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Market Research Report

Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS Cell) Industry Report 2021

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Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS Cell) Industry Report 2021
Published: April 1, 2021 Content info: 240 Pages
Description

Since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology 15 years ago, significant progress has been made in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. New pathological mechanisms have been identified, new drugs identified by iPSC screens are in the pipeline, and the first clinical trials employing human iPSC-derived cell types have been initiated.

iPSCs can be used to explore the causes of disease onset and progression, create and test new drugs and therapies, and potentially, treat previously incurable diseases. The somatic cells used for reprogramming include skin cells and blood cells, and to a lesser degree, other cell types such hair follicles, cord blood and urine.

iPS Cell Commercialization

Today, methods of commercializing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) include:

  • Cell Therapy: iPSCs are being explored in a diverse range of cell therapy applications for the purpose of reversing injury or disease.
  • Disease Modelling: By generating iPSCs from patients with disorders of interest and differentiating them into disease-specific cells, iPSCs can effectively create disease models "in a dish."
  • Drug Development and Discovery: iPSCs have the potential to transform drug discovery by providing physiologically relevant cells for compound identification, target validation, compound screening, and tool discovery.
  • Personalized Medicine: The use of techniques such as CRISPR enable precise, directed creation of knock-outs and knock-ins (including single base changes) in many cell types. Pairing iPSCs with genome editing technologies is adding a new dimension to personalized medicine.
  • Toxicology Testing: iPSCs can be used for toxicology screening, which is the use of stem cells or their derivatives (tissue-specific cells) to assess the safety of compounds or drugs within living cells.

Other applications of iPSCs include their use as research products, as well as their integration into 3D bioprinting, tissue engineering, and clean meat production. Technology allowing for the mass-production and differentiation of iPSCs in industrial-scale bioreactors is also advancing at breakneck speed.

Ushering in the Era of iPSCs

In recent years, iPSC-derived cells have increasingly been used to within preclinical testing and early stage-stage clinical trials. The first clinical trial using iPSCs started in 2008, and by 2020, that number rose to 53. Most of the current clinical trials do not involve the transplant of iPSCs into humans, but rather, the creation and evaluation of iPSC lines for clinical purposes.

Within these trials, iPSC lines are created from specific patient populations to determine if these cell lines could be a good model for a disease of interest.

Intriguingly, the therapeutic applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have also surged in recent years. Since the discovery of iPSCs in 2006, it took only seven years for the first iPSC-derived cell product to be transplanted into a human patient in 2013. From 2013 to present, multiple clinical trials and physician-led studies employing human iPSC-derived cell types have been initiated.

Therapeutic Advances with iPSCs

2013 was a landmark year because it saw the first cellular therapy involving the transplant of iPSCs into humans initiated at the RIKEN Center in Kobe, Japan. Led by Dr. Masayo Takahashi, it investigated the safety of iPSC-derived cell sheets in patients with macular degeneration.

In the next breakthrough, Cynata Therapeutics received approval in 2016 to launch the first formal clinical trial of an allogeneic iPSC-derived cell product (CYP-001) for the treatment of GvHD. CYP-001 is a iPSC-derived MSC product. In this historic trial, CYP-001 met its clinical endpoints and produced positive safety and efficacy data for the treatment of steroid-resistant acute GvHD. Thus, Cynata is advancing CYP-001 into later stage trials and new indications.

Specifically, Cynata plans to advance its iPSC-derived MSCs into Phase 2 trials for the severe complications associated with COVID-19, as well as GvHD and critical limb ischemia (CLI). It is also undertaking an impressive Phase 3 trial that will utilize Cynata's iPSC-derived MSC product, CYP-004, in 440 patients with osteoarthritis (OA). This trial represents the world's first Phase 3 clinical trial involving an iPSC-derived cell therapeutic product and the largest one ever completed.

Not surprisingly, the Japanese behemoth FUJIFILM has been involved with the co-development and commercialization of Cynata's iPSC-derived MSCs through its 9% ownership stake in the company. Headquartered in Tokyo, Fujifilm is one of the largest players in regenerative medicine field. It has pursued a broad base in regenerative medicine across multiple therapeutic areas through its acquisition of Cellular Dynamics International (CDI) and Japan Tissue Engineering Co. Ltd. (J-Tec).

The Japanese company Healios K.K. is also preparing, in collaboration with Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, for a clinical trial using allogeneic iPSC-derived retinal cells to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Riding the momentum within the CAR-T field, Fate Therapeutics Inc is developing FT819, its off-the-shelf iPSC-derived CAR-T cell product candidate. FT819 is the world's first CAR T therapy derived from a clonal master iPSC line and is engineered with several novel features designed to improve the safety and efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy. Notably, the use of a clonal master iPSC line as the starting cell source could enable CAR-T cells to be mass produced and delivered off-the-shelf at an industrial scale.

