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Market Research Report

Battery Elimination in Electronics: Market Impact IoT, 6G, Healthcare, Wearables 2021-2041

Published by IDTechEx Ltd. Product code 1000687
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Battery Elimination in Electronics: Market Impact IoT, 6G, Healthcare, Wearables 2021-2041
Published: April 16, 2021 Content info: 367 Slides

Battery Elimination in Electronics:
Market Impact IoT, 6G, Healthcare, Wearables 2021-2041

Wireless Energy transfer WET, 6G Communications WIET, energy harvesting, supercapacitors, structural, printed, flexible.

"Few markets go from under $8 billion to over $120 billion in 2041 but this one does."

Battery-Free Electronics Grabs Market Share

In numbers, most wireless electronics is already battery-free yet portable. Much more is on the way as detailed in the unique new analysis by IDTechEx report, "Battery Elimination in Electronics: Market Impact IoT, 6G, Healthcare, Wearables 2021-2041". Covering over 150 organisations in 300 pages, the scope is unprecedented. Few markets go from under $8 billion to over $120 billion in 2041. This one does.

Learn how researchers are progressing no less than four routes to the batteryless implanted heart pacemaker and defibrillator eliminating battery-driven deaths. Triboelectricity, piezoelectricity, electrodynamics and RF wireless energy transfer are in the frame. One lab has a battery-free optogenics device to control neuronal activation. Meanwhile, in addition to a cool 127 billion backscatter RFID and anti-theft tags being deployed without batteries this year, an increasing variety of companies have battery-free in their strapline. For instance, Thrive and Battery-Free both trumpet "battery-free wearables".

For safety and reliability, you can buy battery-free airman's headphones or boat telephones and oxygen and carbon monoxide sensors. In Africa, batteryless lights, radio and foetal heart monitors are charged by rotating a crank or pulling. Pedal a computer.

It is just a beginning. India and China have launched electrostatic facemasks that destroy bacteria and viruses and grab particulates with triboelectrics replacing the battery meaning no pollution on disposal and lower cost. Potential is billions. The world will need 100 million battery-free continuous glucose sensors yearly for the diabetes epidemic. That will be unusual progress beyond a similar yearly number of perpetual piezoelectric gas lighters.

"No wires, no batteries, no limits" is throughout the EnOcean Alliance with 4000 inter-operable eco-system options for smart homes, buildings and spaces based on the maintenance-free radio standard (ISO/IEC 14543-3-10/11). See them in over one million buildings already - the most widespread and most field-tested wireless building automation standard in the world.

The new IDTechEx report explains how more-advanced wireless energy transfer WET, multi-mode energy harvesting and supercapacitors will take things much further. Additionally, 6G Communications around 2030 promises instant massive data to and from unpowered devices and even charging your supercapacitor smartphone from its signal beams. Others demonstrate battery-free cellphones by other routes. Combine such batteryless technologies and even grander achievements are possible. Flexible harvesting on supercapacitor layers gets them into stranger places.

The report is commercially oriented and easily grasped with large numbers of new infograms, pictures, graphs, interviews and comparison tables. Prepared by PhD level analysts across the world, many of whom have studied these subjects for over 20 years, it answers such questions as:

  • Why is there more urgency to replace batteries and in what sectors?
  • Situation in Healthcare, Communications, Personal Electronics, Third World, IoT, other?
  • Benefits, including enhanced safety, even saving lives?
  • Opportunities from the fit-and-forget trend?
  • Toolbox of 6G Communications WIET, WET, next energy harvesting, biofuelcells, supercapacitors?
  • Where will they be combined and why the pivot to triboelectrics, multimode flexible etc.?
  • How, when for battery-free implants, continuous glucose monitors, smartwatches, cellphones, IoT?
  • Technology, standards and adoption roadmaps 2021-2041?
  • Market sizes 2021-2041?
  • What does the research pipeline tell us?

The Executive Summary and Conclusions is a quick read for those in a hurry, giving 13 key conclusions with all the trends and possibilities compared and 34 examples including lessons of a pictured cellphone and IoT teardown. See best harvesting technologies, 6G, supercapacitor and device roadmaps 2021-2041. The 40 forecasts of Chapter 2 are mostly calculated by IDTechEx. The Introduction consolidates needs, trends, options, methodology (6 routes), new focus and new toolbox to batteryless with nine examples. Consideration ranges from LPWAN to virus-destroying electrostatic facemasks and Samsung smartphone styluses.

The deep dive then begins with a chapter on Healthcare and Wearables - 20 packed pages including 20 examples, four routes to battery-free embedded heart assistance, triboelectric and biofuelcell breakthroughs, future. Learn why harvesting lower frequency "infrasound" is better than vibration harvesting for all wearables. Chapter 5 is IoT, SRWN such as Bluetooth, LPWAN battery elimination, 22 pages of comparisons, examples, predictions, possibilities. IoT is seriously assessed, distinguishing cynical renaming of existing things from genuinely new business that will be enabled by battery elimination.

