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Market Research Report

Truck Fuel Efficiency: Trends, Challenges and Emerging Technologies - Market Drivers, Fuel Price Trends, New and Emerging Fuel Efficiency Technologies

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Truck Fuel Efficiency: Trends, Challenges and Emerging Technologies - Market Drivers, Fuel Price Trends, New and Emerging Fuel Efficiency Technologies
Published: June 30, 2018 Content info:
Description

Truck fuel efficiency is a key issue for truck manufacturers and suppliers, impacting all parts of heavy commercial vehicles and their operation. Growing oil demand has led to considerable volatility in fuel prices since the beginning of the 21st century. Recent rises in crude oil and automotive fuel prices underline the potential for disrupting operator business models and growing political risks mean the issue looks as if it will remain critical in the coming years.

While fuel costs accounted for around 10% of freight costs a decade or two ago, they have been as high as 35% during recent years, and operators now regard 30% as a benchmark.

‘The Truck Fuel Efficiency Report’ outlines the commercial, political and legislative environment, tracks the key technologies, and reports on the status of their development. The report pulls together a number of different perspectives and looks at developments around the entire vehicle to provide an overview of the overall trends in this very important area. With 96 pages and 60 tables and figures, it is an essential guide to this critical area.

Key areas covered include:

  • Market drivers and challenges - regulations fuel prices, incentives
  • Current and developing engine technologies - from stop-start and aftertreatment to new combustion technologies and alternative engine designs
  • Drivetrain technologies - transmission types, axles, hybrid drivetrains, manufacturer strategies
  • Aerodynamics - airtabs, trailer shapes, grilles
  • Tyres - pressure monitoing systems, tyre technology
  • Efficient ancillaries
  • New and future technologies - connectivity and electronic control, autonomous driving, waste heat recovery, freewheeling, power lubrication

About the author:

Mike Murphy B.Sc., M.Phil.(Hons.I) has had a lifelong interest in things automotive including owning and racing a range of motorcycles and track cars. He began regularly contributing to automotive publications in his native New Zealand during the 1990s and in 2004 he became a news editor for a leading UK auto industry publication. He began researching and writing automotive technology sector reports the following year and has had around 50 technology reports and numerous features published by four UK-based automotive and truck industry publications.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Executive summary

Chapter 2: Market drivers

  • 2.1. Regulations
    • 2.1.1. Fuel economy
      • 2.1.1.1. The European Union (EU)
      • 2.1.1.2. The United States
      • 2.1.1.3. Japan
      • 2.1.1.4. China
    • 2.1.2. Global harmonisation
    • 2.1.3. Idling reduction
  • 2.2. Fuel prices
  • 2.3. Energy security
  • 2.4. Fuel savings
  • 2.5. Incentives
    • 2.5.1. North America
    • 2.5.2. Europe

Chapter 3: The challenges

  • 3.1. Physical obstacles
  • 3.2. Costs
  • 3.3. Diversity of specification and design
  • 3.4. Development time frames
  • 3.5. Calibration of measurements
  • 3.6. Total oil consumption by heavy commercial vehicles

Chapter 4: Progress to date and future targets

  • 4.1. Research studies
  • 4.2. Advances 2013-2017
  • 4.3. The US SuperTruck programme
  • 4.4. European OEMs
  • 4.5. China

Chapter 5: Engine technologies

  • 5.1. Forced induction
  • 5.2. Fuel injection
  • 5.3. Variable valve actuation
  • 5.4. Exhaust after-treatment
  • 5.5. Turbo-compounding
  • 5.6. Stop-start
  • 5.7. Optimised engine management parameters
  • 5.8. New combustion technologies
    • 5.8.1. Homogeneous charge compression ignition
    • 5.8.2. Reactivity controlled compression ignition
    • 5.8.3. Gasoline direct-injection compression ignition
  • 5.9. Alternative engine designs
    • 5.9.1. Opposed-piston designs
    • 5.9.2. Detonation Cycle Gas Turbine
    • 5.9.3. RadMax Rotary Turbine Engine
    • 5.9.4. Scuderi split cycle engine

Chapter 6: Drivetrain technologies

  • 6.1. Transmissions
    • 6.1.1. Manual transmissions
    • 6.1.2. Planetary automatic transmissions
    • 6.1.3. Automated manual transmissions
    • 6.1.4. Dual-clutch transmissions
    • 6.1.5. ZF TraXon modular automated transmissions
    • 6.1.6. Continuously-variable transmissions
  • 6.2. Drive axles
  • 6.3. Hybrid drivetrains
    • 6.3.1. Daimler
    • 6.3.2. Hino
    • 6.3.3. Iveco
    • 6.3.4. Isuzu
    • 6.3.5. MAN
    • 6.3.6. Navistar
    • 6.3.7. Nikola
    • 6.3.8. Paccar
    • 6.3.9. Scania
    • 6.3.10. Sisu
    • 6.3.11. Volvo Group
    • 6.3.12. Workhorse
    • 6.3.13. Wrightspeed
    • 6.3.14. XL Hybrids
    • 6.3.15. Trailer hybrid system

Chapter 7: Aerodynamics

  • 7.1. Tractor-to-trailer gap devices
  • 7.2. Trailer shapes
  • 7.3. Side skirts and wheel fairings
  • 7.4. Trailer tails
  • 7.5. Under-body fairings
  • 7.6. Articulating grille

Chapter 8: Tyres

  • 8.1. Tyre pressure monitoring systems
  • 8.2. Automatic tyre inflation systems
  • 8.3. Low rolling-resistance tyres