TreeFrog Therapeutics, headquartered in Pessac, France, has developed C-Stem™, a high-throughput cell encapsulation technology allowing for the mass-production and differentiation of iPSCs in industrial bioreactors. This C-Stem™ technology platform could provide a scalable solution to improve the quality of iPSC-derived therapeutics and slash treatment costs.

Companies with earlier-stage iPSC derived cell therapeutics under development include:

  • Bluerock Therapeutics (acquired by Bayer in 2019)
  • Century Therapeutics
  • Aspen Neuroscience
  • Semma Therapeutics
  • ImStem
  • Platelet BioGenesis.

iPS Cell Market Competitors

In addition to the iPSC cell therapy developers, there is are ever-growing number of competitors who are commercializing iPSC-derived products for use across a diverse range of applications, including research, drug development, disease modelling, toxicology screening, personalized medicine, and industrial-scale manufacturing, as well as less common applications that include tissue engineering, 3D bioprinting, and clean meat production.

Across the broader iPSC sector, FUJIFILM CDI is one of the largest and most dominant players. Cellular Dynamics International (CDI) was founded in 2004 by Dr. James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, who in 2007 derived iPSC lines from human somatic cells for the first time. The feat was accomplished simultaneously by Dr. Shinya Yamanaka's lab in Japan. FUJIFILM acquired CDI in April 2015 for $307 million. Today, the combined company is the world's largest manufacturer of human cells created from iPSCs for use in research, drug discovery and regenerative medicine applications.

Another iPSC specialist is ReproCELL, a company that was established as a venture company originating from the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University in 2009. It became the first company worldwide to make iPSC products commercially available when it launched its ReproCardio product, which are human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes.

Within the European market, the dominant competitors are Evotec, Ncardia, and Axol Bioscience. Headquartered in Hamburg, Germany, Evotec is a drug discovery alliance and development partnership company. It is developing an iPSC platform with the goal to industrialize iPSC-based drug screening as it relates to throughput, reproducibility, and robustness. Today, Evotec's infrastructure represents one of the largest and most advanced iPSC platforms globally.

Ncardia was formed through the merger of Axiogenesis and Pluriomics in 2017. Its predecessor, Axiogenesis, was founded in 2011 with an initial focus on mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cells and assays. When Yamanaka's iPSC technology became available, Axiogenesis became the first European company to license it in 2010. Today, the combined company (Ncardia) is a global authority in cardiac and neural applications of human iPSCs.

Founded in 2012, Axol Bioscience is a smaller but noteworthy competitor that specializes in iPSC-derived products. Headquartered in Cambridge, UK, it specializes in human cell culture, providing iPSC-derived cells and iPSC-specific cell culture products.

Of course, the world's largest research supply companies are also commercializing a diverse range of iPSC-derived products and services. Examples of these companies include Lonza, BD Biosciences, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Merck, Takara Bio, and countless others. In total, at least 70 market competitors now offer various types of iPSC products, services, manufacturing technologies, and therapeutics.

iPSC Patents and Intellectual Property (IP)

Currently, the U.S. is the largest target market for pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technology, with more than 2,800 patent families filed. This accounts for more than 50% of the total patent families filed from 2006 to present. Europe is the second largest target market with over 1,800 patent families. China is the third largest market, with over 1,600 patent families filed, followed closely by Japan, Korea and Canada, respectively.

Since 2006 when Kyoto University filed its first patent application for iPSCs, iPSC patents have expanded dramatically. While there are regional differences, common areas of focus including genetically engineered cells, drug screening technologies, and disease-specific cell technologies.

There have also been major lawsuits pursued within the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) sector. Of particular note is the patent lawsuit between Cellular Dynamics International, Inc. and Lonza Walkersville, Inc. This lawsuit assessed whether CDI (a FUJIFILM Company) and WARF had sufficiently proven that Lonza infringed on their iPSC patent claims. Lonza is a multinational biotech company headquartered in Switzerland.

iPSC Market Expertise

Founded in 2006, BioInformant's exclusive focus on the stem cell industry allows us to acquire specialized knowledge and access. Since its inception, BioInformant has collected 15 years of historical data on the global iPSC market. Meaning, we have tracked this sector since the Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka first demonstrated that an ordinary cell can be turned into a pluripotent cell by genetic modification in 2006.

In contrast, other market analysis companies are "generalists" who publish superficial reports about a wide range of topics that they know little about, such as stem cells, as well as oil, beverages, and electronics. This unique expertise also provides us with critical access to key opinion leaders (KOL's), most of whom are clients and partners of BioInformant.

