Cover Image
Market Research Report

Storage Class Memories

Published by Forward Insights Product code 750027
Published Content info 270 Pages
Delivery time: 1-2 business days
Price
Back to Top
Storage Class Memories
Published: September 30, 2018 Content info: 270 Pages
Description

In 2007, the first NAND flash-based SSDs entered the datacenter as a higher performing storage than disk with much lower cost than DRAM. By inserting NAND flash, the huge latency gap between DRAM and disk was effectively reduced by a factor of 10, resulting in the explosive growth of NAND flash in the datacenter seen in recent years. However, there still remains an approximately 1000x gap in latency between DRAM and NAND providing an opportunity for another memory technology to come in with near DRAM-like performance and near NAND-like cost.

Since the announcement of 3D XPoint memory by Intel and Micron Technology, increased attention has been focused on alternative memory technologies including PCM, STT-MRAM and ReRAM. Storage Class Memories provides an independent and comprehensive analysis of the potential candidates for storage class and persistent memories and their potential applications.

Table of Contents
Product Code: FI-NVM-SCM-0918

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

MEMORY OVERVIEW

  • Introduction
  • The Memory Hierarchy
  • SRAM
  • Concept
  • Technology Evolution
  • DRAM
  • Concept
  • Technology Evolution
  • NOR Flash
  • Concept
  • Technology Evolution
  • NAND Flash
  • Concept
  • Technology Evolution
  • Hard Disk Drive Trends

STORAGE CLASS MEMORIES

  • Why Storage Class Memory?
  • M-class SCM
  • S-class SCM

PHASE CHANGE MEMORY

  • Concept
  • Basic Operation
  • Technology
  • Technology Evolution
  • Storage Element Structure
  • Material
  • Selection Device
  • Multi-level Cell PCM
  • Technology Scaling
  • Architecture
  • Silicon-Based Selector Designs
  • 3D XPoint Design
  • PCM Cost Drivers
  • Electrical and Performance Characteristics
  • Set Time
  • Reset Current
  • Reliability
  • Endurance
  • Retention
  • PCM (3D XPoint) as a M-SCM
  • The Latency Issue
  • The Endurance Issue
  • Conclusion

SPIN-TRANSFER TORQUE (STT) MRAM

  • Concept
  • Basic Operation
  • Technology
  • Technology Evolution
  • Storage Element
  • Selection Device
  • 3D Integration
  • Scaling
  • Architecture
  • STT-MRAM Cell Design
  • Sensing Schemes
  • Multi Level Cells (MLC)
  • MRAM Cost Drivers
  • MRAM Fabrication and Process Complexity
  • Cell Efficiency
  • Yield
  • Electrical and Performance Characteristics
  • Switching Time
  • Current / Power Consumption
  • Retention Time
  • Endurance and Wear Leveling
  • Write and Read Reliability
  • ECC

HAFNIUM OXIDE-BASED FERROELECTRIC MEMORIES

  • Concept
  • Basic Operation
  • 1T1C FeRAM Implementation
  • Hybrid FeRAM-DRAM Memory Implementation (HRAM)
  • 1T FeFET Implementation
  • 3D NAND FeFET Implementation
  • Technology
  • Ferroelectricity In Hafnium Oxide
  • Scaling
  • Fe-HfO Memory Cost Drivers
  • Electrical Performance Characteristics
  • Switching Time
  • Current and Power Consumption
  • Endurance
  • Retention
  • Summary and Future Prospects
  • RERAM
  • Concept
  • Basic Operation
  • Technology
  • Storage element
  • ReRAM Cell Design Without Selection Devices
  • ReRAM Cell Design With Active Selection Device
  • Passive Selection Devices For Cross Bar Reram Cell Design
  • Architecture
  • ReRAM Chip Architecture
  • Interface Circuits for Reading and Writing
  • Cell/Array Efficiency
  • ReRAM Cost Drivers
  • Reram Fabrication And Process Complexity
  • Electrical & Performance Characteristics
  • Switching Time
  • Current and Power Consumption
  • Forming and Programming Voltage
  • Endurance
  • Retention
  • Variability

SCM COMPARISON

  • Electrical Performance Characteristics
  • Manufacturing Complexity
  • Cost per Bit

ROADMAP

  • SRAM
  • DRAM
  • FeRAM
  • NOR Flash Memory
  • MRAM/STT-MRAM
  • Phase Change Memory/3D PCMS/3D XPoint
  • ReRAM
  • NAND Flash Memory

MEMORY MARKET

  • Discrete Memory Market
  • Price Trend

APPLICATIONS FOR STORAGE CLASS MEMORIES

  • Introduction
  • Applications on the Memory Bus
  • SCM as a Memory Extension
  • 3D XPoint
  • Storage on the DIMM Bus
  • SCM-based Storage DIMMs for Databases
  • SCM-based Storage DIMMs for Virtualization
  • Status
  • Applications on the Storage Bus
  • SCM Applications Outlook
  • Server DIMM (Memory Mode DIMM)
  • High Performance SSD
  • PC SSD

MEMORY AND EMERGING MEMORY PLAYERS

  • 4DS
  • Adesto Technology
  • Avalanche Technology
  • Crossbar, Inc.
  • Cypress Semiconductor
  • Everspin Technologies, Inc.
  • Ferroelectric Memory GmbH
  • Fujitsu, Ltd.
  • IBM Corp.
  • Intel Corp.
  • Macronix International
  • Micron Technology
  • Nantero
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Western Digital
  • SK Hynix
  • Sony Corp.
  • Spin Transfer Technologies
  • TDK-Headway Technologies
  • Toshiba Corp.
  • Winbond Electronics
  • Weebit Nano

REFERENCES

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

ABOUT FORWARD INSIGHTS

Back to Top