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Market Research Report

Nano and Advanced Sensing Techniques for Combating Chemical, Biological and Explosive Threats

Published by Technology Transfer Centre Product code 317093
Published Content info 74 Pages
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Nano and Advanced Sensing Techniques for Combating Chemical, Biological and Explosive Threats
Published: October 21, 2014 Content info: 74 Pages

This publication has been discontinued on January 8, 2020.


In recent years, in the quest for ensuring the safety of populations against the potential use by terrorists of a wide range of chemical, biological and explosive threats has underlined the need for early, sensitive and reliable detection. This has led to research on new advanced sensing technologies that can offer protection of life and property.

Nanotechnology has the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of many, if not all, of chemical, biological and explosive-based threats. The high sensitivity and selectivity of nanosensors can be utilised in detecting for example, biological threats like anthrax, plague, smallpox etc. They can also be used for detecting explosives and in the detection of toxic gas agents such as sarin.

In this report, over 30 technologies that can be deployed in sensing, and their wide-ranging applications, are described. For each technology, abstracts of relevant papers explaining their utilisation, patents, press releases and reviews are included, along with links to further information.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

  • Nanotechnology and Sensing Methodologies for Combating Chemical, Biological and Explosives Threats
  • Introduction
    • Key Drivers in Combatting Chemical, Biological and Explosives Threats
  • Electronic Noses
    • Electronic Nose Sensor
    • Press Release: Electronic 'noses' to detect chemical warfare gases
    • Press Release: Engineers develop 'electronic nose' prototype
    • Cambridge CMOS Sensors (CCS), Cambridge, UK
    • The Biomedical Sensors Laboratory, Warwick University
  • Conductive Polymers
    • Patent: High-flux chemical sensors
  • Chemical Field Effect Transistors
    • Patent: A chlorine gas sensitive field effect transistor
    • Presentation: Innovative gas sensors for sub-ppm detection of organophosphorus nerve agents (such as sarin) by chemically functionalized carbon nanotube field-effect transistors:
    • A gas sensor fabricated with field-effect transistors and Langmuir-Blodgett film of porphyrin.
    • Sensitive, low-cost silicon carbide-based gas sensors can detect toxic emissions and hazardous nanoparticulate matter in previously untenable environments.
    • Highly sensitive metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor sensors for detecting carbon monoxide gas using porous platinum and tungsten oxide thin films
    • Carbon nanostructure-based field-effect transistors for label-free chemical/biological sensors.
    • Review: Carbon nanomaterials field-effect-transistor-based biosensors.
  • Piezoelectric sensors
    • Review: Piezoelectric microelectromechanical resonant sensors for chemical and biological detection
    • Patent: Ionic liquid thin layer sensor for electrochemical and/or piezoelectric measurements
  • Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors
    • Project: Smart detector for toxic gases
    • Nanocomposite coated surface acoustic wave sensor for chemical warfare agent detection
    • System and method for detecting hazardous materials inside containers
    • Oxide thin films (ZnO, TeO2, SnO2, and TiO2) based surface acoustic wave (SAW) E-nose for the detection of chemical warfare agents
    • Review: Surface acoustic wave sensors in the bioanalytical field: Recent trends and challenges
    • A surface acoustic wave gas sensor: detection of organophosphorus compounds
  • Flexural Plate Wave Sensors
    • Method and apparatus for detection of analyte using a flexural plate wave device and magnetic particles
  • Sensor Arrays
    • A portable embedded toxic gas detection device based on a cross-responsive sensor array
    • The development of a sensor array for the detection and recognition of chemical warfare agents.
    • A colorimetric sensor array for detection of triacetone triperoxide vapor
    • Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives in gas and liquid phase
  • Optical fibres / photonic sensors
    • Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals
    • Fiber optic sensors for the detection of toxic and biological threats
  • Cantilevers
    • Self-exciting, self-sensing piezoelectric cantilever sensor
    • Poster: Sensing of an explosive precursor with zeolite-modified cantilevers
    • Thesis: Cantilever array for chemical sensing: development of moisture-independent sensor with possible application in explosive detection
  • Chemiresistors
    • A Review: Carbon Nanotubes as Active Components for Gas Sensors
    • Summary of "On the Sensing Mechanism in Carbon Nanotube Chemiresistors."
  • Chemicapacitive sensors.
    • Chemicapacitive microsensors for volatile organic compound detection
  • Spectroscopic methods for chemical and biological threat agent detection
    • A review: Functionalized gold nanoparticle-supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents.
    • Laser spectroscopy for the detection of chemical, biological and explosive threats
    • Active Metamaterial Based Terahertz Polarimetry for Spectroscopic Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards.
  • Nanocomposite enabled sensing
    • Gas Semiconducting Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanocomposites
  • Optical biosensors
    • Review: Nanomaterial-based biosensors for environmental and biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents
    • Paper: Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides
  • Terahertz wave technology.
    • Press Release: Remote sensing to help detect hidden explosives
  • Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF)
    • Nuclear resonance fluorescence and effective Z determination applied to detection and imaging of special nuclear material, explosives, toxic substances and contraband
  • Radiation Detection Systems
    • Centronic and Radiation Detection
  • Electrochemical Sensors in Explosives Detection
    • Patent: Explosives detection sensor
    • Patent: Electrochemical method and sensor for the detection of traces of explosives.
    • Explosive detection techniques with the polymer sensors, metal oxide sensors and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors
  • Mass Based Sensors.
  • Fibre Optic Based Sensors.
    • Press Release: Fiber-based sensor spots traces of explosives
  • Photoluminescence-Based Detection.
    • Article: Research shines light on explosives detection
    • Patent: Method for detecting trace explosives using photoluminescence
  • Spectroscopic Methods.
    • Review: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges, and future prospects
  • Terahertz Detection.
    • Review: Terahertz spectroscopy techniques for explosives detection
    • Press Release: Terahertz waves for explosives detection
    • Company: Teraview Ltd
  • Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering
    • Detection of explosives based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
  • Cataluminescence
    • Sensor based on extracting multidimensional cataluminescence signals for identifying toxic gas
  • Biosensors, Nanobiosensors
    • Review: Sensors for detecting biological agents
  • Nanosensors
    • Nanoelectronic Device for Detecting Toxic Gases and Explosives
  • Nanowires
    • Nanowire Biosensors for Label-Free, Real-Time, Ultrasensitive Protein Detection.
  • Multimodal carbon nanotube sensing platforms
    • Review: Latest advances in modified/functionalized carbon nanotube-based gas sensors
  • Miscellaneous
    • Functionalized particles for composite sensors
    • Review: Nanomaterial-based electrochemical detection of explosives: a review of recent developments
  • Appendix 1 : Nanotechnology sensors for the detection of trace explosives
  • Additional Reading
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