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Market Research Report

Materials & Lightweighting: Strategies, Applications, Opportunities - Comprehensive Coverage of the Lightweighting Sector, Technical Analysis, OEM Strategies, Supplier Opportunities

Published by Autelligence Product code 352531
Published Content info 336 Pages
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Materials & Lightweighting: Strategies, Applications, Opportunities - Comprehensive Coverage of the Lightweighting Sector, Technical Analysis, OEM Strategies, Supplier Opportunities
Published: September 1, 2015 Content info: 336 Pages
Description

“How to utilise modern, lightweight materials at mass-market volume?”

Could there be a more critical question as the industry-wide effort to achieve strict new fuel-efficiency standards shifts to hyperspeed?

“Materials & lightweighting: strategies, applications, opportunities” explores technical and production features of a wide variety of new materials that carmakers are turning to in the effort to meet lightweighting goals.

The complexity is enormous, but the risk/reward ratio is high and suppliers that have mastered the details of efficient manufacturing enjoy a measurable advantage.

This comprehensive report examines the technical and strategic challenges of achieving stringent fuel economy standards through weight reduction. It is a deep-dive that covers everything from cost management to the processing of high-tech steels, aluminum alloys magnesium and titanium.

Included are analytical comparisons of the use of materials from quality, manufacturing and cost perspectives.

“If you look at the various technologies that the industry is pursuing to meet the future standards ... lightweighting is clearly leading.” - Jeff Sternberg, technology director of DuPont Automotive

The key issue? A growing number of global OEMs are following a manufacturing strategy that calls for multiple brands and models based on a small number of platforms. Thus, feature content has become a way to distinguish brands and avoid the consumer drift to lower margin brands and models.

This results in a significant challenge as increases in weight and size are no longer possible and weight offsets become essential. Weight and size increases are no longer a tolerable sacrifice.

However, it also presents a tremendous opportunity for companies that master new materials understanding and manufacturing.

The cost of improving gasoline engine efficiency by 25% is estimated by the International Energy Agency to be about USD 1,000 per car, while diesel costs are even higher. Weight reduction holds the potential of significant fuel economy improvements at a cost that is now becoming operable.

This comprehensive report answers technical questions, outlines the strategies for each OEM, suggests opportunities for suppliers, and provides 36 detailed company profiles.

SAMPLE

Figure 48:
Advanced steel development expressed in terms of tensile strength

About the author

Alistair Hill started his career in production and project management having graduated as a metallurgist from the University of Aston in Birmingham. He then moved into industrial market analysis and senior marketing roles within the truck industry supply sector. He became a consultant for Knibb Gormezano & Partners in the mid-1990s and began a long history of automotive and commercial vehicle sector analysis working for a wide range of clients including OEMs, suppliers and analytical companies. He has spoken on a wide range of technical subjects at conferences around the world and is actively involved in science and technology development in his adopted country of New Zealand.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

  • Government policy initiatives
  • Weight based versus footprint based initiatives
  • Weight based 95 g/km target
  • Footprint based 95 g/km

2. Barriers to weight reduction

  • Product differentiation
  • Vehicle weight and safety
  • Improved vehicle dynamics and safety
  • Process development
  • Cost development

3. Sustainability considerations

  • Mass reduction and vehicle lifecycle CO2 emissions
  • Case study Audi TT MY 2014 - 2015
  • End-of-life vehicles consideration

4. Historic perspective

5. Weight reduction by sector

  • Platform and module considerations
  • Body structure
  • Powertrain
  • Chassis
  • Interior developments

6. Materials technology

  • Steels
  • Steel industry global outlook
  • Advanced steel developments
  • Advanced alloy steels
  • Complex Phase steels (CP)
  • Dual Phase Steels (DP)
  • Ferritic-Bainitic Steel (FB)
  • Hot formed steel (HF)
  • Martensitic steel (MS)
  • Post forming heat treatable steel (PFHT)
  • Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP)
  • Twinning Induced Plasticity Steel (TWIP)
  • Boron UHSS
  • Special process steels
  • Evolving AHSS types
  • Three-phase steel with nano-precipitation
  • Quenching and partitioning
  • Competition from other materials

7. Steel forming technology

  • Hydroforming
  • Tailored blanks
  • Hot stamping
  • Zinc-Magnesium coated hot dip galvanised steel
  • Stainless steels for car frames

8. Aluminium alloys

  • Aluminium alloy systems
  • Wrought Alloy Series
  • Casting Alloys
  • Growth opportunities for aluminium
  • Powertrain applications
  • Chassis applications
  • Recycling

