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Market Research Report

Thermal Interface Materials 2020-2030: Forecasts, Technologies, Opportunities

Published by IDTechEx Ltd. Product code 917175
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Thermal Interface Materials 2020-2030: Forecasts, Technologies, Opportunities
Published: November 25, 2019 Content info: 300 Slides
Description

Title:
hermal Interface Materials 2020-2030: Forecasts, Technologies, Opportunities
Market trends and drivers for key industries; technology trends and emerging material opportunities..

Thermal management is one of the key requirements across all electronic devices, power modules, telecommunications, energy storage, and more. It is well known that the improvements in power and reduction in size results in significantly more heat that must be dissipated. It is reported that over half of electronic failure occurrences are due to thermal issues.

Thermal Interface Materials (TIM) connect a heat generating device to a heat sink or equivalent cooling mechanism. An ideal TIM will have a good contact with the heat generating device and effective through-plane conductivity; other properties are also significant depending on the application such as viscosity, adhesiveness, compressibility, lifetime, and dielectric breakdown. There are also commercial considerations for both cost and ease or rate of manufacturing.

TIM can take numerous forms, including being introduced as either a liquid or solid product. The materials choices can vary from conventionally used ceramic filler polymer resins through to liquid metals, phase change materials, and more advanced materials.

Diverse markets for TIM

This report provides the most comprehensive view of this often, wrongly, overlooked industry. The report will look in detail at key markets including: LEDs for displays, general lighting, and automotive, consumer electronics, data centres, power electronic modules, telecommunications, and lithium-ion batteries.

Each market has very different requirements in properties and commercial restrictions. IDTechEx provide extensive details of the use cases in these markets and outlooks of material demands.

Two of the most notable trends in this industry are the rise of electric vehicles and the role of 5G in telecommunications. Lithium-ion battery packs are increasing in size to satisfy the range and will have more thermal demands with the rise of fast charging; a complete overview of the thermal management solutions is included within this report. The role in electric vehicles is not just limited to the battery packs, power electronic modules playing a key role and with increasing power demands. 5G will become dominant over the next 10-year period and with that there will be a shift in both the baseband units (BBU) and remote radio units (RRU), which provides opportunities for thermal interface materials even with the corresponding decline of 4G/LTE base station installations.

As players prepare for these growing markets there are new products and notable new entrants and acquisitions. A notable example being the 2019 acquisition of Lord by Parker Hannifin, with Lord being one of the players driving a low-cost solution for the EV market.

Prominent material advancements

To achieve the desired thermal conductivity new materials are coming to the fore. This report gives significant detail on the use of graphite, carbon fiber, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and boron nitride nanostructures. There is also the development in achieving alignment, particularly of anisotropic additives, this manipulation can give key advantages for enhanced through-plane conductivity.

There are already notable use-cases of these materials in a variety of consumer electronic applications; it is becoming evident that these materials may provide the solution to some of the electronic device manufacturers' toughest questions.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1. Introduction to Thermal Interface Materials (TIM)
  • 1.2. Overview of TIM by type
  • 1.3. Advanced Materials for TIM
  • 1.4. Market Overview
  • 1.5. Market forecast: TIM for EV battery packs
  • 1.6. Market forecast: TIM for power electronic modules
  • 1.7. Market forecast: TIM in LED for general lighting
  • 1.8. Market forecast: TIM in LED for automotive
  • 1.9. Market forecast: TIM in LED for displays
  • 1.10. Market forecast: TIM in LED for 4G/LTE base stations
  • 1.11. Market forecast: TIM for 5G base stations
  • 1.12. Market forecast: TIM for consumer electronics

