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1100173

Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043

Published: | IDTechEx Ltd. | 462 Slides | Delivery time: 1-2 business days

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Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043
Published: July 12, 2022
IDTechEx Ltd.
Content info: 462 Slides
Delivery time: 1-2 business days
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  • Table of Contents

Title:
Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043
Electric, hybrid & H2 fuel cell powertrains. Analysis of the medium & heavy-duty BEV, PHEV & FCEV truck markets. 20-year forecasts by regions. Key enabling technologies: Li-ion batteries, electric motors, fuel cells & charging infrastructure.

Market for medium and heavy-duty electric trucks to reach US$200 billion by 2043.

The IDTechEx ‘Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043’ report explores the future of the rapidly developing zero-emission truck market, covering battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and hydrogen fuel cell trucks. Within the report we discuss the technical and economic aspects of zero-emission truck deployment and present IDTechEx's granular forecasts for medium and heavy-duty zero-emission truck deployment out to 2043, with focus on the key markets; Europe, the U.S., and China.

Despite the medium and heavy-duty truck fleet representing less than 10% of the global on-road vehicle stock, large diesel truck engines and high average annual mileage mean that the truck sector contributes around 40% of the global transport sector's greenhouse gas emissions. This equates to about 5.1% of all global fossil fuel derived CO2 emission. It is this disproportionate contribution to emissions which makes trucks a target for governments. If the global community is going to meet its targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit the impact of climate change then a rapid decarbonisation of the truck sector must be a priority. Consequently, the days of the fossil fuel powered combustion engine truck are numbered.

Governments around the world, recognising the potentially catastrophic repercussions of unfettered climate change and witnessing the detrimental impact on human health from vehicle exhaust pollutant emissions in urban environments, are taking decisive action, tightening exhaust emission regulation, and plotting timelines to net zero emission. This will, in the coming few decades, drive vehicle manufacturers to zero on-road exhaust emission powertrain solutions. OEMs and suppliers are increasingly committing to this transition.

Significant truck electrification progress

The past 18-months have seen substantial progress in truck electrification. The previous version of this IDTechEx report (Electric Medium & Heavy-duty Trucks 2021-2041) presented primarily prototype vehicles or zero-emission trucks in small series production, today, almost all OEMs either have a battery electric model in series production or are committed to starting production within the next year. Supply chains are maturing, and major tier 1 suppliers are putting substantial resources into parts electrification and shifting focus away from traditional combustion engine powertrains.

Zero-emission Medium and Heavy-Duty Trucks by
Technology and Production Status

                 Source: IDTechEx Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043

Key to deployment of battery electric trucks is understanding the daily duty cycle energy demand. The high cost of battery packs means that optimisation which minimises the size of the installed battery, whilst still delivering a full day's operation, is likely to be the most cost-effective solution. Many OEMs are offering consultancy services, working with customers to analyse the daily energy demanded by their operations, to then tailor the vehicle and charging infrastructure to that requirement. Modular battery solutions and a choice of electric motor sizes will help customers acquire the correct vehicle for their application. Working with customers is key to successful BEV truck deployment for these early generation vehicles.

Fuel cell trucks can provide long-haul range but face deployment challenges

Whilst the market for battery electric vehicles is beginning to take-off, the energy density and specific energy of current lithium-ion battery technologies can mean that the range of battery electric trucks is restricted by both the maximum weight of batteries that can be carried by a truck, and the available space for batteries within that vehicle. Fuel cell technologies offer truck OEMs an avenue to greater range, whilst still delivering the crucial reduction in on-road exhaust emissions. Despite the technologies promise, reducing system cost and rolling out sufficient hydrogen refuelling infrastructure to make driving a FCEV workable, will be a challenge. Also essential will be the availability of cheap low-carbon 'green' hydrogen, which analysis in the new IDTechEx report highlights will be vital to FCEVs delivering the environmental credentials on which they are being sold.