Chapter 9: Efficient ancillaries

  • 9.1. Electric power steering
  • 9.2. Electric air conditioning
  • 9.3. Air compressors
  • 9.4. Radiator cooling fans
  • 9.5. Engine coolant pumps
  • 9.6. Turbo-generator

Chapter 10: Other technologies

  • 10.1. Waste heat recovery
  • 10.2. Weight reduction
    • 10.2.1. Steel
    • 10.2.2. Cast iron
    • 10.2.3. Aluminium
  • 10.3. Freewheeling retarder
  • 10.4. Lubrication
  • 10.5. Lighting
  • 10.6. Auxiliary power units
  • 10.7. Connectivity and electronic control
    • 10.7.1. Intelligent powertrain management
    • 10.7.2. Predictive cruise control
    • 10.7.3. Telematics and driver coaching
    • 10.7.4. Autonomous driving and truck platooning

Chapter 11: Maintenance

Appendix 1: Glossary

Table of Figures

  • Figure 1: Electrical supply to a refrigerated trailer at a truck stop
  • Figure 2: Cushing, OK WTI crude oil spot price (US$/barrel), 1986 to December 2017
  • Figure 3: US diesel fuel price (US$/gallon) January 2007 to January 2018
  • Figure 4: Oil reserves by country (billions of barrels)
  • Figure 5: Energy losses in a heavy-duty, long-haul truck
  • Figure 6: Adoption % over time by technology category, 2003 to 2015
  • Figure 7: Different technologies pursued in the US SuperTruck programme
  • Figure 8: Holset variable nozzle turbocharger
  • Figure 9: Ford PowerStroke cobra head turbocharger exhaust
  • Figure 10: Eaton Twin Vortices Series compressor rotors
  • Figure 11: Antonov two-speed supercharger
  • Figure 12: Variable valve actuation on the 6.7-litre Cummins B-Series diesel engine
  • Figure 13: Valeo e-valve system
  • Figure 14: Mack Trucks turbo-compounding unit
  • Figure 15: Criterion emissions from RCCI engine by % gasoline
  • Figure 16: Napier Deltic opposed-piston engine cutaway
  • Figure 17: EcoMotors OPOC engine
  • Figure 18: TourEngine split-cycle engine design
  • Figure 19: Turbine Truck Engines Detonation Cycle Gas Turbine engine
  • Figure 20: 540hp prototype of the Detonation Cycle Gas Turbine Engine
  • Figure 21: RadMax Rotary Turbine
  • Figure 22: Scuderi split-cycle engine design
  • Figure 23: Allison nine-speed automatic transmission
  • Figure 24: Wabco transmission automation module
  • Figure 25: Eaton UltraShift PLUS
  • Figure 26: Mitsubishi Fuso Duonic transmission
  • Figure 27: AVL DCT concept
  • Figure 28: ZF TraXon fuel consumption compared to AS Tronic and Ecosplit transmissions
  • Figure 29: Partial (left) and full (right) toroidal transmission systems
  • Figure 30: Torotrak IVT-based transmission
  • Figure 31: GCI series CVT schematic
  • Figure 32: VMT Technologies positively engaged IVT proof model
  • Figure 33: Mack Trucks 6X2 liftable pusher axle
  • Figure 34: Meritor differential with oil distribution holes in the casing
  • Figure 35: Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid
  • Figure 36: Iveco EuroCargo hybrid
  • Figure 37: Nikola Class 8 series hybrid-electric truck
  • Figure 38: Kenworth T680 Drayage Tractor prototype
  • Figure 39: Sisu Polar hybrid-electric heavy-duty truck
  • Figure 40: Workhorse series hybrid delivery truck
  • Figure 41: Don-Bur Aeris extending trailer bulkhead
  • Figure 42: XStream Trucking TruckWings
  • Figure 43: Airtabs on the rear edges of a tractor
  • Figure 44: Don-Bur teardrop trailer
  • Figure 45: FlowBelow quick-release wheel fairings
  • Figure 46: Stemco Transtex Skirt and TrailerTail
  • Figure 47: SmartTruck TopKit
  • Figure 48: Airman Wingman system
  • Figure 49: SmartTruck Premier Aero trailer undertray system
  • Figure 50: StormBlok EkoStinger
  • Figure 51: ContiPressureCheck display
  • Figure 52: Aperia Technologies Halo Tyre Inflator
  • Figure 53: Michelin X One XDA (Drive Axle) single wide tyre
  • Figure 54: Horton Modulator RCV250 variable fan drive
  • Figure 55: Eaton schematic of three-stage Rootes type expander
  • Figure 56: Heavy-duty diesel oil viscosity trends, 2008-2021
  • Figure 57: Truck Lite LED headlamps
  • Figure 58: Thermo King TriPac APU
  • Figure 59: EnerMotion Hyper APU
  • Figure 60: Idle Air cab climate control and electrification system
  • Figure 61: How the Volvo Trucks I-See system works
  • Figure 62: Peloton truck platooning test
  • Figure 63: Daimler trucks during the European Truck Platooning Challenge

Table of Tables

  • Table 1: Japanese fuel economy standards for trucks
  • Table 2: Japanese fuel economy standards for truck tractors
  • Table 3: Share of total average marginal truck operating costs, 2008 to 2015
  • Table 4: Incremental costs of achieving 2027 standards (Canadian dollars)
  • Table 5: CO2 emissions reductions by European truck manufacturer, 1991-2016
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