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Market Research Report

Regulatory Guide to Autonomous Driving, Automotive Cyber Security & V2X

Published by Auto2x Ltd | Automotive Intelligence Consulting Product code 950474
Published Content info 58 Pages; 38 Tables & Graphs
Delivery time: 1-2 business days
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Regulatory Guide to Autonomous Driving, Automotive Cyber Security & V2X
Published: March 31, 2020 Content info: 58 Pages; 38 Tables & Graphs

Regulatory guide to Autonomous Driving, Automotive Cyber Security & V2X

Deployment of Level 3 automated driving is subject to regional regulatory approval. This report analyses the regulatory landscape for the transition from Supervised to Unsupervised-Driving (SAE Level 4-5) to allow deployment of higher levels of autonomy. Since the future is also Secure and Connected, our analysis also provides a regulatory guide on Automotive Cyber Security and V2X (V2V-V2I).

The Regulatory and Legal framework still needs to evolve to allow higher vehicle autonomy

As the automotive and technology industries race to higher vehicle autonomy the regulatory barrier becomes a determinant of their commercialization strategies. The first-ever SAE Level 3-automated driving system in Audi's flagship A8 has already been announced but customer availability is subject to regional regulatory approval across the world.

The transition from driver-centric regulation to Automated Driving Systems will allow the shift from Supervised driving to Conditionally & Completely-Unsupervised driving.

There is a growing concern over the lack of harmonisation of AD regulation

However, there are inherent differences between the regulatory and legal framework across Europe, the USA and China. This could adversely affect harmonisation of common standards and also delay the adoption of higher levels of vehicle autonomy.

What is the impact of regulation on the deployment strategies of carmakers?

Cyber Security is the new frontier for Automated and Connected Cars

Connected Car security needs to expand from its Physical dimension to cover the Cyber-Physical dimension and from the In-Vehicle-Network to the Internet-of-Things.

While recent "white hack" demonstrations have raised awareness of the risk the automotive industry faces amid the proliferation of Connected Cars, connected devices and V2X, the slow progress of regulation and the absence of common standards restrict adoption of ACS solutions.

Standardisation of the medium for V2V-V2I (DSRC vs cellular) restricts deployment

Even though V2V-V2I communications are not a technical prerequisite for Level 3 or higher, they can enhance safety by helping to overcome the limitations of on-board ADAS sensors, e.g. line-of-sight, weather conditions.

The industry-wide adoption of DSRC vs cellular V2X, which is associated with cost, robustness and financial viability, together with the spectrum-sharing decisions present the key technical challenges for V2V-V2I deployment in key geographies.

What this report delivers

This report focuses on regulation covering Conditionally (Level 3) & Completely-Unsupervised driving (Level 4-5) with or without driver controls, which are in the epicenter of regulatory developments because they will allow (limited to specific use cases or full) hands-off the steering wheel, eyes-off and eventually brain-off.

Furthermore, our analysis, provides a regulatory guide for some other rising issues relevant to Automated Driving, namely securing Automated and Connected Cars, V2X (V2V-V2I) communications and the impact on motor insurance.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Executive summary

  • 1. Key findings
  • 2. Overview of regulations and legislation by key category examined in this report

1. Autonomous Driving regulation (26 pages)

  • 1.1. AD regulation: the gap between current and future tech vs regulation
  • 1.2. Inherent differences in regulatory process & race to autonomy raise concerns over the lack of harmonization of AD regulation
  • 1.3. How does regulation affect deployment? Favourable geographies for L3 deployment
  • 1.4. Europe: The amendment of UN R79 vs a Horizontal regulation
    • 1.4.1. The amendment of the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic
    • 1.4.2. The amendment of UN R79 is the critical step towards self-steering systems that will unlock Level 3-4 deployment
    • 1.4.3. Three concerns arising from the R79's amendment
  • 1.5. Germany to lead AD deployment in Europe driven by supportive AD framework
    • 1.5.1. L3 automated driving to become legal in Germany from autumn'17
    • 1.5.2. Review of Germany's AD Ethical Guidelines
  • 1.6. Great opportunities for the UK to compete as a global hub of AD innovation, testing and deployment
    • 1.6.1. Overview of the UK's AD regulatory activity
  • 1.7. Flexible AD regulatory framework in USA but concerns over safety enforcement and harmonisation
    • 1.7.1. L3 deployment strategy in the U.S based on the regulatory landscape
    • 1.7.2. The USA has opened up the road to L3-5 with voluntary guidelines: ADS Vision for Safety-v2
    • 1.7.3. Overview of the U.S Federal Autonomous Vehicle Policy
    • 1.7.4. Assessment of USA AD policy: Guidelines (voluntary) vs Regulation (mandatory)
    • 1.7.5. Action to harmonize state law: LEAD'R Act & SELF-DRIVE Act
  • 1.8. China's regulation for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICVs)
    • 1.8.1. Status of AD regulation in China & roadmap for ICV standards
    • 1.8.2. Concerns over the regulatory action needed in China
  • 1.9. Japan's AD regulatory status
  • 1.10. Summary of AD regulatory developments in other leading markets
    • 1.10.1. Europe
    • 1.10.2. Asia, Asia-Pacific & North and South America

2. Data recording & liability in Level 3-Conditional Automation (3 pages)

  • 2.1. Learn why we need Automated Driving-Event Data Recorders
  • 2.2. Regulatory guidance on data recording and storage for L3 is immature
  • 2.3. L3 vehicle automation presents challenges & opportunities for the insurance value chain

3. Automotive Cyber Security Regulation in major car markets (9 pages)

  • 3.1. The absence of regulatory mandates restricts the timely adoption and standardisation of Automotive Cyber Security solutions
  • 3.2. Automotive Cyber Security regulatory action in the USA
  • 3.3. UN regulation on Automotive Cyber Security: European Union and Japan
  • 3.4. ISO/SAE 21434: a joint standard to harmonise Automotive Cyber Security
  • 3.5. What regulatory/legal action is needed to secure Connected Cars?

