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Market Research Report

Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Sensing 2020-2030

Published by IDTechEx Ltd. Product code 239692
Published Content info 238 Pages
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Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Sensing 2020-2030
Published: March 31, 2020 Content info: 238 Pages
Description

Title:
Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Sensing 2020-2030
New principles, new applications, forecasts.

"A multi-billion dollar systems market for thermoelectric harvesting and sensing is emerging."

The new IDTechEx report, "Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Sensing 2020-2030" assesses a multi-billion dollar opportunity from major unsolved problems. The future is electric but 60% of the world's primary energy is wasted as heat. Turn that heat into electricity and the benefits are huge. The Internet of Things is nowhere near to reaching the predicted billions of nodes yearly monitoring everything from oil spills to forest fires and earthquakes. This is because batteries cannot be changed or charged in such deployments so you need to make the electricity at the node, typically in the dark where photovoltaics is not an option. Consequently, thermoelectric harvesting from heat differences is often a candidate. Another problem is smart watches expiring in hours. They have inadequate area for solar alone so how about electricity from heat now there is progress in viably exploiting small temperature differences? "

So far, thermoelectric energy generators TEGs are a small business because of cost and poor performance. Thermoelectrics is a poor third in energy harvester sales, well behind electrodynamics (wind and water turbines etc) and photovoltaics on everything. Nonetheless, 2019 was a bumper year for TEG research and new approaches to thermoelectrics and to thermoelectric sensing became active areas. For example, quantum and spin thermoelectrics now promise ten times the efficiency.

Yes, progress is poor in finding more efficient materials for conventional thermoelectrics at the temperatures where almost all the demand lies - up to 300C. However, taking a cue from other forms of energy harvesting, less efficient options with much more acceptable formats and costs are looking good. Welcome to wide area, stretchable, and biocompatible TEGs employing polymers and composites.

The Executive Summary and Conclusions of the report are sufficient for those in a hurry. Its new infograms explain the huge opportunities, impediments, patents, new materials, inventions and new approaches. There are ten year forecasts for different applications of thermoelectrics and wearables. The Introduction explains the basics, traditional manufacturing and formats and the trends. Go to Chapter 3 for New Principles: Quantum Dot and Spin-Driven. Chapter 4 closely examines Low Power: Flexible and Stretchable Thermoelectrics - the technology, new inventions, healthcare and wearables opportunities. Here is good news about viably harvesting electricity from small temperature differences with many examples. High power thermoelectric harvesting is very rare but Chapter 5 Status of High Power TEG examines latest approaches.

Chapter 6 assesses new manufacturing technologies, including the new polymer formulations, CNT, printing. The new Applications of Chapter 7 include building facades, roads, implants, wearables, internet of things, radiative cooling at night, gas turbines and military. The New Materials analysed in Chapter 8 include many polymers, silicon including within silicon chips and new heat sources. Chapter 9 Thermoelectric Sensing deals with using the Seebeck effect to do the actual sensing, a smaller market but now a vibrant one with fabrics, and flow, radiation and gas sensing involved. Indeed, the thermoelectric self-powered sensor using both effects is described. Finally Chapter 10 profiles relevant activity of 32 organisations.

Will market growth in thermoelectric energy harvesting primarily come from low or high power opportunities? Which researchers and manufacturers have the products with the most potential? Forecasts by industry? Significance of latest advances? Most active countries? It is all here in the new IDTechEx report, "Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Sensing 2020-2030".

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Purpose of this report
  • 1.2. Definition and status
    • 1.2.1. Definition
    • 1.2.2. Primary conclusions
    • 1.2.3. Patent analysis
  • 1.3. Impediments by power level
  • 1.4. New focus
    • 1.4.1. Overview
    • 1.4.2. Unsatisfied needs for low power TEGs
    • 1.4.3. Unsatisfied needs for high power TEGs
    • 1.4.4. New focus: healthcare
    • 1.4.5. Trend to flexible energy harvesting and sensing
  • 1.5. New models predict higher efficiencies possible: Univ. Houston/ A*STAR Hong Kong
    • 1.5.1. University of Houston
    • 1.5.2. A*STAR Hong Kong
  • 1.6. Market forecasts
    • 1.6.1. Thermoelectric energy harvesting transducers by application 2019-2030 - number million
    • 1.6.2. Thermoelectric energy harvesting transducers by application 2019-2030 - unit value dollars
    • 1.6.3. Thermoelectric energy harvesting transducers by application 2019-2030 - dollars million
    • 1.6.4. Thermoelectric sensors and actuators 2020-2030 $ billion
    • 1.6.5. Wearable technology forecast

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. The Seebeck and Peltier effects
  • 2.2. Manufacturing of thermoelectric generators
    • 2.2.1. Construction and materials
    • 2.2.2. Design considerations
  • 2.3. Thin film thermoelectric generators
  • 2.4. Materials: chasing high ZT