9. Magnesium

  • Magnesium versus aluminium
  • Price volatility
  • Demand for magnesium
  • Magnesium advantages
  • Magnesium extraction
  • Alloy and process development
  • Magnesium sheet production and stamping
  • Forging

10. Titanium

  • Titanium aluminides
  • Turbochargers
  • Titanium engine applications
  • Exhaust Systems
  • Titanium chassis applications
  • Brake Systems
  • Springs, bolts and fasteners
  • Lowering the cost of titanium
  • Extraction
  • Fabrication

11. Composite and Plastic Materials

  • Carbon Fibre
  • Types by raw materials:
  • Carbon fibre cost reduction
  • Process development
  • Thermocomposite materials
  • Thermoset versus thermoplastic
  • Plastics
  • Sheet moulding compound (SMC)

12. Nano-scale materials

  • Honeycomb structures

13. Hybrid materials technology

14. Bio-Materials

  • Challenges in bio-material application
  • Current and future applications
  • Textiles
  • Woven and knitted fabrics
  • Joining technology
  • Welding
  • Laser welding
  • Magnetic pulse welding
  • Plasma arc welding
  • Deformation resistance welding
  • Ultrasonic aluminium welding
  • Friction stir welding
  • Laser-Assisted Friction Stir Welding
  • Adhesive bonding
  • Hybrid bonding
  • Riveting
  • Self-piercing rivets

15. Company Profiles

  • Aapico Hitech Public Co.
  • Aichi Steel
  • Alcoa
  • Aleris
  • Amag Austria Metall
  • Arcelor Mittal
  • Basf
  • Benteler
  • CIE Automotive
  • Constellium
  • Faurecia
  • Georg Fischer
  • Gestamp
  • Gibbs Die Casting
  • GKN
  • Gurit
  • IMG
  • Iochpe Maxion
  • Kaiser Aluminium
  • Linamar Corporation
  • Luxfer Group
  • Magna
  • Martinea International
  • Meridian
  • Montupet SA
  • Novelis
  • Plastic Omnium
  • Shiloh Industries
  • Stemcor
  • Superior Industries
  • Tata Steel
  • Teijin
  • Thyssenkrupp
  • Tower International
  • Voestalpine
  • Yorozu Corporation