Heavy-duty charging / refuelling infrastructure needed

The installation of electric charging / hydrogen refuelling infrastructure is critical to the deployment of zero-emission trucks. Part of any fleet transition to electric trucks will involve the installation of sufficient charging infrastructure to enable high utilisation of vehicles. For short urban duty-cycles, which do not deplete an electric truck's battery over a day's operation, low power AC depot charging should be enough for most vehicles to recharge the battery overnight. However, some long-haul truck applications entail a daily mileage far in excess of the range that can be delivered by a practical level of installed battery capacity. In these instances, DC fast chargers specifically designed to cater for heavy-duty vehicles will need to be installed both on highways and at points of regular loading/unloading to add considerable energy in less than one hour. The alternative is hydrogen fuel-cell trucks, which will require a network of hydrogen refuelling stations, along with the development of hydrogen generation and transport infrastructure.

The report discusses the drivers and barriers to zero-emission truck deployment, including total cost of ownership considerations. It presents analysis of ongoing OEM and supplier development work and their goals for zero-emission truck deployment, with case-study detail about battery electric and fuel cell electric truck projects being undertaken by the major players in the industry. The report contains detailed investigation of key enabling technologies for zero-emission truck deployment such as batteries, motors, fuel cells, charging infrastructure and hydrogen combustion engines.

The IDTechEx ‘Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2023-2043’ report is designed to help businesses across the truck sector plan for the future in this dynamic market. The report provides 80 forecast lines for battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell electric trucks, giving a twenty-year outlook for truck sales, battery demand, fuel cell demand and market value, with separate forecasts for both the medium and heavy-duty truck markets. This report is intended for companies across the automotive value chain including: truck OEMs, parts and systems suppliers, battery and fuel cell manufacturers, electric charging / hydrogen refuelling infrastructure developers, truck fleet operators, government agencies, research organisations, and banks financing zero-emission truck deployment.

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Product Code: ISBN 9781915514073

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1. Report Overview
  • 1.2. The Rise of Zero Emission Trucks
  • 1.3. Key Report Findings (1)
  • 1.4. Key Report Findings (2)
  • 1.5. CO2 Emission: Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks
  • 1.6. Zero Emission Trucks: Drivers and Barriers
  • 1.7. Range of Zero Emission M&HD Trucks
  • 1.8. Installed Battery Capacity by Truck Weight
  • 1.9. Installed Motor Power by Truck Weight
  • 1.10. What do Electric Trucks Need to Deliver
  • 1.11. Duty Cycle Energy Considerations
  • 1.12. BEV Trucks Already Offer Sufficient Range
  • 1.13. Heavy-Duty Trucks: BEV or Fuel Cell
  • 1.14. 5-year TCO ICE, BEV, FCEV, H2-ICE
  • 1.15. Green H2 for FCEV Trucks to be 'Green'
  • 1.16. The Importance of Grid Carbon Intensity
  • 1.17. Medium & Heavy-Duty Truck Sales Forecast
  • 1.18. M&HDT Global Sales: BEV, PHEV and FCEV
  • 1.19. eM&HDT Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
  • 1.20. eM&HDT Sales by Region
  • 1.21. eM&HDT Market Forecast ($US billion)
  • 1.22. Portal Company Background Profiles
  • 1.23. Forecast Commentary

2. TRUCK DEFINITIONS

  • 2.1. Electric Vehicle Definitions
  • 2.2. Truck Weight Definitions
  • 2.3. Truck Type
  • 2.4. Truck Axle Layout Descriptions