2. OVERVIEW OF THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS

  • 2.1. Introduction to Thermal Interface Materials (TIM)
  • 2.2. Key Factors in System Level Performance
  • 2.3. Thermal Conductivity vs Thermal Resistance
  • 2.4. TIM form and material overview
  • 2.5. TIM considerations
  • 2.6. Thermal Interface Material by physical form
  • 2.7. Assessment and considerations of liquid products
  • 2.8. Ten Types of Thermal Interface Material
  • 2.9. Properties of Thermal Interface Materials
  • 2.10. Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive Tapes
  • 2.11. Thermal Liquid Adhesives
  • 2.12. Thermal Greases
    • 2.12.1. Problems with thermal greases
    • 2.12.2. Thermal Greases
    • 2.12.3. Viscosity of Thermal Greases
    • 2.12.4. Technical Data on Thermal Greases
    • 2.12.5. The effect of filler, matrix and loading on thermal conductivity
  • 2.13. Thermal Gels
  • 2.14. Thermal Pastes
    • 2.14.1. Technical Data on Gels and Pastes
  • 2.15. Elastomeric pads
    • 2.15.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Elastomeric Pads
  • 2.16. Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
    • 2.16.1. Phase Change Materials - overview
  • 2.17. Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
    • 2.17.1. Operating Temperature Range of Commercially Available Phase Change Materials
    • 2.17.2. Advanced Materials as Thermal Interface Materials
    • 2.17.3. Advanced Materials for TIM - Introduction
    • 2.17.4. Achieving through-plane alignment
    • 2.17.5. Summary of TIM utilising advanced carbon materials

3. GRAPHITE

  • 3.1. Graphite - overview
  • 3.2. Graphite Sheets: Through-plane limitations
  • 3.3. Graphite Sheets: interfacing with heat source and disrupting alignment
  • 3.4. Panasonic - Pyrolytic Graphite Sheet (PGS)
  • 3.5. Progressions in vertical graphite
  • 3.6. Vertical graphite with additives
  • 3.7. Graphite Pastes

4. CARBON FIBER

  • 4.1. Carbon fiber as a thermal interface material - introduction
  • 4.2. Carbon fiber as TIM in smartphones
  • 4.3. Magnetic alignment of carbon fiber TIM
  • 4.4. Other routes to CF alignment in a TIM
  • 4.5. Carbon fiber with other conductive additives

5. CARBON NANOTUBES (CNT)

  • 5.1. Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)
  • 5.2. Challenges with VACNT as TIM
  • 5.3. Transferring VACNT arrays
  • 5.4. Notable CNT TIM examples from commercial players

6. GRAPHENE

  • 6.1. Graphene in thermal management: application roadmap
  • 6.2. Graphene heat spreaders: commercial success
  • 6.3. Graphene heat spreaders: performance
  • 6.4. Graphene heat spreaders: suppliers multiply
  • 6.5. Graphene as a thermal paste additive
  • 6.6. Graphene as additives to thermal interface pads

7. CERAMIC ADVANCEMENTS

  • 7.1. Ceramic trends: spherical variants
  • 7.2. Denka: functional fine particles for thermal management
  • 7.3. Denka
  • 7.4. Showa Denko: transition from flake to spherical type filler

8. BORON NITRIDE NANOSTRUCTURES

  • 8.1. Introduction to nano boron nitride
  • 8.2. BNNT players and prices
  • 8.3. BNNT property variation
  • 8.4. BN nanostructures in thermal interface materials

9. TIM FOR EV BATTERY PACKS

  • 9.1. Introduction to thermal management for EVs
  • 9.2. Battery thermal management - hot and cold
  • 9.3. Cell chemistry impact thermal runaway likelihood
  • 9.4. Analysis of passive battery cooling methods
  • 9.5. Analysis of active battery cooling methods
  • 9.6. Emerging routes - Immersion cooling
  • 9.7. Emerging routes - phase change materials
  • 9.8. Main incentives for liquid cooling
  • 9.9. Shifting OEM Strategies - liquid cooling
  • 9.10. Global trends in OEM cooling methodologies adopted
  • 9.11. Is tab cooling a solution?
  • 9.12. Thermal management - pack and module overview
  • 9.13. Thermal Interface Material (TIM) - pack and module overview
  • 9.14. Switching to gap fillers rather than pads
  • 9.15. EV use-case examples
  • 9.16. Battery pack TIM - Options and market comparison
  • 9.17. The silicone dilemma for the automotive industry
  • 9.18. TIM: silicone alternatives
  • 9.19. The main players and considerations
  • 9.20. Notable acquisitions for TIM players
  • 9.21. TIM for electric vehicle battery packs - trends
  • 9.22. TIM for EV battery packs - forecast by category
  • 9.23. TIM for EV battery packs - forecast by TIM type
  • 9.24. Insulating cell-to-cell foams
  • 9.25. Heat spreaders or interspersed cooling plates - pouches and prismatic
  • 9.26. Active cell-to-cell cooling solutions - cylindrical
  • 9.27. Summary and Conclusions for LiB for EV

