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Market Research Report
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1074245

Roads to 5G and Beyond - Technologies, Applications and Markets Assessment

Published: | PracTel, Inc. | 252 Pages | Delivery time: 1-2 business days

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Roads to 5G and Beyond - Technologies, Applications and Markets Assessment
Published: May 11, 2022
PracTel, Inc.
Content info: 252 Pages
Delivery time: 1-2 business days
  • Description
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables

This report is addressing several current technologies (as well as their markets, applications and other characteristics) that, according to the ITU classifications, are transitioning to the 5G communications era.

Though, based on the industry insiders' statistics, in 2020 market share of 4G networks was not more than 7%-12% on the global scale, the industry is already (2018-2021) supporting commercial 5G introduction in several market regions and applications.

This new radio access generation will be built on the existing infrastructure, which will be modernized and expanded with new technologies.

The 5G wireless communication system will be a converged system with multiple radio access technologies integrated together. It will be able to support a wide range of applications and services to comprehensively satisfy the requirements of the information society by the year 2020 and beyond. From the technology perspective, 5G will be the continuous enhancement and evolution of the present radio access technologies, and also the development of novel radio access technologies to meet the increasing demand of future. 5G can be characterized as data, connectivity and user experience.

There are two main views on 5G that exist today, which are frequently mixed together to form the basis of the 5G definition:

  • View 1 - The hyper-connected vision: In this view, 5G is seen as a blend of existing technologies (2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi and others) that can deliver greater coverage and availability, higher network density in terms of cells and devices, and the ability to provide the connectivity that enables machine-to-machine (M2M) services and the Internet of Things (IoT).
  • View 2 - Next-generation radio access technology: This perspective outlines 5G in 'generational' terms, setting specific targets that new radio interfaces must meet in terms of data rates (faster than 1Gbps downlink) and latency (less than 1ms delay).

The first view is connected with a gradual transition of 3G/4G (and other) technologies to the 5G era with appropriate enhancements and extensions. Some of such technologies are the subject of this report analysis. Particular, the following technologies, their markets, industries and applications are addressed in connection with their transition to 5G (they are being bundled under the title of 5G despite of the fact that they are already being brought to market by vendors and deployed by operators):

CR/SDR - Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio

Though the concept of CR/SDR is well known and the industry supports these techniques for a number of years, the 5G era will bring new requirements to networks characteristics that can be easy to fulfill with CR/SDR. The 5G "Network of Networks" needs further development of the CR/SDR concept responding on particulars of 5G and using the existing base of smart radios.

Small Cells

It is expected that small cells will prevail in the 5G infrastructure due to advanced features that satisfy 5G requirements.

mmWave Radio

mmWave Radio will play an important role in the 5G RANs, allowing to explore the vast amount of free spectrum.

MIMO

Complex smart antenna systems such as MMIMO expected to be used extensively.

Visible Light Communication

VLC open several important applications, which were difficult to utilize in other spectrum windows.

The report also addresses general requirements to 5G networking and surveys current 5G standardization activities. It also contains author's survey of recently approved patents related to VLC and MIMO technologies.

The report intends for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the development of advanced wireless communications.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 General - Basis
  • 1.2 Planning Wireless Technologies: Generations
  • 1.3 Goal
  • 1.4 Structure
  • 1.5 Research Methodology
  • 1.6 Target Audience

2.0 Efforts

  • 2.1 Organizations
  • 2.2 5G Timetable and Major Tasks (3GPP-ITU)
    • 2.2.1 3GPP Leadership
      • 2.2.1.1 Major 5G-related Publications: 3GPP
    • 2.2.2 3GPP Structure
    • 2.2.3 5G RAN Development
      • 2.2.3.1 Operation above 6 GHz
      • 2.2.3.2 Coordination between RAN and SA
      • 2.2.3.3 Acceleration
      • 2.2.3.4 Leaders
  • 2.3 5G Activity Survey
    • 2.3.1 EU
      • 2.3.1.1 METIS 2020
      • 2.3.1.2 5G PPP
        • 2.3.1.2.1 5G Norma
        • 2.3.1.2.2 5G Tango
        • 2.3.1.2.3 Phase 2
    • 2.3.2 Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Alliance
      • 2.3.2.1 NGMN and 5GAA
      • 2.3.2.2 5G White Papers
    • 2.3.3 5G Americas
      • 2.3.3.1 White Paper: 3GPP R16, 17 and Beyond
    • 2.3.4 GSM Association
      • 2.3.4.1 Selected Publications
    • 2.3.5 ITU
    • 2.3.6 Major 5G Documents

3.0 Current Developments: 5G Technologies

  • 3.1 Characteristics
  • 3.2 Promising Directions
    • 3.2.1 Requirements
    • 3.2.2 Common Views
      • 3.2.2.1 Spectrum
    • 3.2.3 Future - Starts Today
  • 3.3 Issues
  • 3.4 Use Cases
    • 3.4.1 General -Characteristics
    • 3.4.2 Mobile Broadband
    • 3.4.3 Automotive
    • 3.4.4 Smart Society