In addition to conducting extensive secondary research, BioInformant's experienced analysts interviewed hundreds of highly regarded iPSC industry leaders, including those those featured here. These KOLs include Kaz Hirao (President and COO of FUJIFILM CDI), Ross Macdonald (CEO of Cynata Therapeutics), Robin Smith (CEO of ORIG3N), Paul Wotton (Board Member of Cynata Therapeutics), and Yutaka Yamaguchi (President of FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific - FISI), among many others.

iPSC Report Features

Clearly, iPSC-derived cells represent a promising new technology. As their manufacture, administration, and safety profile improve, these cells will usher in a new era of medicine.

This global strategic report reveals:

  • Market size determinations with segmentation and forecasts through 2027
  • Clinical trial activity by type, region, phase, and sponsor
  • Patent analysis by applicant, type, date and region
  • iPSC industry partnerships, alliances, and IPOs
  • Emerging trends and future directions
  • Competitors composing the global iPSC marketplace
  • And much more

This 240-page global strategic report will position you to:

  • Capitalize on emerging trends
  • Improve internal decision-making
  • Reduce company risk
  • Approach outside partners and investors
  • Outcompete your competition
  • Implement an informed and advantageous business strategy in 2021

Importantly, the report presents a comprehensive market size breakdown for iPSCs by Application, Technology, Cell Type and Geography (North America, Europe, Asia/Pacific, and RoW). It also presents total market size figures and growth rates through 2027.

With the competitive nature of this global market, you don't have the time to do the research. Claim this report to become immediately informed, without sacrificing hours of unnecessary research or missing critical opportunities.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. REPORT OVERVIEW

  • 1.1 Statement of the Report
  • 1.2 Executive Summary

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1 Discovery of iPSCs
  • 2.2 Barriers in iPSC Application
  • 2.3 Timeline and Cost of iPSC Development
  • 2.4 Current Status of iPSCs Industry
    • 2.4.1 Share of iPSC-based Research within the Overall Stem Cell Industry
    • 2.4.2 Major Focuses of iPSC Companies
    • 2.4.3 Commercially Available iPSC-Derived Cell Types
    • 2.4.4 Relative Use of iPSC-Derived Cell Types in Toxicology Testing Assays
    • 2.4.5 Toxicology/Safety Testing Assays using iPSC-Derived Cell Types
  • 2.5 Currently Available iPSC Technologies
  • 2.6 Advantages and Limitations of iPSCs Technology

3. HISTORY OF INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS (IPSCS)

  • 3.1 First iPSC generation from Mouse Fibroblasts, 2006
  • 3.2 First Human iPSC Generation, 2007
  • 3.3 Creation of CiRA, 2010
  • 3.4 First High-Throughput screening using iPSCs, 2012
  • 3.5 First iPSCs Clinical Trial Approved in Japan, 2013
  • 3.6 The First iPSC-RPE Cell Sheet Transplantation for AMD, 2014
  • 3.7 EBiSC Founded, 2014
  • 3.8 First Clinical Trial using Allogeneic iPSCs for AMD, 2017
  • 3.9 Clinical Trials for Parkinson's disease using Allogeneic iPSCs, 2018
  • 3.10 Commercial iPSC Plant SMaRT Established, 2018
  • 3.11 First iPSC Therapy Center in Japan, 2019

4. RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS ON iPSCS

  • 4.1 Categories of Research Publications
  • 4.2 Percent Share of Published Articles by Disease Type
  • 4.3 Number of Articles by Country

5. IPSCS: PATENT LANDSCAPE

  • 5.1 Timeline and Status of Patents
  • 5.2 Patent Filing Destinations
    • 5.2.1 Patent Applicant's Origin
    • 5.2.2 Top Ten Global Patent Applicants
    • 5.2.3 Collaborating Applicants of Patents
  • 5.3 Patent Application Trends iPSC Preparation Technologies
  • 5.4 Patent Application Trends in iPSC Differentiation Technologies
  • 5.5 Patent Application Trends in Disease-Specific Cell Technologies

6. CLINICAL TRIALS INVOLVING iPSCS

  • 6.1 Current Clinical Trials Landscape
    • 6.1.1 Clinical Trials Involving iPSCs by Major Diseases
    • 6.1.2 Clinical Trials Involving iPSCs by Country

7. FUNDING FOR iPSCs

  • 7.1 Value of NIH Funding for iPSCs
    • 7.1.1 NHI's Intended Funding Through its Component Organizations in 2020
    • 7.1.2 NIH Funding for Select Universities for iPSC Studies
  • 7.2 CIRM Funding for iPSCs