10. TIM FOR POWER MODULES

  • 10.1. Why use TIM in power modules?
  • 10.2. Which EV inverter modules have TIM?
  • 10.3. When will the TIM not become the limiting factor?
  • 10.4. Why the drive to eliminate the TIM?
  • 10.5. Has TIM been eliminated in any EV inverter modules?
  • 10.6. Choice of non-bonded thermal interface materials
  • 10.7. Comparison of various thermal greases
  • 10.8. Thermal grease: other shortcomings
  • 10.9. Thermal grease: causes of failure
  • 10.10. Phase change materials (PCM) in power electronics modules
  • 10.11. Thermal resistance of grease and PCMs
  • 10.12. TIM market forecast in $ and tons for all power modules (2019 to 2030)

11. TIM FOR DATA CENTERS

  • 11.1. Thermal Interface Materials in data centers: introduction
  • 11.2. Introduction to data center equipment: servers, switches, and supervisors
  • 11.3. How TIMs are used in servers
  • 11.4. Estimating the TIM area in servers
  • 11.5. Data center: determining the relative number of equipment by examining common design methods
  • 11.6. Average switch port numbers
  • 11.7. How TIMs are used in data centre switches
  • 11.8. Estimating the TIM area in data center switches
  • 11.9. Estimating the number of supervisor modules in data centers
  • 11.10. How TIMs are used in supervisor modules in data centers
  • 11.11. TIM consumption in power supply modules of data centers
  • 11.12. How TIMs are used in power suppliers in data centers?
  • 11.13. Ten-year server forecast in million units (2018 to 2030)
  • 11.14. Ten-year forecasts (2018 to 2030) for switches and supervisor modules in data centers
  • 11.15. Aggregated data center equipment unit number forecast (2018 to 2030)
  • 11.16. Thermal interface material surface area in the data centers (2018 to 2030)

12. TIM IN LED FOR GENERAL LIGHTING

  • 12.1. General lighting market
  • 12.2. LED technology and application space reaches maturity
  • 12.3. LED technology: approaching maturity
  • 12.4. LED market: top and median performance levels in various sectors
  • 12.5. LEDs: price target and price evolution
  • 12.6. LEDs: why focus on thermal management
  • 12.7. LEDs come in a variety of packages
  • 12.8. LED package and board assembly reviews: die on lead-frame and die on ceramic on FR4 with vias
  • 12.9. LED package and board assembly reviews: COB on metal core PCB and ceramic boards
  • 12.10. LED packaging: improving in thermal resistance over time
  • 12.11. Choices of thermal boards: FR4 and Insulated Metal Substrate
  • 12.12. Insulated metal substrate: the importance of the dielectric
  • 12.13. Choices of thermal boards: FR4 with filled thermal vias
  • 12.14. Moderate to high power LEDs require TIM
  • 12.15. Low power LED lamp design may have no TIM
  • 12.16. Going from LED to board-level area
  • 12.17. TIM: a variety of choices available
  • 12.18. LED lighting market: unit number forecasts from 2017 to 2030
  • 12.19. TIM market in LED general lighting (2018 to 2030) in tons and area

13. TIM IN LED FOR AUTOMOTIVE

  • 13.1. LED lighting market in automotive
  • 13.2. Examples of LED headlights in various vehicles
  • 13.3. Examples of boards used in tail and head LED automotive lights
  • 13.4. LED for automotive: key characteristics
  • 13.5. LED in automotive: trend towards matrix systems
  • 13.6. LED in automotive: lumen output requirements for headlamp, tail lights and various signal functions
  • 13.7. TIM addressable market (2018 to 2030)
  • 13.8. TIM market forecasts in sqm and tons (2018 and 2030)

14. TIM IN LED FOR DISPLAYS

  • 14.1. Display industry in sqm
  • 14.2. The rise of OLED will affect the addressable market?
  • 14.3. TIM in edge-lit and direct-lit LED-LCDs
  • 14.4. The importance of thermal management
  • 14.5. Estimating LED in LCD numbers
  • 14.6. Addressable market for TIM in LED-LCD displays in sqm and tons (2018 to 2030)

