations all puts a pressure on construction market participants to adopt “green” practices. “Green” construction is moving from a niche to the mainstream, but is this movement fast enough to make a meaningful environmental or economic change?

The interest in joining “green” construction market is growing. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), the most recognized program for rating and certifying “green” buildings worldwide, records a growing number of projects registrations year by year. However, the number and total footage area of buildings positively verified and awarded LEED certification has been experiencing only a modest growth since 2010.

In 2011, the total value of “green” (LEED certified) construction worldwide was estimated at nearly $70 billion. By 2016, the market is anticipated to reach almost $150 billion and by 2021 - $294 billion. Non-residential buildings have the major share in the market: $51 billion in 2011. Green homes is the fastest growing segment of “green” construction - the market value of LEED certified homes has jumped from $39 million in 2007 to $17.15 billion in 2011.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Executive Summary

  • Defining Green in Construction
  • Figure 1-1: Global Market for Green Construction 2007-2011
  • Figure 1-2: Green Construction Market Forecast 2012-2021 in $ Billion
  • Market Size and Growth
  • Employment Outlook
  • Green Certification in Construction
  • Table 1-1: Index of Green Building Materials and Products Certification
  • Programs Presented in the Report
  • Table 1-2: Index of Green Building Certification Programs Presented in the Report
  • Green Building Products Manufacturers Worldwide - Competitive Profiles
  • Table 1-3: List of Green Building Products Manufacturers Profiled in the
  • Report
  • Global Leaders in Green Construction - Competitive Profiles
  • Report Scope
  • Report Format
  • Report Methodology
  • Abbreviations and Acronyms
  • Table 1-4: Definitions of Abbreviations and Acronyms used in the Report

Chapter 2 - Market Definition

  • What Makes a Building Material “Green”?
  • Figure 2-1: Green Building Materials Attributes and Assessment Criteria
  • Figure 2-2: Green Building Materials Resources Efficiency Attributes and
  • Assessment Criteria
  • Figure 2-3: Green Building Materials Indoor Air Quality Attributes and
  • Assessment Criteria
  • Table 2-1: Description of “Green” Building Materials and Products
  • Attributes and Assessment Criteria
  • “Green” Buildings and Construction
  • Figure 2-4: Impacts of Building Environment
  • Figure 2-5: “Green” Construction Market Organization
  • Table 2-2: Buildings “Green” Retrofit Measures and Technologies
  • “Green” Construction Market Participants
  • Figure 2-6: “Green” Construction Industry Participants
  • Report Scope
  • Methodology

Chapter 3 - Market Size and Growth

  • Methodology
  • The Market for Green Construction Reached Nearly $70 Billion in 2011
  • Table 3-1: Overview on the Global Green Construction Market 2007-2011
  • (in million $)
  • Figure 3-1: Global Market for Green Construction 2007-2011
  • Global Market for Green Buildings
  • Figure 3-2: Top Markets for Green Buildings 2007-2011
  • Table 3-2: Number of LEED-certified Green Buildings by Country
  • 2007-2011
  • Figure 3-3: Global Market for Green Buildings 2007-2011
  • Table 3-3: LEED-certified Non-Residential Projects Area (sf) - Top 20 Markets
  • Global Market for Certified Green Homes
  • Table 3-4: Types of Buildings Covered by LEED Homes
  • Figure 3-4: Global Market for LEED-certified Homes 2007-2011
  • Global Market for Commercial Green Interiors
  • Figure 3-5: Global Market for Green Commercial Interiors 2007-2011
  • Table 3-5: LEED CI-certified Projects Area by Country (sf)
  • Global Market for Green Buildings Operation and Maintenance
  • Table 3-6: LEED EB-certified Projects Area by Country (sf)
  • Figure 3-6: Global Market for Green Buildings Operation and Maintenance
  • 2007-2011
  • The Market for Green Construction Will Reach over $294 Billion in 2021
  • Figure 3-7: Green Construction Market Forecast 2012-2021 in $ Billion
  • Table 3-7: Green Construction Market Forecast 2012-2021 by
  • Segment in $ Billion
  • Green Building Materials Spending Characteristics
  • Table 3-8: Green Materials Spending Model for LEED Certified Buildings
  • 2007-2011 in Million $
  • Table 3-9: Green Materials Spending Model for LEED Certified Projects
  • 2012-2021 in Million $
  • Table 3-10: Building Materials Spending Model in Green Residential
  • Segment 2007-2011
  • Table 3-11: Building Materials Spending Model in Green Residential
  • Segment for 2012-2021 in $ Million