8. GENERATION OF INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS: AN OVERVIEW

  • 8.1 Reprogramming Factors
    • 8.1.1 Pluripotency-Associated Transcription Factors
    • 8.1.2 Different Cell Sources and Different Combinations of Factors
    • 8.1.3 Delivery of Reprogramming Factors
    • 8.1.4 Integrative Delivery Systems
      • 8.1.4.1 Integrative Viral Vectors
      • 8.1.4.2 Integrative Non-Viral Vectors
    • 8.1.5 Non-Integrative Delivery Systems
      • 8.1.5.1 Non-Integrative Viral Vectors
      • 8.1.5.2 Non-Integrative Non-Viral Delivery
  • 8.2 Overview of Four Key Methods of Gene Delivery
  • 8.3 Comparative Effectiveness of Different Vector Types
  • 8.4 Genome Editing Technologies in iPSCs Generation

9. HUMAN iPSC BANKING

  • 9.1 Cell Sources for iPSCs Banking
  • 9.2 Reprogramming methods used in iPSC Banking
    • 9.2.1 Factors used in reprogramming by Different Banks
  • 9.3 Workflow in iPSC Banks
  • 9.4 Existing iPSC Banks
    • 9.4.1 California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM)
      • 9.4.1.1 CIRM iPSC Repository
      • 9.4.1.2 Key Partnerships Supporting CIRM's iPSC Repository
    • 9.4.2 Regenerative Medicine Program (RMP)
      • 9.4.2.1 Research Grade iPSC Lines for Orphan and Rare Diseases from RMP
      • 9.4.2.2 RMP's Stem Cell Translation Laboratory (SCTL)
    • 9.4.3 Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA)
      • 9.4.3.1 FiT: Facility for iPS Cell Therapy
    • 9.4.4 European Bank for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (EBiPC)
    • 9.4.5 Korean Society for Cell Biology (KSCB)
    • 9.4.6 Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Intitiative (HipSci)
    • 9.4.7 RIKEN - BioResource Research Center (BRC)
    • 9.4.8 Taiwan Human Disease iPSC Consortium
    • 9.4.9 WiCell

10. BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF iPSCS

  • 10.1 iPSCs in Basic Research
    • 10.1.1 Understanding Cell Fate Control
    • 10.1.2 Cell Rejuvenation
    • 10.1.3 Studying Pluripotency
    • 10.1.4 Tissue and Organ Development and Physiology
    • 10.1.5 Generation of Human Gametes from iPSCs
    • 10.1.6 Providers of iPSC-Related Services for Researchers
  • 10.2 iPSCs in Drug Discovery
    • 10.2.1 Drug Discovery for Cardiovascular Disease using iPSCs
    • 10.2.2 Drug Discovery for Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Diseases
    • 10.2.3 Drug Discovery for Rare Diseases using iPSCs
  • 10.3 iPSCs in Toxicology Studies
    • 10.3.1 Relative Use of iPSC-Derived Cell Types within Toxicity Testing
  • 10.4 iPSCs in Disease Modeling
    • 10.4.1 Cardiovascular Diseases Modeled with iPSCs
    • 10.4.2 Percent Share Utilization of iPSCs for Cardiovascular Disease Modeling
    • 10.4.3 Proportion of iPSC Sources in Cardiac Studies
    • 10.4.4 Proportion of Vector Types used in Reprogramming
    • 10.4.5 Proportion of Differentiated Cardiomyocytes used in Disease Modeling
    • 10.4.6 iPSC-Derived Organoids for Modeling Development and Disease
    • 10.4.7 Modeling Liver Diseases using iPSC-derived Hepatocytes
    • 10.4.8 iPSCs in Neurodegenerative Disease Modeling
    • 10.4.9 Cancer-Derived iPSCs
  • 10.5 iPSCs within Cell-Based Therapies
    • 10.5.1 Ongoing Clinical Trials using iPSCs in Cell Therapy
      • 10.5.1.1 Clinical Trials for AMD
      • 10.5.1.2 Autologous iPSC-RPE for AMD
      • 10.5.1.3 Allogeneic iPSC-RPE for AMD
      • 10.5.1.4 iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons for Parkinson's disease
      • 10.5.1.5 iPSC-Derived NK Cells for Solid Cancers
      • 10.5.1.6 iPSC-derived Cells for GvHD
      • 10.5.1.7 iPSC-derived Cells for Spinal Cord Injury
      • 10.5.1.8 iPSC-derived Cardiomyocytes for Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
    • 10.5.2 Leaders in iPSC-Based Cell Therapies