3. NEW PRINCIPLES: QUANTUM DOT AND SPIN-DRIVEN

  • 3.1. Quantum dot
  • 3.2. Spin driven thermoelectric effect STE

4. LOW POWER: LOW DELTA T AND FLEXIBLE/ STRETCHABLE

  • 4.1. Powering sensors with only a few degrees temperature difference
    • 4.1.1. Japanese universities
    • 4.1.2. Chinese universities
    • 4.1.3. PNNL USA
    • 4.1.4. GeorgiaTech USA
  • 4.2. Flexible thermoelectric harvesters
    • 4.2.1. Overview
    • 4.2.2. Mxenes, CNT
    • 4.2.3. Stretchable thermoelectric coils: miniature flexible wearable devices
  • 4.3. Healthcare
    • 4.3.1. Overview
    • 4.3.2. University Massachusetts Amherst

5. STATUS OF HIGH POWER TEG

  • 5.1. Overview
  • 5.2. RGS Development, TEGnology, Komatsu KELK
  • 5.3. Gentherm, Marlow
  • 5.4. Alphabet Energy's E1 thermoelectric generator

6. NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

  • 6.1. Conventional beginnings TECA, former companies Tellurex, Micropelt
  • 6.2. Manufacturing of flexible thermoelectric generators: Tyndall, AIST, ETH
  • 6.3. Enhancing ZT of flexible TEGs
  • 6.4. AIST flexible technology
  • 6.5. Printed thermoelectrics - Otego
  • 6.6. Enhancement by pressure: Osaka University

7. NEW APPLICATIONS

  • 7.1. Building façades
  • 7.2. Implantable thermoelectrics
  • 7.3. Thermoelectrics in consumer electronics/wearables
    • 7.3.1. Overview
    • 7.3.2. Matrix PowerWatch
    • 7.3.3. Matrix March 2019
    • 7.3.4. Powering other wearables next
    • 7.3.5. Academic research on wearables
  • 7.4. Powering IoT
  • 7.5. Waste heat
    • 7.5.1. Mitsubishi Materials
    • 7.5.2. Paderborn University
  • 7.6. Radiative cooling at night
  • 7.7. Military and aerospace
    • 7.7.1. Military AETEG
    • 7.7.2. Bi-functional generator/ pre-cooler: DC power from aircraft bleed air
    • 7.7.3. Military waste heat
    • 7.7.4. Gas turbine sensing
  • 7.8. Other examples of thermoelectric progress
    • 7.8.1. Better formats
    • 7.8.2. Thermite powered thermoelectrics
  • 7.9. Major structures
    • 7.9.1. Smart roads
    • 7.9.2. Radiative cooling outdoors: Univs Colorado, Wyoming, California

8. NEW MATERIALS

  • 8.1. Organics
    • 8.1.1. Bacterial nanocellulose
    • 8.1.2. Fluoro-elastomer rubbers
    • 8.1.3. PEDOT:PSS as a thermoelectric
  • 8.2. Integration into silicon chips
    • 8.2.1. Alloy films
    • 8.2.2. Nanoblades
  • 8.3. Other inorganics
  • 8.4. e-textile integration
  • 8.5. New materials for high temperatures

9. THERMOELECTRIC SENSING

  • 9.1. Overview
  • 9.2. MEMS thermoelectric infrared sensors
  • 9.3. Micro-thermoelectric gas sensor: hydrogen and atomic oxygen
  • 9.4. Transfer standards
  • 9.5. Fabric sensors
  • 9.6. Self-powered wireless sensor
  • 9.7. Ultrasensitive heat sensor for healthcare
  • 9.8. Three parameters from one sensor

10. ORGANISATION PROFILES

  • 10.1. AIST Japan
  • 10.2. Alphabet Energy, Inc. USA
  • 10.3. Applied Thermoelectric Solutions USA
  • 10.4. Citizen Watch Japan
  • 10.5. e-ThermoGentech Japan
  • 10.6. EVERREDtronics Ltd China
  • 10.7. Ferrotec Corporation USA
  • 10.8. Fujifilm Japan
  • 10.9. Furukawa Japan
  • 10.10. Gentherm USA
  • 10.11. greenTEG Switzerland
  • 10.12. Hi Z Technology, Inc USA
  • 10.13. KELK Ltd
  • 10.14. Kyocera Japan
  • 10.15. Laird Technologies USA
  • 10.16. Lintec Japan
  • 10.17. Mahle O-Flexx Germany
  • 10.18. Marlow Industries USA
  • 10.19. mc10
  • 10.20. Murata Japan
  • 10.21. Novus USA
  • 10.22. OTEGO Germany
  • 10.23. Panasonic Japan
  • 10.24. Perpetua
  • 10.25. PL Engineering Russia
  • 10.26. RGS Development Netherlands
  • 10.27. RMT Russia
  • 10.28. Romny Scientific USA
  • 10.29. Showa Denko, Showa Holdings Japan
  • 10.30. TECTEG Mfr Canada
  • 10.31. TES New Energy Japan
  • 10.32. Thermolife Energy Corporation
  • 10.33. Toshiba Japan
  • 10.34. Yamaha
  • 10.35. Yasanuga Japan
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