3. DRIVERS FOR ZERO-EMISSION

  • 3.1. Main Driver for Sector Decarbonization
  • 3.2. Greenhouse Gas Emission
  • 3.3. GHG Emission: China, U.S. & Europe
  • 3.4. CO2 Emission: Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks
  • 3.5. EU27+UK GHG Emission by Sector
  • 3.6. Europe Road Transport GHG Emission
  • 3.7. U.S. Transport Related GHG Emission
  • 3.8. U.S. Road Transport GHG Emission
  • 3.9. GHG Emission From The Truck Sector
  • 3.10. CO2 Emission from Electricity Generation
  • 3.11. Urban Air Quality
  • 3.12. Fossil Fuel Bans in Cities
  • 3.13. Emission Regulation for New Trucks
  • 3.14. Heavy-Duty Emission Standards
  • 3.15. Fuel / CO2 Regulation for New Trucks
  • 3.16. Fuel Saving Technology Areas
  • 3.17. Fossil Fuel Bans
  • 3.18. OEMs Endorse Transition to Zero-Emission
  • 3.19. OEM Statements
  • 3.20. What do Electric Trucks Need to Deliver
  • 3.21. Zero Emission Truck Considerations

4. TCO CONSIDERATIONS

  • 4.1. Total Cost of Ownership
  • 4.2. TCO Considerations Zero Emission Trucks
  • 4.3. TCO Considerations: Battery Pack Cost
  • 4.4. Zero Emission Tractor Truck Cost Breakdown
  • 4.5. Truck Price Forecast by Powertrain
  • 4.6. BEV Truck Fuel Cost Savings
  • 4.7. Electric Trucks Reduced Operating Costs
  • 4.8. Overcoming Barriers for Zero Emission Trucks
  • 4.9. More Carrot, More Stick
  • 4.10. Powertrain CAPEX Costs
  • 4.11. 5-year TCO ICE, BEV, FCEV, H2-ICE
  • 4.12. TCO FCEV Trucks vs Battery Electric
  • 4.13. External Cost of Heavy-Duty Trucks

5. EUROPEAN TRUCK MARKET

  • 5.1. Overview
    • 5.1.1. Europe: Addressable Truck Market 2021
    • 5.1.2. Europe: Addressable Truck Market 2020
    • 5.1.3. Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Sales in Europe
    • 5.1.4. Average European Diesel Price
    • 5.1.5. EU 2030: 30% Cut in Truck CO2 Emissions
    • 5.1.6. Financial Driver: Legislation in Europe
    • 5.1.7. Powertrain and Range
    • 5.1.8. OEMs Combine on Charging Infrastructure
  • 5.2. European e-Truck Players
    • 5.2.1. European Electric Truck Sales 2016-2021
    • 5.2.2. Europe BEV Truck Sales by Country
    • 5.2.3. Volvo Trucks FE and FL Electric
    • 5.2.4. Volvo Trucks VERA
    • 5.2.5. Volvo FM, FMX and FH Electric
    • 5.2.6. Renault Trucks (Volvo Group)
    • 5.2.7. Renault Trucks D Wide Z.E.
    • 5.2.8. Renault BEV Refuse Truck at EVS 32
    • 5.2.9. Volvo Group Electrification
    • 5.2.10. Mercedes-Benz (Daimler) eMobility
    • 5.2.11. Mercedes-Benz (Daimler) eActros
    • 5.2.12. Daimler eActros "Innovation Fleet"
    • 5.2.13. FUSO eCanter (Daimler / Mitsubishi)
    • 5.2.14. DAF (PACCAR)
    • 5.2.15. DAF (PACCAR) CF Hybrid
    • 5.2.16. TRATON e-Truck Orders 2021
    • 5.2.17. Scania (TRATON) BEV Truck
    • 5.2.18. Scania (TRATON) PHEV Truck
    • 5.2.19. Scania (TRATON)
    • 5.2.20. MAN (TRATON) eTGM
    • 5.2.21. MAN (TRATON) Future e-Truck
    • 5.2.22. Futuricum Electric Concrete Mixer Truck
    • 5.2.23. Other European Electric Trucks