Chapter 6 covers 6G Communications' promised Wireless Information and Energy Transfer WIET eliminating batteries. It has 12 packed pages of new infograms, tables, pictures. See how 5G and 6G fit in, the appraisal again being critical not adulation. Chapter 7 assesses the six routes to batteryless cellphones and wearables with such things as six harvesting cost projections, device power projections, combinational options, WET, the University of Washington battery-free cellphone and HD video streaming in seven pages. Chapter 8, 11 pages, is battery elimination by Wireless Energy Transfer WET to RFID and NFC, a huge success already, and potentially one in Real Time Locating Systems RTLS, the new 6G Communications promising breakthrough.

Chapter 9 "Eliminating batteries from building controls" takes 22 pages to compare technologies and opportunities with many examples detailed and big names NEC, Toshiba, Yamaha, ABB, Siemens. Chapters 10 and 11 are exceptionally long and thorough examinations of the principal tools of battery elimination - energy harvesting and supercapacitors both experiencing radical change, new options and variants and improvement in 2020/2021. Only the IDTechEx report, "Battery Elimination in Electronics: Market Impact IoT, 6G, Healthcare, Wearables 2021-2041" has this latest news and insight, essential in such a fast-moving subject.

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Table of Contents
Product Code: ISBN 9781913899417



  • 1.1. Purpose of this report
  • 1.2. Top ten electronic devices by number
  • 1.3. Top ten electronic devices by power choices and issues
  • 1.4. Some reasons for eliminating small batteries by application
  • 1.5. Batteryless is a strong selling point
  • 1.6. Thirteen key conclusions
  • 1.7. Energy harvesting options to power electronic and small electric devices
  • 1.8. Promising future applications by preferred energy harvesting technology - examples
  • 1.9. Example of battery issues:
  • 1.10. LPWAN/ IOT node teardown and battery elimination
    • 1.10.1. Battery cost share
    • 1.10.2. IoT battery elimination example March 2021
  • 1.11. Roadmap for electronic device harvesting 2021-2041
  • 1.12. 6G Communications roadmap to battery elimination 2021-2041
  • 1.13. Supercapacitor and device roadmap of battery elimination in electronics 2021-2041


  • 2.1. Wireless electronics and small electric devices without batteries by type 2021 and 2041
  • 2.2. Wireless electronics and small electric devices without batteries % $billion by sector 2041
  • 2.3. IoT LPWAN connections
  • 2.4. Bluetooth device forecasts
  • 2.5. RFID forecasts
  • 2.6. Energy harvesting for electronics battery and batteryless forecasts
    • 2.6.1. Summary and roadmap 2020-2040
    • 2.6.2. Photovoltaic energy harvesting for electronics: units, unit price, market value 2020-2040
    • 2.6.3. Thermoelectric energy harvesting transducers by application number, price, market value 2019-2030
    • 2.6.4. Piezoelectric energy harvesting for electronics: number, price, market value 2020-2030
    • 2.6.5. Triboelectric transducer and self-powered sensors 2020-2040 $ million
    • 2.6.6. Electrodynamic energy harvesting for electronics: number, price, market value 2020-2040
  • 2.7. Forecast for pico products (flashlights, lanterns etc) battery and batteryless with integral harvesting
  • 2.8. Global supercapacitor market by application
    • 2.8.1. $ billion 2021-2041 with 10 top suppliers' sales
    • 2.8.2. Global supercapacitor value market by territory 2021-2041
    • 2.8.3. Earliest major adopter of supercapacitor advances by territory/ application 2021-2041
    • 2.8.4. Continuous glucose monitoring CGM in context $ million to 2029
  • 2.9. 6G smartphones and total cellphones 2021-2041


  • 3.1. Overview
  • 3.2. Power needed by electronics and small electrical devices
  • 3.3. Battery problems and alternatives
  • 3.4. Drivers and facilitators of battery elimination
    • 3.4.1. How it becomes more necessary and easier
    • 3.4.2. Rapid improvement in alternatives and more of them
    • 3.4.3. How to improve, shrink and eliminate batteries
    • 3.4.4. Principles of batteryless operation
    • 3.4.5. Battery Eliminator Circuits BEC
  • 3.5. Energy harvesting for devices
    • 3.5.1. Some options compared
    • 3.5.2. Example of harvesting ambient RF
    • 3.5.3. Example of thermoelectric harvesting: KCF Technologies