11. OTHER NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF iPSCS

  • 11.1 iPSCs in Tissue Engineering
    • 11.1.1 3D Bioprinting Techniques
    • 11.1.2 Biomaterials
    • 11.1.3 3D Bioprinting Strategies
    • 11.1.4 Bioprinting Undifferentiated iPSCs
    • 11.1.5 Bioprinting iPSC-Differentiated Cells
  • 11.2 iPSCs in Animal Conservation
    • 11.2.1 iPSC Lines for the Preservation of Endangered Species of Animals
    • 11.2.2 iPSCs in Wildlife Conservation
  • 11.3 iPSCs and Cultured Meat
    • 11.3.1 Funding Raised by Cultured Meat Companies
    • 11.3.4 Global Market for Cultured Meat

12. DEAL-MAKING WITHIN THE iPSC SECTOR

  • 12.1License Agreement between FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics and Sana
  • 12.2Century Therapeutics Closes $160 Million Series C Financing
  • 12.3Bluerock Gains Access to Ncardia's iPSCs-derived Cardiomyocytes
  • 12.4Fate Therapeutics' Deal with Janssen Biotech
  • 12.5Century Therapeutics Acquires Empirica Therapeutics
  • 12.6$250 Million Raised by Century Theraputics
  • 12.7BlueRock Therapeutics Launched with $225 Million
  • 12.8Collaboration between Allogene Therapeutics and Notch Therapeutics
  • 12.9Acquisition of Semma Therapeutics by Vertex Therapeutics
  • 12.10Evotec's Extended Collaboration with BMS
  • 12.11Licensing Agreement between Allele Biotechnology and Astellas
  • 12.12Codevelopment Agreement between Allele & SCM Lifesciences
  • 12.13Fate Therapeutics Signs $100 Million Deal with Janssen
  • 12.14Allele's Deal with Alpine Biotherapeutics
  • 12.15Editas and BlueRock's Development Agreement

13. MARKET OVERVIEW

  • 13.1Global Market for iPSCs by Geography
  • 13.2Global Market for iPSCs by Technology
  • 13.3Global Market for iPSCs by Biomedical Application
  • 13.4Global Market for iPSCs by Cell Types
  • 3.5Market Drivers
  • 13.6Market Restraints
  • Next, market restraints affecting the global iPSC sector are explored below.
    • 13.6.1 Economic Issues
    • 13.6.2 Genomic Instability
    • 13.6.3 Immunogenicity
    • 13.6.4 Biobanking of iPSCs