6. U.S. TRUCK MARKET

  • 6.1. Overview
    • 6.1.1. US: Addressable Truck Market 2021
    • 6.1.2. US: Addressable Truck Market 2020
    • 6.1.3. U.S. New Truck Sales by Class 2017-2021
    • 6.1.4. U.S. Truck Sales by OEM Brand
    • 6.1.5. Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Sales in the U.S.
    • 6.1.6. U.S. Annual Truck Market Sales
    • 6.1.7. U.S. Average Truck Replacement Age
    • 6.1.8. U.S. Truck Fleet Statistics
    • 6.1.9. Average U.S. On-Highway Diesel Price
    • 6.1.10. Operational Costs for US Truckers
    • 6.1.11. Rising Truck Fuel Costs
    • 6.1.12. U.S. Uptake of Alternative Fuel Trucks
    • 6.1.13. The Future: Electric, Autonomous Trucks?
    • 6.1.14. U.S. GHG Emission Policy
    • 6.1.15. California's Advanced Clean Trucks Regulation
    • 6.1.16. CARB Voucher Incentive Project
    • 6.1.17. State Support for e-Truck Deployment
    • 6.1.18. U.S. Companies Urge Faster Adoption
  • 6.2. U.S. e-Truck Players
    • 6.2.1. U.S. Electric Trucks
    • 6.2.2. U.S. Zero Emission Truck Deployments
    • 6.2.3. Significant Market for BEV Trucks
    • 6.2.4. U.S. Electric Truck Major OEMs
    • 6.2.5. Freightliner (DAIMLER) eM2
    • 6.2.6. Freightliner (DAIMLER) eCascadia
    • 6.2.7. Freightliner (DAIMLER) Battery Packs
    • 6.2.8. Freightliner Custom Chassis
    • 6.2.9. Daimler Invest in Charging Infrastructure
    • 6.2.10. Peterbilt (PACCAR) 220EV
    • 6.2.11. Peterbilt (PACCAR) 579EV
    • 6.2.12. Peterbilt (PACCAR) 520EV
    • 6.2.13. Kenworth (PACCAR) T680E
    • 6.2.14. Kenworth (PACCAR) K270E / K370E
    • 6.2.15. Volvo Trucks North America VNR Electric
    • 6.2.16. Mack Trucks (Volvo) LRe
    • 6.2.17. Navistar (VW Group) International eMV
    • 6.2.18. BYD 8TT Electric Tractor
    • 6.2.19. BYD 8TT Electric Tractor
    • 6.2.20. Tesla Semi
    • 6.2.21. Isuzu / Cummins F-Series
    • 6.2.22. Small OEMs / Component Integrators
    • 6.2.23. Xos Trucks
    • 6.2.24. Nikola
    • 6.2.25. Motiv Power Systems
    • 6.2.26. Motiv Power Systems
    • 6.2.27. SEA Electric
    • 6.2.28. Lion Electric
    • 6.2.29. Other U.S. Class 4 Electric Trucks
    • 6.2.30. Other U.S. Class 5 Electric Trucks
    • 6.2.31. Other U.S. Class 6 Electric Trucks
    • 6.2.32. Other U.S. Class 7 / 8 Electric Trucks
    • 6.2.33. Hyliion Natural Gas Electric PHEV
    • 6.2.34. Electric Terminal Tractors
    • 6.2.35. Low e-Truck Deployment / Large Orders

7. CHINESE TRUCK MARKET

  • 7.1. Overview
    • 7.1.1. China: Addressable Truck Market 2021
    • 7.1.2. China: Addressable Truck Market 2020
    • 7.1.3. Addressable M&HD Truck Sales in China
    • 7.1.4. Road Freight Demand in China
    • 7.1.5. China's Truck Market Segments
    • 7.1.6. Example Chinese Truck Joint Ventures
    • 7.1.7. China Phasing Out EV Subsidies
  • 7.2. Chinese e-Truck Players
    • 7.2.1. China New Energy Truck Sales 2018-2021
    • 7.2.2. China Zero-Emission Truck Sales by OEM 2021
    • 7.2.3. China NEV Truck Sales by OEM in 2020
    • 7.2.4. China NEV Tractor Sales by Model 2021
    • 7.2.5. Chinese Battery Swapping Dump Trucks
    • 7.2.6. Sany Electric Dump Trucks
    • 7.2.7. BYD Electric Dump Trucks For Shenzhen
    • 7.2.8. Chinese Battery Swapping Dump Trucks
    • 7.2.9. Chinese OEMs Electric Mixer Trucks
    • 7.2.10. GEELY
    • 7.2.11. The Rise of Battery Swapping in China
    • 7.2.12. Battery-Swapping Truck Market Share In China