15. TIM IN BASE STATIONS

  • 15.1. A simple description to the anatomy of a base station
  • 15.2. Background info on baseband processing unit and remote radio head
  • 15.3. Path evolution from baseband unit to antenna
  • 15.4. The 6 components of a baseband processing unit
  • 15.5. BBU parts I: TIM area in the main control board
  • 15.6. BBU parts II & III: TIM area in the baseband processing board & the transmission extension board
  • 15.7. BBU parts IV & V: TIM area in radio interface board & satellite-card board
  • 15.8. BBU parts VI: TIM area in the power supply board
  • 15.9. Remote radio head unit components
  • 15.10. RRU parts: TIM area in the main board
  • 15.11. RRU parts: TIM area in PA board
  • 15.12. Summary
  • 15.13. BBU TIM forecasts in 4G/LTE base stations
  • 15.14. RRU TIM forecast in 4G/LTE base stations
  • 15.15. Total TIM area forecast for the 4G/LTE base stations

16. 5G BASE STATIONS

  • 16.1. What is 5G
  • 16.2. Evolution of mobile communications
  • 16.3. What can 5G offer?
  • 16.4. Differences between 4G and 5G
  • 16.5. 5G operates at high frequency
  • 16.6. High Frequency lead to high capacity, low latency and changes in antennas & stations
  • 16.7. 5G base station types
  • 16.8. 5G trend: small cells (picocell and femtocell)
  • 16.9. Base station architecture: C-RAN
  • 16.10. Evolution of the cellular base station: overview
  • 16.11. Radio Frequency Front End (RFFE) Module
  • 16.12. Massive MIMO requires active antennas
  • 16.13. 5G station instalment number by year
  • 16.14. Main suppliers of 5G active antennas unit (AAU)
  • 16.15. Case study: NEC 5G Radio Unit
  • 16.16. Case study: Samsung 5G Access solution for SK telecom
  • 16.17. Air cavity vs plastic overmold packages
  • 16.18. Examples of ceramic packages
  • 16.19. Examples of actual packaged GaN discreet PAs
  • 16.20. GaAs also requires conductive heat slug
  • 16.21. Air-cavity packages for full front end modules
  • 16.22. TIM forecast in 5G base stations (macro, micro, pico, femto stations)

17. TIM IN CONSUMER ELECTRONICS

  • 17.1. Introduction
  • 17.2. Galaxy 3: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.3. Galaxy S6: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.4. Galaxy S7: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.5. Galaxy S7: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.6. Galaxy S9: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.7. Galaxy note 9 carbon water cooling system
  • 17.8. Samsung S10 and S10e: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.9. Galaxy S6 and S7 TIM area estimates
  • 17.10. Oppo R17: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.11. Huawei Mate Pro 30: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.12. iPhone 4: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.13. iPhone 5: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.14. iPhone 7: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.15. iPhone X: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.16. Smartphone TIM estimate summary
  • 17.17. Asus K570U and Clevo P641RE: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.18. Lenovo ThinkPad X1 and Dell XPs 13: teardown and how TIM is used
  • 17.19. Apple MacBook Pro, Asus ROG Zephyrus M501 & Dell Inspiron 15 7000
  • 17.20. LAPTOP TIM SPECS
  • 17.21. Unit sales forecast for consumer electronics
  • 17.22. Thermal interface material and heat spreader forecast in consumer electronics
  • 17.23. Thermal interface material and heat spreader forecast in smart phones
  • 17.24. Thermal interface material and heat spreader forecast for laptops
  • 17.25. Thermal interface material and heat spreader forecast for tablets
  • 17.26. Thermal interface material and heat spreader forecast for desktops

18. COMPANY PROFILES

  • 18.1. 3M Electronic Materials
  • 18.2. AI Technology
  • 18.3. AIM Specialty Materials
  • 18.4. AOS Thermal
  • 18.5. Denka
  • 18.6. DK Thermal
  • 18.7. Dow Corning
  • 18.8. Dymax Corporation
  • 18.9. Ellsworth Adhesives
  • 18.10. Enerdyne
  • 18.11. European Thermodynamics Ltd
  • 18.12. Fujipoly
  • 18.13. Fralock
  • 18.14. GrafTech
  • 18.15. Henkel
  • 18.16. Honeywell
  • 18.17. Indium Corporation
  • 18.18. Inkron
  • 18.19. Kitagawa Industries
  • 18.20. Laird Tech
  • 18.21. LORD
  • 18.22. MA Electronics
  • 18.23. MH&W International
  • 18.24. Minteq
  • 18.25. Momentive
  • 18.26. Parker Chomerics
  • 18.27. Resinlab
  • 18.28. Schlegel Electronics Materials
  • 18.29. ShinEtsu
  • 18.30. Timtronics
  • 18.31. Universal Science
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