Chapter 4 - Employment in “Green” Construction

  • Table 4-1: “Green” Jobs Definitions
  • Which jobs are “green”?
  • “Green” Construction Job Market Trends and Projections
  • Table 4-2: The USBLC Construction Jobs Projection Data
  • Figure 4-1: Impact of Green Construction on Employment in the U.S. 2000-2013
  • Salaries in Green Construction
  • Table 4-3: Inventory of California “Green” Construction Jobs and Salaries
  • Qualification and Credentials for Green Construction Professionals
  • LEED Professional Qualifications and Credentials
  • Table 4-4: LEED Accredited Professional Credentials Characteristics
  • Title
  • Competence
  • Target Audience
  • BREEAM Professional Qualifications and Credentials
  • Table 4-5: BREEAM Credentials and Qualifications Characteristics
  • Table 4-6: Review of BREEAM Professionals Salaries Offers
  • Table 4-7: Selected AEE Certification Programs Characteristics
  • Other Professional Certification Programs
  • Table 4-8: Other Professional Certification Programs
  • The Role of Policymakers in Stimulation Green Jobs Growth
  • in Construction
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 (ARRA)
  • The City of London Low Carbon Zones Initiative
  • FIDE Electric Energy Savings Training Program, Mexico

Chapter 5 - Green Certification in Construction

  • Green Labeling vs. Green Certification
  • Green Labeling (Eco-labeling)
  • Table 5-1: ISO Definitions of Environmental Labeling Types
  • Green Certification
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Green Building Materials and Products Labeling & Certification Programs
  • Worldwide
  • Blue Angel
  • Table 5-2: Blue Angel Basic Criteria for Buildings Materials and Products
  • Cradle to Cradle (C2C)
  • Cool Roof Rating Council Labeling Program
  • Recycled Material Content Standard V5-0
  • Indoor Advantage and Indoor Advantage Gold
  • Green Label and Green Label Plus
  • NSF/ANSI 140 Sustainability Assessment for Carpet
  • FloorScore
  • NSF International Standard 14 - Plastics Piping System Components
  • and Related Materials
  • Green Squared .
  • calCOMPliant (CARB certification)
  • The National Fenestration Rating & Certification Program
  • WaterSense
  • NSF 347 Sustainability Assessment for Single Ply Roofing Membranes
  • M1 Emission Classification of Building Materials (Finland)
  • GUT
  • Table 5-3: GUT Pollutants and Emissions Tests Requirements
  • EMICODE
  • Indoor Climate Label (Denmark)
  • EU Ecolabel
  • Other Green Building Products Certification, Labeling and Rating
  • Programs
  • Table 5-4: Other Green Building Products Certification, Labeling and
  • Rating Programs
  • Greenwashing
  • Green Buildings Certification Programs Worldwide
  • Table 5-5: Green Construction Certification Programs Worldwide
  • Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method
  • (BREEAM)
  • BREEAM 2011 Rating Tools
  • Table 5-6: BREEAM 2008 vs. BREEAM 2011 Certification Schemes
  • Table 5-7: BREEAM 2011 Rating Tools Characteristics
  • Figure 5-1: BREEAM 2011 Structure - Assessment Categories and
  • Credits
  • Table 5-8: BREEAM 2011 Rating Scale
  • BREEAM Outside of the United Kingdom
  • Table 5-9: BREEAM Rating Systems Outside United Kingdom
  • BREEAM International
  • Table 5-10: Statistics for BREEAM-certified and Registered for
  • Certification Commercial Buildings in Europe
  • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
  • LEED Rating Tools
  • Table 5-11: LEED Rating Systems Characteristics
  • Figure 5-2: LEED New Construction 2009 - Assessment Categories and
  • Credits
  • Table 5-12: LEED 2009 Rating Scale
  • Certification Process and Costs
  • Table 5-13: LEED Registration and Certification Costs ($)
  • LEED in the United States
  • LEED Worldwide
  • Table 5-15: Statistics for LEED-certified Buildings outside the U.S.
  • (excl. LEED for Homes)
  • Green Star
  • Table 5-16: Green Star Rating Tools
  • Table 5-17: GBCA-recognized Products Certification Schemes
  • Table 5-18: Green Star Rating Scale
  • ENERGY STAR 3.0 (United States)
  • ENERGY STAR New Homes
  • ENERGY STAR for Buildings & Manufacturing Plants
  • Table 5-19: Facilities Eligible for the ENERGY STAR Buildings &
  • Manufacturing Plants Scheme
  • Green Globes (United States)
  • Table 5-20: Green Globes Certification Schemes
  • Table 5-21: Green Globes Rating Scale
  • ICC 700 National Green Building Standard (United States)
  • Table 5-22: ICC 700 National Green Building Standard for Homes Rating
  • Scale
  • Table 5-23: ICC 700 National Green Building Standard for Site Design
  • and Development Rating Scale
  • Society for Environmentally Responsible Facilities (SERF) Certification
  • (United States)
  • Table 5-24: SERF Rating Tools
  • Earth Advantage (United States)
  • Table 5-25: Earth Advantage Rating Tools
  • EarthCraft (United States)
  • Table 5-26: EarthCraft Certification Programs
  • DGNB (Germany)
  • Table 5-27: Statistics for DGNB-certified and Registered for Certification
  • Commercial Buildings in Europe
  • HQE (France)
  • Table 5-28: Statistics for HQE-certified and Registered for Certification
  • Commercial Buildings in Europe
  • Living Building Challenge 2.0
  • The Economics of Green Building Certification
  • Table 5-29: Sales Price, Rental and Occupancy Rate Premiums for
  • LEED and ENERGY STAR-certified Buildings in the U.S.