8. BENCHMARKING US / EU OEMS

  • 8.1. Volvo Trucks
  • 8.2. Daimler Trucks
  • 8.3. BYD
  • 8.4. PACCAR
  • 8.5. Traton Group
  • 8.6. TESLA
  • 8.7. CNH Industrial / IVECO / Nikola

9. BATTERY TECHNOLOGY

  • 9.1. Overview
    • 9.1.1. What is a Li-ion Battery?
    • 9.1.2. Electrochemistry Definitions
    • 9.1.3. Li-ion Timeline Commentary
    • 9.1.4. Types of Lithium Battery
    • 9.1.5. Battery Technology Comparison
    • 9.1.6. The Promise of Silicon
    • 9.1.7. Silicon: Incremental Steps
    • 9.1.8. Li-ion Technology Diversification
    • 9.1.9. Li-ion Batteries: From Cell to Pack
    • 9.1.10. Role of Battery Pack Manufacturers
  • 9.2. Battery Pack Players
    • 9.2.1. Pack Manufacturers - Europe
    • 9.2.2. Pack Manufacturers - North America
    • 9.2.3. Asian Module and Pack Manufacturers
    • 9.2.4. Battery Pack Comparison
    • 9.2.5. Akasol (BorgWarner)
    • 9.2.6. Akasol AKASYSTEM
    • 9.2.7. Proterra
    • 9.2.8. Webasto
    • 9.2.9. Cummins
    • 9.2.10. Microvast
    • 9.2.11. EnerDel
    • 9.2.12. American Battery Solutions
    • 9.2.13. Leclanche
    • 9.2.14. Northvolt Voltpack Core
    • 9.2.15. Romeo Power
    • 9.2.16. Forsee Power
    • 9.2.17. Deutz AG
    • 9.2.18. Drivers for 800V Platforms

10. BATTERY CHOICE FOR E-TRUCKS

  • 10.1. LFP or High-Nickel Cathodes for e-Trucks?
  • 10.2. E-Truck OEM Battery Chemistry Choice
  • 10.3. Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Range & Payload
  • 10.4. Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Charging
  • 10.5. Heavy-Duty Battery Choice: Reliability
  • 10.6. Supply Chain: In-House Pack Assembly
  • 10.7. Timeline and Outlook For Li-ion Energy Densities
  • 10.8. China Electric Heavy-Duty Truck Battery Suppliers
  • 10.9. Chinese Battery Manufacturers for eBuses