4. V2X (V2V, V2I) Regulation (11 pages)

  • 4.1. How could V2V and V2I communications help towards road safety?
  • 4.2. V2V isn't a technical prerequisite for HAVs but can enhance their safety
  • 4.3. State of the art: V2V & V2I already on the road today
  • 4.4. V2V-V2I regulatory roadmap: UN, USA and China
  • 4.5. Security and privacy in DSRC-based V2V and V2I
  • 4.6. Insights on the regulatory activity for V2X with CTO of Autotalks
    • 4.6.1. V2X deployment status raises concerns over the lack of harmonization
    • 4.6.2. Learn how regulatory guidance for V2X will evolve in major markets
    • 4.6.3. Weighting in the debate between DSRC / ITS-G5 and C-V2X
    • 4.6.4. Understand which V2X-supported features will come to market first
    • 4.6.5. Winners from the installation of V2X sensors & infrastructure


  • Table 1: Key findings from this report
  • Table 2: List of regulations and legals covered in this report by category: AD, ACS, AD-EDR & Privacy, V2X
  • Table 1.1: What carmakers are saying about the regulatory framework for L3 and what they are doing?
  • Table 1.2: L3-4 AD testing by carmaker, Tier 1 and other ADS manufacturer across the world
  • Table 1.3: The amendment of the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic
  • Table 1.4: UN Regulation No.79 and its amendment process (As of Q3-2017)
  • Table 1.5: Example of ACSF certification categories vs old for current and expected SAE L1-3 systems
  • Table 1.6: Key findings from Germany's Ethics Commission for Automated and Connected driving
  • Table 1.7: Overview of the UK's AD regulatory activity (as of Q3-2017)
  • Table 1.8: Main differences between the updated US guidance on AD: ADS-v2 (2017) vs FAVP (2016)
  • Table 1.9: Assessment of USA AD policy: Guidelines (voluntary) vs Regulation (mandatory)
  • Table 1.10: USA's attempt to harmonize state AD law: SELF DRIVE Act & LEAD'R Act
  • Table 1.11: Autonomous Driving & ICV regulatory developments in China (up to Q3'17)
  • Table 1.12: Japan's 4-phase timetable for the public rollout of AD and expected safety standards
  • Table 1.13: Summary of AD regulatory activity in Japan
  • Table 1.14: Summary of AD regulatory activity in Europe: Finland, France, Greece, NL, Spain, Sweden and Switz.
  • Table 1.15: Summary of AD regulatory activity in Asia, AP: Australia, NZ, Russia, Singapore, S.Korea & Dubai
  • Table 1.16: Summary of AD regulatory activity in North and South America: Canada and Argentina
  • Table 2.1: Regulatory guidance on data recording & storage for L3 in major car markets
  • Table 2.2: Motor Insurance status, forecast, regulatory action and insurers' reaction
  • Table 3.1: Overview of key applicable standards, guidelines and other guidance for Auto Cyber Security
  • Table 3.2: Automotive Cyber Security Guidance in the USA (Up to Sep'2017)
  • Table 3.3: Summary of Automotive Cyber Security Guidelines, Initiatives and Regulatory Action in Europe
  • Table 3.4: Automotive Cyber Security developments in Japan
  • Table 3.5: How China's authorities plan to address Cyber Security: Principles and measures
  • Table 36: What regulatory and legal action is needed to secure Connected Cars?
  • Table 4.1: V2V-V2I offerings by carmakers in 2017
  • Table 4.2: V2V Frequency bands & standards across major car markets
  • Table 4.3: Timeline of key developments for V2V & V2I Communications in the USA, Europe and China


  • Figure 1.1: Status of AD technology vs regulation in Q3 2017 (SAE Level 2 and 3)
  • Figure 1.2: Where is L3 legal today (Q3'17) & what regulatory/legal amendments are required?
  • Figure 1.3: Vehicle automation mix in Europe in 2021: L0/1/2 vs L3/4
  • Figure 1.4: Counterparties to the UN Regulation No.79-Steering equipment (highlighted in green)
  • Figure 1.5: Overview of the states passing Autonomous Vehicle Legislation in the U.S as of Q3'17
  • Figure 1.6: Regulatory process in the U.S.A: from Bill to Federal Regulation
  • Figure 1.7: Key findings from USDOT's Federal Autonomous Vehicle Policy (Source: NHTSA, USDOT)
  • Figure 1.8: CATARC's roadmap of ICV Standard System
  • Figure 3.1: Overview of key OEM & regulatory action on Automotive Cyber Security in major car markets
  • Figure 3.2: Overview of the Working Groups engaged in Automotive Cyber Security in the UN
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