14. COMPANY PROFILES

  • 14.1Addgene, Inc.
    • 14.1.1 Viral Plasmids
  • 14.2Aleph Farms
  • 14.3Allele Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
    • 14.3.1 iPSC Reprogramming and Differentiation
  • 14.4AMS Biotechnology Europe, Ltd. (AMSBIO)
    • 14.4.1 Services
    • 14.4.2 Products
    • 14.4.3 Corneal Epithelial Cells Cultured in StemFit in Clinical Trials
  • 14.5ALSTEM, INC.
    • 14.5.1 Products
    • 14.5.2 Services
  • 14.6Applied Biological Materials, Inc. (ABM)
    • 14.6.1 Gene Expression Vectors and Viruses
  • 14.7Applied StemCell, Inc.
    • 14.7.1 Services & Products
  • 14.8American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)
    • 14.8.1 Product
  • 14.9Applied StemCell (ASC), Inc.
    • 14.9.1 Products
  • 14.10Aruna Bio, Inc.
    • 14.10.1 Program in Stroke
    • 14.10.2 Exosomes as Therapeurics
  • 14.11Aspen Neuroscience, Inc.
    • 14.11.1 Technology
  • 14.12Axol Bioscience, Ltd.
    • 14.12.1 iPSC-derived Cells
    • 14.12.2 Disease Models
    • 14.12.3 Primary Cells
    • 14.12.4 Media & Reagents
    • 14.12.5 Services
  • 14.13Beckman Coulter Life Sciences
    • 14.13.1 Cell Counters, Sizers and Media Analyzers
  • 14.14BD Biosciences
    • 14.14.1 Products
  • 14.15BioCat GmbH
    • 14.15.1 Products & Services
  • 14.16BlueRock Therapeutics
    • 14.16.1 CELL + GENE Platform
  • 14.17BrainXell
    • 14.17.1 Products
  • 14.18Cellaria
    • 14.18.1 Product
  • 14.19Cell Biolabs, Inc.
    • 14.19.1 Products
  • 14.20CellGenix GmbH
    • 14.20.1 Products
  • 14.21Cell Signaling Technology
    • 14.21.1 Products
  • 14.22Cellular Engineering Technologies (CET)
    • 14.22.1 iPS Cell Lines
  • 14.23Cellular Dynamics International, Inc.
    • 14.23.1 Products
  • 14.24Censo Biotechnologies, Ltd.
    • 14.24.1 Human iPSC Reprogramming Services
    • 14.24.2 iPSC Gene Editing Services
    • 14.24.3 iPSC Target Validation and Assay Services
  • 14.25Century Therapeutics, LLC
    • 14.25.1 Allogeneic Immune Cell Therapy
  • 14.26CiRA
    • 14.26.1 Collaborations
  • 14.27Corning, Inc.
    • 14.27.1 Products
  • 14.28Creative Bioarray
    • 14.28.1 Products
  • 14.29Cynata Therapeutics Ltd.
    • 14.29.1 Cymerus MSCs
  • 14.30Cytovia Therapeutics
    • 14.30.1 iPSC CAR NK Cells
  • 14.31DefiniGEN
    • 14.31.1 OptiDIFF iPSC Platform
    • 14.31.2 Service
    • 14.31.3 Patient-Derived Custom Cell Lines
    • 14.31.4 Hepatocytes WT
    • 14.31.5 Hepatocyte A1ATD
    • 14.31.6 Hepatocyte GSD1a
    • 14.31.7 Hepatocyte NAFLD
    • 14.31.8 Hepatocyte FH
    • 14.31.9 Pancreatic WT
    • 14.31.10Pancreatic MODY3
  • 14.32Evotec SE
    • 14.32.1 iPSC-Based Drug Discovery Platform
  • 14.33Fate Therapeutics, Inc.
    • 14.33.1 iPSC Platform
    • 14.33.2 Collaboration with ONO Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
    • 14.33.3 Collaboration with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
    • 14.33.4 Collaboration with University of California, San Diego
    • 14.33.5 Collaboration with Oslo University Hospital
  • 14.34FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics, Inc.
    • 14.34.1 iCell Products
    • 14.34.2 MyCell Products
    • 14.34.3 FCDI's Partners & Providers
    • 14.34.4 Groundbreaking Cellular Therapy Applications
    • 14.34.5 New Paradigm for Drug Discovery
    • 14.34.6 FCDI & Stem Cell Banking
  • 14.35GeneCopoeia, Inc.
    • 14.35.1 Products & Services
  • 14.36 GenTarget, Inc.
    • 14.36.1 Products
    • 14.36.2 Services
  • 14.37Heartseed, Inc.
    • 14.37.1 Technology
  • 14.38InvivoGen
    • 14.38.1 Products
  • 14.39iPS Portal, Inc.
    • 14.39.1 Services
  • 14.40iXCells Biotechnologies
    • 14.40.1 Products
  • 14.41Lonza Group, Ltd.
    • 14.41.1 Nucleofector Technology
  • 14.42Merck/Sigma Aldrich
    • 14.42.1 Products
  • 14.43Megakaryon Corporation
    • 14.43.1 Technology
  • 14.44Metrion Biosciences, Ltd.
    • 14.44.1 Cardiac Translational Assays
  • 14.45Miltenyi Biotec B.V. & Co. KG
    • 14.45.1 Cell Manufacturing Platform
  • 14.46Ncardia
    • 14.46.1 iPSC Solutions for Cell Therapy
    • 14.46.2 Drug Safety and Toxicity Services
  • 14.47NeuCyte
    • 14.47.1 Technology
  • 14.48Newcells Biotech
    • 14.48.1 Expertise
    • 14.48.2 iPSC Reprogramming Services
    • 14.48.3 Assay Products and Services
    • 14.48.4 Assay Development
  • 14.49PeproTech
    • 14.49.1 Products
  • 14.50Phenocell SAS
    • 14.50.1 Human iPSCs
  • 14.51Platelet BioGenesis
    • 14.51.1 Technology
  • 14.52Pluricell Biotech
    • 14.52.1 Pluricell's Projects
  • 14.53PromoCell GmbH
    • 14.53.1 Products
  • 14.54Qiagen
    • 14.54.1 Single Cell Analysis
  • 14.55R&D Systems, Inc.
    • 14.55.1 Products
  • 14.56ReproCELL
    • 14.56.1 Services
    • 14.56.2 Products
  • 14.57RHEINCELL Therapeutics GmbH
    • 15.57.1 GMP-Grade iPSC Products
    • 15.57.2 Services
  • 14.58TEMCELL Technologies
    • 14.58.1 Products
  • 14.59Stemina Biomarker Discovery
    • 14.59.1 Cardio quickPredict
    • 14.59.2 devTOX quickPredict
  • 14.60Synthego Corp.
    • 14.60.1 CRISPR-Edited iPSCs
  • 14.61System Biosciences (SBI)
    • 14.61.1 Products
  • 14.62Takara Bio
    • 14.62.1 Stem Cell Research Products
  • 14.63Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
    • 14.63.1 Collaboration between CiRA and Takeda
    • 14.63.2 FUJIFILM's Collaboration with Takeda
  • 14.64Tempo Bioscience
    • 14.64.1 Human Cell Models
  • 14.65Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.
    • 14.65.1 Products for Stem Cell Culture
    • 14.65.2 Products for Stem Cell Characterization
    • 14.65.3 Products for Stem Cell Engineering
  • 14.66TreeFrog Therapeutics
    • 14.66.1 C-Stem Technology
  • 14.67VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc.
    • 14.67.1 CardioSafe 3D
  • 14.68Waisman Biomanufacturing
    • 14.68.1 GMP iPSCs
  • 14.69xCell Science, Inc.
    • 14.69.1 Control Lines
    • 14.69.2 Products
    • 14.69.3 Services
  • 14.70Yashraj Biotechnology, Ltd.
    • 14.70.1 Products and Services for Drug Discovery