11. HEAVY-DUTY CHARGING

  • 11.1. Overview
    • 11.1.1. Charging Infrastructure Critical to Deployment
    • 11.1.2. Overview of Charging Levels
  • 11.2. Conductive Charging
    • 11.2.1. Daimler Truck Commercial EV Charging Park
    • 11.2.2. CharIN Charging Standards for Electric CV
    • 11.2.3. The Emergence of 'Megawatt Chargers'
    • 11.2.4. Tesla Debut Megacharger
    • 11.2.5. MEDUSA Project: 3 MW Charging Solutions
    • 11.2.6. Detroit eFill Chargers
    • 11.2.7. NREL Testing Megawatt Charging Systems
    • 11.2.8. Charging: Depot & Opportunity Charging
    • 11.2.9. Charging Infrastructure For Heavy-Duty Vehicles
    • 11.2.10. Heliox: Public Transport & Heavy-Duty Vehicle Charging
    • 11.2.11. Heliox's 13 MW Charging Network for Electric Buses
    • 11.2.12. SprintCharge: Battery-Buffered Charging
    • 11.2.13. ABB's Smart Depot Charging Solution for Large Fleets
    • 11.2.14. ABB: Opportunity Charging
    • 11.2.15. ABB's 600 kW TOSA Flash-Charging
    • 11.2.16. Siemens: Electric Bus Charging Infrastructure
    • 11.2.17. Siemens Autonomous Charging System
  • 11.3. Inductive Charging
    • 11.3.1. Inductive Charging for Heavy-Duty Applications
    • 11.3.2. Momentum Dynamics: High-Power Wireless Charging
    • 11.3.3. Case Study: Wireless Charging
    • 11.3.4. Inductive Supercharging for Heavy-Duty Vehicles
  • 11.4. Battery Swapping
    • 11.4.1. The Rise of Battery Swapping in China
    • 11.4.2. Battery-Swapping Truck Market Share In China
    • 11.4.3. Mounting Swappable Batteries in Trucks
    • 11.4.4. Chinese Battery Swapping BEV Trucks
    • 11.4.5. Battery Swapping for Electric Buses
    • 11.4.6. Bus Stations as Battery Swap Stations?
    • 11.4.7. TU Berlin Test Robotic Battery Swapping
    • 11.4.8. Side to side swapping for electric buses
    • 11.4.9. Sany Debut Battery Swapping Station
    • 11.4.10. Edison Motors Buses
    • 11.4.11. Foton C10/C12 BEV
  • 11.5. Electric Road Systems
    • 11.5.1. Types of Electric Road Systems
    • 11.5.2. Siemens eHighway
    • 11.5.3. Electric Road Systems: Sweden
    • 11.5.4. Californian Electric Highway
    • 11.5.5. UK Government Investigating E-Highways
    • 11.5.6. Volvo Conductive Rail Testing
    • 11.5.7. Qualcomm Inductive Power Transfer
    • 11.5.8. Summary of Electric Road Systems

12. ELECTRIC MOTORS

  • 12.1. Summary of Traction Motor Types
  • 12.2. Comparison of Traction Motors
  • 12.3. Truck Motor Type Market Share / Power Requirements
  • 12.4. Magnet Price Increase Risk
  • 12.5. Integrated e-Axle Space Advantage
  • 12.6. Dana E-Axles
  • 12.7. Dana TM4
  • 12.8. Volvo
  • 12.9. Meritor Blue Horizon ePowertrain
  • 12.10. Meritor 14Xe Electric Drivetrain
  • 12.11. Danfoss Editron
  • 12.12. Detroit eAxles
  • 12.13. Allison Transmission eGen Power e-Axles
  • 12.14. ZF Electrification Solutions
  • 12.15. BorgWarner