Figures

  • Figure 1: Characteristics of passenger cars and light-commercial vehicles (vans) in the EU: market share, vehicle mass, and vehicle size (footprint)
  • Figure 2: 2012 performance of key EU passenger car manufacturers, including 2015 and 2020 (effectively 2021) target
  • Figure 3: Average 2012 fuel consumption (in l/100 km, bold) and CO2 emission level (in g/km, in parentheses) of key EU passenger car manufacturers, including 2020 (effectively 2021) targets
  • Figure 4: VW Golf evolution of kerb weight (kg) 1990 - 2015
  • Figure 5: Options for a mass-based target system for reaching 95 g/km
  • Figure 6: Effects of varying the emission target line slope (weight-based system)
  • Figure 7: Options for a footprint-based target system for reaching 95 g/km
  • Figure 8: Effects of varying the emission target line slope (footprint-based system)
  • Figure 9: Issues that are barriers to weight reduction (LHS)
  • Figure 10: Average kerb weight by segment MY 1990 - 2015
  • Figure 11: A hybrid aluminium and advanced steel structure, Mercedes-Benz C-Class (2015)
  • Figure 12: Relative CO2 reduction benefits vs relative cost
  • Figure 13: The use phase dominates lifecycle vehicle emissions
  • Figure 14: Analysing lifetime greenhouse gas effects
  • Figure 15: Materials in body structure 2014 MY Audi TT
  • Figure 16: Greenhouse gas emissions for various materials
  • Figure 17: Materials evolution Audi TT MY2014 - 2015
  • Figure 18: Greenhouse gas emission values for the entire lifecycle of the Audi TT Coupè
  • Figure 19: Components in the Volkswagen Golf Mark 7
  • Figure 20: Global automotive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors shipments 2010 - 2016
  • Figure 21: Mini segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2015 (Europe)
  • Figure 22: Lower mid segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2015 (Europe)
  • Figure 23: Upper mid segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2015 (Europe)
  • Figure 24: Luxury segment average kerb weights 1990 - 2015 (Europe)
  • Figure 25: Average profit per vehicle versus CO2 compliance costs
  • Figure 26: Progress in weight reduction through materials technology
  • Figure 27: Trends in aluminium use
  • Figure 28: Weight share of modules and their weight increase.
  • Figure 29: The multi-material vehicle concept applied to the Audi A8 body-in-white
  • Figure 30: PSA's adjustable platform architecture
  • Figure 31: Assembly kits in the Volkswagen Group
  • Figure 32: Platform/ module evolution 2015 - 2020
  • Figure 33: Changes in steel usage in BIW application
  • Figure 34: Front bumper material and design for the Alpha Romeo Giulietta delivers 31 kg weight saving
  • Figure 35: Estimated BIW materials composition 2006 and 2015 forecast
  • Figure 36: Aluminium/ magnesium lightweight design 6 cylinder engine
  • Figure 37: Engine weight and performance for aluminium and cast iron blocks
  • Figure 38: Aluminium cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold
  • Figure 39: Areas for chassis weight reduction
  • Figure 40: A lightweight strut with a fibreglass wheel carrier
  • Figure 41: Range Rover magnesium front end structure
  • Figure 42: Porsche 918 Spyder CFRP monocoque construction
  • Figure 43: Alpha Romeo 4C carbon fibre production
  • Figure 44: Mass reduction in seat design
  • Figure 45: Apparent steel usage by region in 2015
  • Figure 46: BIW materials by tensile strength BMW 6 Series
  • Figure 47: Overall demand for auto steel and other metals and materials
  • Figure 48: Advanced steel development expressed in terms of tensile strength
  • Figure 49: VW changes in steel alloy use 2003 - 2015
  • Figure 50: Microstructure of TRIP steel
  • Figure 51: Advanced steel development for the future
  • Figure 52: Use of boron steel in BMW's 6 Series BIW
  • Figure 53: Nanosteels's nano-scale microstructure
  • Figure 54: Nanosteel's new class of AHSS materials
  • Figure 55: Steel processing portfolio
  • Figure 56: MagiZinc corrosion performance
  • Figure 57: Aluminium content per vehicle (lbs 1975 - 2025)
  • Figure 58: Aluminium content by component systems
  • Figure 59: Average Al content by OEM for sample vehicles 2012
  • Figure 60: Aluminium content increase (Kg) EU 2006 - 2012
  • Figure 61: Aluminium and plastic componentry BMW 7 Series body structure
  • Figure 62: Aluminium content in 2012
  • Figure 63: Aluminium content change by vehicle segment (US)
  • Figure 64: Iso-strength curves for 6000 Series alloys
  • Figure 65: Composition of 7000 Series alloys
  • Figure 66: Potential for aluminium extrusion use
  • Figure 67: Aluminium content 2006 model and 2012 model
  • Figure 68: Required aluminium additions to raise aluminium content by 40kg
  • Figure 69: Automotive material distribution 2015 - 2025
  • Figure 70: Federal Mogul's Advanced Estoval II piston
  • Figure 71: Aluminium steering knuckle
  • Figure 72: BMW 5 Series with aluminium front and rear axle subframes
  • Figure 73: Air suspension system components
  • Figure 74: European aluminium direct weight savings and market penetration 2013
  • Figure 75: European aluminium content (kg) D and E segment closures and body
  • Figure 76: Cost of different aluminium structural body components
  • Figure 77: Aluminium product forms in the Jaguar XJ (X350)
  • Figure 78: Aluminium body of the Jaguar XJ (X351)
  • Figure 79: Shift of materials applied for the Jaguar XJ: X350 - X351
  • Figure 80: Aluminium recycling schematic
  • Figure 81: Magnesium content per vehicle
  • Figure 82: Single piece magnesium tailgate inner panel
  • Figure 83: Specific strength versus specific stiffness for various materials
  • Figure 84: Magnesium demand breakdown
  • Figure 85: Lifecycle analysis of cast engine block for a vehicle life of 200,000 km
  • Figure 86: Magnesium pricing history
  • Figure 87: Global magnesium production 1998 and 2011 by region
  • Figure 88: Die-cast magnesium motorcycle engine blocks
  • Figure 89: A BMW magnesium cross-car beam giving a 50% weight saving over its steel fabrication alternative
  • Figure 90: Cathodic poisoning to capture atomic hydrogen that otherwise is fundamental to the corrosion process
  • Figure 91: Die cast V6 engine block
  • Figure 92: AM-SC1 three cylinder engine block
  • Figure 93: Stamped magnesium tailgate
  • Figure 94: Thermally formed magnesium alloy sheet trunk lid inner
  • Figure 95: Potential magnesium applications
  • Figure 96: Potential magnesium extrusion use
  • Figure 97: Turbocharger turbine wheel made from gTiAl
  • Figure 98: Application of titanium-Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) alloys for engine components
  • Figure 99: Connecting rod made of Ti-SB62 split using laser cracking
  • Figure 100: Titanium MMC crankshaft using Ti-4A-4V+12% TiCl
  • Figure 101: VW Golf 4-Motion titanium exhaust
  • Figure 102: Comparison between titanium and steel spring showing 50% weight saving
  • Figure 103: laser sintered complex titanium components
  • Figure 104: Price elasticity of demand for various engineering materials
  • Figure 105: Carbon fibre parts being moulded in BMW's Leipzig plant
  • Figure 106: Carbon fibre monocoque McLaren MP4-12C
  • Figure 107: Density strength relationships for various engineering materials - composites
  • Figure 108: Carbon fibre product types by mechanical properties
  • Figure 109: The cost gap between aluminium and carbon fibre will decrease over time using an aggressive cost reduction scenario
  • Figure 110: CFRP cost structure evolution
  • Figure 111: Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) process chain
  • Figure 112: Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) process schematic
  • Figure 113: McLaren's MP4-12C featuring a carbon fibre monocoque safety cell
  • Figure 114: a schematic roadmap of CFRP future development
  • Figure 115: Schematic of the Resin Spray Transfer process
  • Figure 116: Advanced engineering plastics use in the Bayer demonstration vehicle
  • Figure 117: Density strength relationships for various engineering materials - polymers
  • Figure 118: Emerging automotive nanotechnology uses
  • Figure 119: Nanocomposite interior component
  • Figure 120: Bayer Carbon Nanotubes
  • Figure 121: Over injection moulding of metal structures
  • Figure 122: Optimised component design achieved by intrinsic materials hybridisation
  • Figure 123: A schematic illustrating a holistic interdisciplinary approach to multi-material design and manufacture
  • Figure 124: Optimal continuous fibre reinforcement design for thermoplastic component
  • Figure 125: Hybrid materials process schematic
  • Figure 126: Wheat Straw/ Polypropylene storage bin and cover liner used in the 2010 Ford Flex
  • Figure 127: Joining technologies used in automotive manufacturing
  • Figure 128: Laser welded door containing three different steels
  • Figure 129: Friction stir welding
  • Figure 130: Friction stir welding
  • Figure 131: Laser assisted friction stir welding
  • Figure 132: Blind rivets
  • Figure 133: Tread forming screws
  • Figure 134: Self-piercing rivets