INDEX OF FIGURES

  • FIGURE 2.1: The Share of iPSC-related Research Compared with other Stem Cell Types
  • FIGURE 2.2: Major Focuses of iPSC Companies
  • FIGURE 2.3: Commercially Available iPSC-Derived Cell Types
  • FIGURE 2.4: Relative Use of iPSC-Derived Cell Types in Toxicology/Safety Testing Assays
  • FIGURE 2.5: Toxicology/Safety Testing Assays using iPSC-Derived Cell Types
  • FIGURE 3.1: CiRA's Budget of ¥6.37 Billion
  • FIGURE 4.1: Number of Research Publications on iPSCs in PubMed.gov, 2006-2020
  • FIGURE 4.2: Percent Share of Published Articles by Research Themes
  • FIGURE 4.3: Percent Share of Published Articles by Disease Type
  • FIGURE 4.4: Percent Share of iPSC Research Publications by Country
  • FIGURE 5.1: Number of Patents Granted, Being Sought and "Dead"
  • FIGURE 5.2: Patent Families by Filing Jurisdiction
  • FIGURE 5.3: Patent Families by Applicant Origin
  • FIGURE 5.4: Top Ten Global Applicants
  • FIGURE 5.5: Top Ten Global Collaborators on PSC/iPSC Patents
  • FIGURE 5.6: Share of Patents on iPSC Preparation Technologies by Geography
  • FIGURE 5.7: Percent Share of iPSC Preparation Methods in the U.S., Japan and Europe
  • FIGURE 5.8: Percent Share of Patents Related to Cell Types Differentiated from iPSCs
  • FIGURE 5.9: Percent Share of Patent Applications for Disease-Specific Cell Technologies
  • FIGURE 5.10: Percent Share of Patents Representing Different Disorders
  • FIGURE 6.1: Number of Clinical Trials Involving iPSCs by Year, 2006-2020
  • FIGURE 6.2: Clinical Trials Involving iPSCs by Major Diseases
  • FIGURE 6.3: Clinical Trials Involving iPSCs by Country
  • FIGURE 7.1: Number of NIH Funding for iPSC Projects, 2010-2020
  • FIGURE 7.2: Value of NIH Funding for iPSCs by Year, 2010-2020
  • FIGURE 8.1: Overview of iPSC Technology
  • FIGURE 8.2: Generation of iPSCs from MEF Cultures through 24 Factors by Yamanaka
  • FIGURE 8.3: The Roles of OSKM Factors in the Induction of iPSCs
  • FIGURE 8.4: Schematic Representation of Delivery Methods for iPSCs Induction
  • FIGURE 8.5: Overview of Four Key Methods of Gene Delivery
  • FIGURE 9.1: Workflow in iPSC Banks
  • FIGURE 10.1: Biomedical Applications of iPSCs
  • FIGURE 10.2: Relative Use of iPSC-Derived Cell Types in Toxicity Testing
  • FIGURE 10.3: A Schematic for iPSC-Based Disease Modeling
  • FIGURE 10.4: Proportion of iPS Cell Lines Generated by Disease Type
  • FIGURE 10.5: Proportion of iPSC Sources in Cardiac Studies
  • FIGURE 10.6: Proportion of Vector Types used in Reprogramming
  • FIGURE 10.7: The Proportion of Differentiated Cardiomyocyte Types
  • FIGURE 10.8: Schematic for iPSC-Based Cell Therapy
  • FIGURE 11.1: Schematic Representation of Printing Techniques used for iPSC Bioprinting
  • FIGURE 11.2: Schematic Showing the use of iPSCs in Protecting Endangered Species
  • FIGURE 11.3: Funding raised by Cultured Meat Companies, 2016-2019
  • FIGURE 11.4: Estimated Global Market for Cultured Meat, 2023-2030
  • FIGURE 13.1: Estimated Global Market for iPSCs by Geography through 2026
  • FIGURE 13.2: Estimated Global Market for iPSCs by Technology through 2026
  • FIGURE 13.3: Estimated Global Market for iPSCs by Biomedical Application through 2026
  • FIGURE 13.4: Estimated Global Market Share for Differentiated Cell Types, 2020
  • FIGURE 14.1: Comparison of Conventional Meat Production and Cultured Meat Production