  • 4.1. Overview
  • 4.2. Harvesting acoustic movement: infrasound not vibration
    • 4.2.1. More efficient electrodynamic harvesting with mechanical storage
    • 4.2.2. Kinetic energy harvesters without the need of a battery
  • 4.3. Batteryless implanted pacemaker examples
    • 4.3.1. Triboelectric motion harvesting
    • 4.3.2. Piezoelectric and triboelectric
    • 4.3.3. Electrodynamic
    • 4.3.4. RF powered
  • 4.4. Batteryless from both feet
  • 4.5. Near-field-enabled clothing sensors
  • 4.6. Battery-free patch monitoring by optical power transfer
  • 4.7. Perspiration-powered e-skin for multiplexed wireless sensing
  • 4.8. Batteryless e-textile bioenergy microgrid
  • 4.9. Smart bandage battery-free
  • 4.10. Two batteryless triboelectric facemasks activated by breathing
  • 4.11. Thermoelectric battery-free wearables
  • 4.12. Wind-up foetal heart monitor
  • 4.13. Portal Instruments batteryless needle-free jet injection platform


  • 5.1. Overview
  • 5.2. The IoT problem
  • 5.3. Area wireless networks
  • 5.4. Cost challenge to sell billions yearly: what learning curves predict
  • 5.5. Trameto multimode battery-free IoT
  • 5.6. IoT node compromises assist
  • 5.7. Smaller, lighter photovoltaic IoT node
  • 5.8. Matrix thermoelectric power for IoT
  • 5.9. 21 LPWAN silicon manufacturers - partners for IoT
  • 5.10. Smart metering
  • 5.11. RFID sensors
  • 5.12. Reality Checking the IOT story
  • 5.13. Industry 4.0 worldwide
  • 5.14. Cognitive buildings


  • 6.1. Overview
  • 6.2. Parasitic power from human RF emissions
  • 6.3. Cards, wireless sensors and RFID parasitically powered from 5G
  • 6.4. 6G communications reducing and eliminating batteries
    • 6.4.1. Overview
    • 6.4.2. 6G wireless information and energy transfer WIET
    • 6.4.3. 6G progress
    • 6.4.4. The case against 6G
    • 6.4.5. 6G roadmap 2021-2041


  • 7.1. Routes to batteryless energy independent wearables 2031
  • 7.2. Ressence Model 2 and Swatch
  • 7.3. Batteryless energy independent smartphones 2036
    • 7.3.1. Overview of six routes
    • 7.3.2. Battery-free cellphone using ambient light or RF
  • 7.4. Towards Battery-Free HD Video Streaming


  • 8.1. The option of directed RF powering
  • 8.2. Radio Frequency Identification RFID
  • 8.3. Bluetooth and LPWAN replacing active RFID
  • 8.4. Real Time Locating Systems RTLS battery elimination


  • 9.1. Building & home automation: EnOcean
  • 9.2. Protocol options
  • 9.3. Sensors
  • 9.4. EnOcean Energy Harvesting
  • 9.5. Dolphin IoT
  • 9.6. The EnOcean Alliance


  • 10.1. Examples of photovoltaics in electronic devices
  • 10.2. PV mechanisms: status, benefits, challenges, market potential compared
  • 10.3. Wafer vs thin film photovoltaics 2020-2040
  • 10.4. Photovoltaic trends and priorities 2020-2040
  • 10.5. Single crystal scSi vs polycrystal pSi
  • 10.6. Amorphous silicon dead end
  • 10.7. Thin film more efficient than rigid silicon 2030-2040?
  • 10.8. Important PV options beyond silicon compared
  • 10.9. Production readiness of Si alternatives for mainstream electronics
  • 10.10. Best research-cell efficiencies 1975-2020
  • 10.11. Photovoltaic wild cards: 2D semiconductors, quantum dots, rectenna arrays
  • 10.12. Triboelectric harvesting technology for electronics
  • 10.13. Overview
  • 10.14. Triboelectric dielectric series
  • 10.15. Materials opportunities
  • 10.16. Work combining TENG with other harvesting
  • 10.17. Thermoelectric and pyroelectric harvesting for electronics - introduction
  • 10.18. SOFT report on TE for electronics
  • 10.19. Examples of commercial and imminent applications
  • 10.20. Gentherm Global Power Technologies
  • 10.21. Marlow Industries
  • 10.22. Best in class: Matrix Industries
  • 10.23. Building & home automation: EnOcean
  • 10.24. KCF Technologies
  • 10.25. Automotive and IoT
  • 10.26. PowerPot™ Biolite ™ and Spark ™ charging personal electronics
  • 10.27. Other industrial, military
  • 10.28. Collaborations, mergers and exits
  • 10.29. Impactful new research
  • 10.30. Pyroelectric underwhelms
  • 10.31. Report 2021 - Energy harvesting made possible with skin temperature
  • 10.32. Improved thermoelectric wearables
  • 10.33. Electrodynamic - basics
  • 10.34. Piezoelectric - basics
  • 10.35. Electromagnetic radiation made for other purposes
  • 10.36. Power cable magnetic field
  • 10.37. Cellular transmissions
  • 10.38. Terahertz radiation
  • 10.39. Microbial fuel cells and other options


  • 11.1. Anatomy of a supercapacitor
  • 11.2. How they replace batteries
  • 11.3. A closer look
  • 11.4. Troubled history
  • 11.5. Regional differences and typical applications


  • 12.1. Explanation of our 10 assessment columns
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