Modern advances in plastic surgery have allowed patients with severe physical deformities to live normal lives. Where at one time an individual suffering from an extreme physical abnormality simply had to “live with it,” plastic surgical techniques can now ameliorate or even completely correct the original physical ailment. Beyond addressing serious physical handicaps, plastic surgery for purely cosmetic reasons has exploded around the world. For the purposes of this report, the term “plastic surgery” is divided into two distinct groups: 1) reconstructive surgery focused on restoring normal physical function resulting from an abnormality or injury to the body and 2) cosmetic surgery focused on simply improving one' s physical appearance. Moreover, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of the trends in medical tourism to seek lower-cost procedures, advances in minimally-invasive surgical techniques that can be performed on an out-patient basis in doctors' and dentists' offices, and purchases of over-the-counter beauty products, such as traditional cosmetic makeup and new non-invasive devices, marketed to consumers who wish to change their physical appearance without surgery.