INDEX OF TABLES

  • TABLE 2.1: Commercially Available iPSC Technologies
  • TABLE 2.2: Advantages and Limitations of iPSC Technology
  • TABLE 3.1: Timeline of the Most Important Milestones in iPSC Research, 2006-2019
  • TABLE 4.1: Number of Research Publications on iPSCs in PubMed.gov, 2006-2020
  • TABLE 5.1: Patent Families by Filing Jurisdiction
  • TABLE 5.2: Patents Granted and Patents Pending in the Global Patent Landscape
  • TABLE 6.1: Clinical Trials involving iPSCs as of March 2020
  • TABLE 6.1: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 6.1: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 6.1: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 6.1: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 6.1: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 6.1: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 7.1: NHI's Intended Funding Through its Component Organizations in 2020
  • TABLE 7.2: NIH Funding for Select Universities/Organizations for iPSC Studies
  • TABLE 7.2: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 7.3: CIRM Funding for Clinical Trials Involving iPSCs
  • TABLE 7.3: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 8.1: The Characterization of iPSCs
  • TABLE 8.2: Reprogramming Factors used in the Generation of iPSCs
  • TABLE 8.3: Different Cell Sources and Different Combinations of Reprogramming Factors
  • TABLE 8.1: Comparative Effectiveness of Different Vector Types
  • TABLE 8.2: iPSC Disease Models using Isogenic Control Lines Generated by CRISPR/Cas9
  • TABLE 8.2: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 9.1: Cell Sources and Reprogramming Agents used in iPSCs Banks
  • TABLE 9.2: Diseased iPSC Lines Available in CIRM Repository
  • TABLE 9.3: CIRMS' iPSC Initiative Awards
  • TABLE 9.4: Research Grade iPSCs Available with RMP
  • TABLE 9.5: Research Grade iPSC Lines for Orphan and Rare Diseases Available with RMP
  • TABLE 9.6: SCTL's Collaborations
  • TABLE 9.7: A Partial List of iPSC Lines Available with EBiPC
  • TABLE 9.8: List of Disease-Specific iPSCs Available with RIKEN
  • TABLE 9.8: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 9.8: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 9.9: An Overview of iPSC Banks Worldwide
  • TABLE 10.1: Providers of iPS Cell Lines and Parts Thereof for Research
  • TABLE 10.2: Comparison of hiPSC-Based & Animal-Based Drug Discovery
  • TABLE 10.3: Drug Discovery for Cardiovascular Diseases using iPSCs
  • TABLE 10.3: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.4: Drug Discovery for Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Diseases using iPSCs
  • TABLE 10.4: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.5: Drug Discovery for Rare Diseases using iPSCs
  • TABLE 10.5: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.6: Examples of Drug testing in iPSC-Derived Disease Models
  • TABLE 10.6: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.7: Published Human iPSC Disease Models
  • TABLE 10.7: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.7: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.7: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.7: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.8: Partial List of Cardiovascular and Related Diseases Modeled with iPSCs
  • TABLE 10.9: iPSC-Derived Organoids for Modeling Development and Disease
  • TABLE 10.10: Liver Diseases and Therapeutic Interventions Modeled using iPSCs
  • TABLE 10.10: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.11: Examples of iPSC-Based Neurodegenerative Disease Modeling
  • TABLE 10.11: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.11: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.11: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.12: Cancer-Derived iPSCs
  • TABLE 10.13: Clinical Trials for the Therapeutic Application of iPSC Derivatives, 2013-2019
  • TABLE 10.13: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 10.14: U.S. Clinical Trials Involving iPSCs
  • TABLE 10.14: (CONTINUED)
  • TABLE 11.1: Features of Different Bioprinting Techniques
  • TABLE 11.2: Bioprinting of iPSC-Derived Tissues
  • TABLE 11.3: Timeline of Achievements Made using iPSCs for Conservation of Animals
  • TABLE 11.14: Companies Working on Meat Production based on Cellular Agriculture
  • TABLE 13.1: Estimated Global Market for iPSCs by Geography, 2019-2026
  • TABLE 13.2: Estimated Global Market for iPSCs by Technology, 2019-2026
  • TABLE 13.3: Estimated Global Market for iPSCs by Biomedical Application, 2019-2026
  • TABLE 13.4: Estimated Global Market for iPSCs by Differentiated Cell Types, 2019-2026
  • TABLE 14.1: iPS Cell Lines from CET
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