Chapter 6 - Green Building Products Manufacturers,

  • Competitive Profiles
  • Table 6-1: List of Featured Companies
  • Holcim Ltd.
  • Table 6-2: Holcim Ltd. Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Table 6-3: Holcim Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Figure 6-1: Annual Revenues of Holcim, 2007 - 2011 (in billion CHF)
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • Innovation Outlook
  • Personnel Changes
  • Lafarge
  • Table 6-4: Lafarge Group Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Table 6-5: Lafarge Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Figure 6-2: Annual Revenues of Lafarge, 2007 - 2011 (in billion € )
  • Figure 6-3: Lafarge Distribution of Sales by Business Line (%)
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • Innovation
  • Outlook
  • Personnel Changes
  • USG Corporation
  • Table 6-6: USG Corp Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Table 6-7: USG Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Figure 6-4: Annual Revenues of USG, 2007 - 2011 (in billion $)
  • Company News
  • Innovation
  • Personnel Changes
  • Kingspan Group Plc
  • Table 6-8: Kingspan Group Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Table 6-9: Kingspan Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Figure 6-5: Annual Revenues of Kingspan, 2007 - 2011 (in billion € )
  • Figure 6-6: Geographical Analysis of Kingspan's Revenue by Destination
  • 2011
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • Innovation
  • Personnel Changes
  • BASF
  • Table 6-10: BASF Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Table 6-11: BASF Construction Chemicals Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Figure 6-7: Annual Revenues of BASF, 2007 - 2011 (in billion € )
  • Figure 6-8: Annual Revenues of BASF's Construction Chemicals Division
  • 2007-2011 (in billion € )
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • Innovation
  • Personnel Changes
  • Bayer Material Science AG
  • Table 6-12: Bayer Material Science Group Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Table 6-13: Bayer Material Science Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Figure 6-9: Annual Revenues of Bayer Material Science, 2007 - 2011 (in
  • billion € )
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • Innovation
  • Outlook
  • Andersen Corporation
  • Table 6-14: Andersen Corp Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Company News
  • CENTRIA
  • Table 6-15: Centria Group Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Table 6-16: Centria Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Company News
  • SAGE Electrochromics Inc.
  • Table 6-17: SAGE Group Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Product and Brand Portfolio
  • Performance
  • Company News

Chapter 7 - Global Leaders in Green Construction:

  • Company Profiles
  • Skanska
  • Table 7-1: Skanska Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Sustainability
  • Figure 7-1: Annual Revenues of Skanska, 2007 - 2011 (in billion $)
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • New Projects
  • Table 7-2: Skanska New Orders in Construction 2011
  • Outlook
  • Personnel Changes
  • Balfour Beatty Plc
  • Table 7-3: Balfour Beatty Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Sustainability
  • Performance
  • Figure 7-2: Annual Revenues of Balfour Beatty, 2007 - 2011 (in billion €)
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • New Projects
  • Innovation
  • Outlook
  • Stockland
  • Table 7- 4: Stockland Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Sustainability
  • Performance
  • Figure 7-3: Annual Revenues of Stockland, 2007 - 2011 (in billion $)
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • New Projects
  • Innovation
  • HOCHTIEF
  • Table 7-5: HOCHTIEF Profile
  • Corporate Background
  • Sustainability
  • Figure 7-4: Number of Certified Green Buildings Constructed by
  • Performance
  • Figure 7-5: Annual Revenues of HOCHTIEF, 2007-2011 (in billion € )
  • Company News
  • Acquisitions and Divestitures
  • New Projects Innovation Outlook
  • Personnel Changes
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