13. FUEL CELL ELECTRIC TRUCKS

  • 13.1. Fuel Cells Trucks Outlook
  • 13.2. Toyota Mobility Roadmap
  • 13.3. Attraction of Fuel Cell Vehicles
  • 13.4. Deployment Barriers for FCEV
  • 13.5. A Kaleidoscope of Hydrogen Colours
  • 13.6. Sources of Hydrogen
  • 13.7. Fuel Cells Technologies Overview
  • 13.8. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
  • 13.9. What is a Fuel Cell Vehicle?
  • 13.10. Fuel Cell Power Requirement
  • 13.11. Fuel Cell Energy Density Advantage
  • 13.12. Daily Duty Cycle Demand
  • 13.13. Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Cell System Costs
  • 13.14. The Challenge: Green H2 Cost Reduction
  • 13.15. Must be Green H2 for FCEV to be 'Green'
  • 13.16. Green Hydrogen Price Development Forecasts
  • 13.17. Green Hydrogen Production Costs US / EU
  • 13.18. Green H2 Cost by Electricity Source US / EU
  • 13.19. Electrolyser Powered by Curtailed Electricity
  • 13.20. Comparison Hydrogen Fuel Cost vs Diesel Cost
  • 13.21. FCEV Truck Hydrogen Consumption
  • 13.22. Fuel Cell Truck Example Specifications
  • 13.23. Fuel Cell Truck: HYUNDAI
  • 13.24. Hyundai Hydrogen Mobility
  • 13.25. Hyundai Pilot FC-Trucks in Switzerland
  • 13.26. Hyundai Pilot FC-Trucks in Switzerland
  • 13.27. XCIENT FC Truck Coming to America
  • 13.28. U.S. XCEINT Longer Range
  • 13.29. Hyundai XCIENT 4,000 Unit China Order
  • 13.30. Hyundai Class 8 Concept
  • 13.31. Fuel Cell Trucks: DAIMLER / VOLVO
  • 13.32. Daimler Test GenH2 Truck Prototype
  • 13.33. Daimler Battery and Fuel Cell Outlook
  • 13.34. Cellcentric: Daimler-Volvo Joint Venture
  • 13.35. Volvo Group: Toward Fossil Free Transport
  • 13.36. Scania to Concentrate on BEV-Trucks
  • 13.37. HYZON Motors
  • 13.38. Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies
  • 13.39. HYZON Motors FCEV Truck Schematic
  • 13.40. Nikola Corporation
  • 13.41. Nikola ONE - Proof of Concept
  • 13.42. Nikola TWO: New Flagship Fuel Cell Truck
  • 13.43. Nikola Commercial Truck Milestones
  • 13.44. Nikola an "Energy Technology Company"?
  • 13.45. IDTechEx Take: The Future for Nikola
  • 13.46. Fuel Cell Trucks: KENWORTH (PACCAR)
  • 13.47. T680 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
  • 13.48. Fuel Cell Trucks: TOYOTA / HINO
  • 13.49. Fuel Cell Trucks: BALLARD / UPS
  • 13.50. Ballard Acquire Arcola Energy
  • 13.51. Ballard Motive Solutions
  • 13.52. Fuel Cell Trucks: DONGFENG
  • 13.53. Fuel Cell Truck Sales 2021
  • 13.54. Chinese FCEV Support
  • 13.55. China Hydrogen Refuelling Stations
  • 13.56. China's FCEV Deployment will it be Green?
  • 13.57. Chinese Fuel Cell Dump Trucks
  • 13.58. SANY Fuel Cell Trucks
  • 13.59. China Fuel Cell Installed Capacity 2020
  • 13.60. Other Chinese Fuel Cell System Manufacturers
  • 13.61. United Fuel Cell System R&D (Beijing) Co.
  • 13.62. Example Fuel Cell Manufacturers U.S. FC-Trucks
  • 13.63. BOSAL / Ceres Power - SOFC Range Extender
  • 13.64. Guide to Hydrogen Truck Refuelling
  • 13.65. Developing Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure
  • 13.66. Fuel Cell Truck Refuelling Advantage
  • 13.67. Long-Haul Trucking Opportunity?
  • 13.68. FC-Trucks Facilitate Wider FCEV Deployment
  • 13.69. The Fundamental Issue of Efficiency