Tables

  • Table 1: The relative cost of fuel economy measures - gasoline engines
  • Table 2: The relative cost of fuel economy measures - diesel engines
  • Table 3: 2012 performance of key EU passenger car manufacturers, including 2015 and 2020 (effectively 2021) targets
  • Table 4: Sales/registrations-weighted averages per manufacturer in 2009
  • Table 5: Changes in assessed sustainability categories Audi TT Coupè MY2014 - 2015
  • Table 6: OEM statements and commitments to weight reduction
  • Table 7: Multi-materials potential body applications
  • Table 8: Fuel economy improvement and costs for powertrain
  • Table 9: Weight reduction in lightweight shock absorber assemblies
  • Table 10: Steel types used in automotive applications
  • Table 11: Market penetration of BIW applications 2013
  • Table 12: weight reduction versus the price increase by replacing steel by aluminium 2013
  • Table 13: European aluminium content by sample vehicle 2012
  • Table 14: Future aluminium content analysis
  • Table 15: properties of magnesium alloys compared with plastics, steel and aluminium
  • Table 16: Potential for weight saving replacing aluminium with magnesium in the powertrain
  • Table 17: Mechanical and physical properties of Magnesium
  • Table 18: Typical properties of TiAl based alloys compared with well known titanium alloys
  • Table 19: Material comparison with carbon fibre
  • Table 20: Carbon fibre cost trends
  • Table 21: Material comparison with carbon fibre
  • Table 22: A range of JVs between OEMs and carbon fibre producces
  • Table 23: DoE US targets and metrics for carbon fibre and composites
  • Table 24: Advantages and disadvantages of thermoset and thermoplastic composites
  • Table 25: Thermocomposite materials
  • Table 26: Emerging applications for carbon nanotube based materials technology
  • Table 27: Mechanical properties of selected fibres and polymers
  • Table 28: Bio-based content of selected automotive components
  • Table 29: Selected bio-based automotive components
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