14. H2 COMBUSTION ENGINES

  • 14.1. Introduction - H2 Combustion Engines
  • 14.2. Hydrogen Combustion Engines
  • 14.3. Attraction of H2 Combustion Engines
  • 14.4. High Energy Density and Low Cost
  • 14.5. Drawbacks of H2 Combustion Engines
  • 14.6. H2-ICE Development by Vehicle Type
  • 14.7. H2-ICE Development by Region
  • 14.8. KEYOU
  • 14.9. H2 Engine Key Modifications
  • 14.10. Suppliers Move Toward H2-ICE
  • 14.11. JCB Focus on Hydrogen Combustion
  • 14.12. DAF BEV, H2-ICE, and FCEV
  • 14.13. MAN Truck & Bus - H2 Engine Testing
  • 14.14. H2-ICE Emissions Near Zero
  • 14.15. Hydrogen Combustion System Layouts
  • 14.16. Cummins H2-ICE Approach
  • 14.17. H2-ICE CO2 Emission Reduction
  • 14.18. H2-ICE Efficiency vs FCEV
  • 14.19. Is there a TCO Case for H2-ICE?
  • 14.20. Is H2-ICE a Fast-to-Market Solution?
  • 14.21. H2-ICE CAPEX Advantage
  • 14.22. Green H2 Production Cost Forecast
  • 14.23. H2 Fuel Price More than Production Cost
  • 14.24. On-site H2 Production in Europe
  • 14.25. The Reality: Today's H2 Pump Price
  • 14.26. The TCO Impact of High H2 Fuel Cost
  • 14.27. H2-ICE Summary

15. FORECASTS

  • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.1.1. Forecast Methodology (1)
    • 15.1.2. Forecast Methodology (2)
    • 15.1.3. Forecast Methodology (3)
    • 15.1.4. Forecast Assumptions
    • 15.1.5. Fuel Cells in Trucks Commentary
    • 15.1.6. Other Alternative Powertrains
    • 15.1.7. Forecast: Battery Size Assumptions MDT
    • 15.1.8. Forecast: Battery Size Assumptions HDT
    • 15.1.9. Forecast: Battery Size Assumptions FCEV
    • 15.1.10. Forecast: Battery Size Assumptions PHEV
  • 15.2. Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Market Forecasts 2023-2043
    • 15.2.1. Medium & Heavy-Duty Truck Global Sales
    • 15.2.2. M&HDT Global Sales: BEV, PHEV and FCEV
    • 15.2.3. eM&HDT Sales by Region
    • 15.2.4. Global M&HDT Market Share for eM&HDT
    • 15.2.5. eM&HDT Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
    • 15.2.6. eM&HDT Battery Demand Forecast by Region
    • 15.2.7. eM&HDT Market Forecast ($US billion)
    • 15.2.8. eM&HDT Market Forecast by Region
    • 15.2.9. FCEV M&HDT Fuel Cell Demand Forecast (MW)
  • 15.3. Medium-Duty Truck Market Forecasts 2023-2043
    • 15.3.1. Medium-Duty Truck (MDT) Global Sales
    • 15.3.2. MDT Global Sales: BEV, PHEV and FCEV
    • 15.3.3. eMDT Sales by Region
    • 15.3.4. Global MDT Market Share for eMDT
    • 15.3.5. eMDT Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
    • 15.3.6. eMDT Market Forecast ($US billion)
    • 15.3.7. eMDT Market Forecast by Region
  • 15.4. Heavy-Duty Truck Market Forecasts 2023-2043
    • 15.4.1. Heavy-Duty Truck Global Sales
    • 15.4.2. HDT Global Sales: BEV, PHEV and FCEV
    • 15.4.3. eHDT Sales by Region
    • 15.4.4. HDT Market Share for eHDT
    • 15.4.5. eHDT Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
    • 15.4.6. eHDT Market Forecast ($US billion)
    • 15.4.7. eHDT Market Forecast by Region
  • 15.5. Regional Sales Forecasts 2023-2043
    • 15.5.1. Europe (EU27+UK+EFTA) MDT Sales by Powertrain
    • 15.5.2. Europe (EU27+UK+EFTA) HDT Sales by Powertrain
    • 15.5.3. U.S. MDT Sales by Powertrain
    • 15.5.4. U.S. HDT Sales by Powertrain
    • 15.5.5. China MDT Sales by Powertrain
    • 15.5.6. China HDT sales by Powertrain
    • 15.5.7. RoW MDT Sales by Powertrain
    • 15.5.8. RoW HDT Sales by Powertrain