4.0 Software Defined and Cognitive Radio -5G Era

  • 4.1 Spectrum Utilization
  • 4.2 Common Goal
  • 4.3 Needs
  • 4.4 Role
  • 4.5 Purpose
  • 4.6 Definition (WIF, FCC, ITU)
    • 4.6.1 CR Types
    • 4.6.2 CR Processes
  • 4.7 Versatility
  • 4.8 Organizations and Regulations
    • 4.8.1 Wireless Innovation Forum Position
      • 4.8.1.1 SDR Classifications
      • 4.8.1.2 CR Features
    • 4.8.2 FCC
      • 4.8.2.1 Equipment Type
      • 4.8.2.2Process
      • 4.8.2.3 Clarifications
      • 4.8.2.4 Application Guide
    • 4.8.3 Object Management Group
    • 4.8.4 ETSI
    • 4.8.5 ITU
  • 4.9 Decisions
  • 4.10 CR/SDR Abilities
  • 4.11 Elements
  • 4.12 Commercial Use Cases
  • 4.13 SDR in Military
    • 4.13.1 SCA
  • 4.14 CR/SDR: Applications Benefits
  • 4.15 Impact
  • 4.16 Differences
  • 4.17 Market
    • 4.17.1 Landscape
    • 4.17.2 Trends
    • 4.17.3 Cost
    • 4.17.4 Different Perspective
    • 4.17.5 Drivers
    • 4.17.6 Market Forecast
      • 4.17.6.1 Model Assumptions
      • 4.17.6.2 Estimate
  • 4.18 Industry
    • Aeronix (SDR Components)
    • AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
    • Carlson Wireless (Platform)
    • CRT (CR SW)
    • Etherstack (Software)
    • Green Hills (Software)
    • L3Harris (SDR)
    • Huawei (Platform)
    • NI (mmWave CR/SDR)
    • Nokia (Base Station)
    • Nutaq
    • SELEX ES (A Leonardo Company)
    • Thales (Radio)
    • TI (Chips)
    • Wind River (Software)
    • ZTE (Platforms)
  • 4.19 5G: Needs CR/SDR

5.0 MIMO and 5G Communications

  • 5.1 History
  • 5.2 Concept: MIMO in Wireless Communications
    • 5.2.1 Major Techniques
  • 5.3 Types of MIMO
  • 5.4 5G - MIMO Specifics
    • 5.4.1 MMIMO Definition
    • 5.4.2 MMIMO Properties
  • 5.5 MIMO Benefits
  • 5.6 Industry
    • Blue Danube
    • Beecube (NI Company)
    • Nutaq
    • ZTE

6.0 mmWAVE Wi-Fi

  • 6.1 Goal
  • 6.2 General
  • 6.3 60 GHz Band Spectrum Specifics
    • 6.3.1 Frequencies Allocation
      • 6.3.1.1 FCC 60 GHz Band Extension
    • 6.3.2 Oxygen Absorption
  • 6.4 Antenna
  • 6.5 Radiation Limiting at 60 GHz
  • 6.6 Combined Effect
  • 6.7 Progress in Chip Technology
    • 6.7.1 Challenges and Efforts
    • 6.7.2 Modulation
    • 6.7.3 Specifics
      • 6.7.3.1 Indoor Behavior
  • 6.8 Summary
  • 6.9 Prospectus: 60 GHz Wi-Fi
    • 6.9.1 Benefits and Issues
    • 6.9.2 WiGig Alliance
      • 6.9.2.1 Use Cases
      • 6.9.2.2 Union
    • 6.9.3 IEEE 802.11ad - 60 GHz Wi-Fi
      • 6.9.3.1 5G and 802.11ad
        • 6.9.3.1.1 5G Spectrum Extension
      • 6.9.3.2 Status
      • 6.9.3.3 Coexistence
      • 6.9.3.4 Scope
      • 6.9.3.5 Channelization
      • 6.9.3.6 PHY
      • 6.9.3.7 MAC
      • 6.9.3.8 Specification Features
      • 6.9.3.9 Summary
      • 6.9.3.10 Extended 60 GHz Band
  • 6.10 Industry
    • Blu Wireless
    • Intel
    • Qualcomm
    • Peraso
    • Samsung
    • Tensorcom
    • TP-Link
  • 6.11 Market Considerations
    • 6.11.1 Market Drivers
    • 6.11.2 Usage Models
    • 6.11.3 Market Estimate
  • 6.12 IEEE P802.11ay
    • 6.12.1 Purpose and Time Frame
    • 6.12.2 Scope
      • 6.12.2.1 Channelization
      • 6.12.2.2 PHY Specifics
    • 6.12.3 Industry
      • Blu Wireless
      • Qualcomm

7.0 Visible Light Communication - 5G Technology

  • 7.1 General
    • 7.1.1 Drivers
    • 7.1.2 Industry Activity
      • 7.1.2.1 UC-Light Center
      • 7.1.2.2 Europe
  • 7.2 VLC Standards Development
    • 7.2.1 IEEE 802.15.7-2018 Standard
      • 7.2.1.1 Considerations
      • 7.2.1.2 Project
        • 7.2.1.2.1 Coexistence
        • 7.2.1.2.2 Essence
        • 7.2.1.2.3 Base
        • 7.2.1.2.4 Use Cases
        • 7.2.1.2.5 Physical Layer
          • 7.2.1.2.5.1 General
          • 7.2.1.2.5.2 Responsibilities
          • 7.2.1.2.5.3 Types
          • 7.2.1.2.5.4 Error Protection
          • 7.2.1.2.5.5 Rates
          • 7.2.1.2.5.6 Frequency Plan
          • 7.2.1.2.5.7 PHY Services
          • 7.2.1.2.5.8. Regulations
        • 7.2.1.2.6 MAC Layer
          • 7.2.1.2.6.1 Responsibilities
          • 7.2.1.2.6.2 Functionalities
          • 7.2.1.2.6.3 Channel Access
        • 7.2.1.2.7 Security
    • 7.2.2 IEEE 802.15.13 Standard
    • 3.2.3 IEEE 802.11bb Standard
    • 7.2.4 VLCA
      • 7.2.4.1 General
    • 7.2.5 Jeita
    • 7.2.6 Li-Fi Consortium
      • 7.2.6.1 Optical Mobility Technology
      • 7.2.6.2 Li-Fi Network
    • 7.2.7 ITU G.9991
  • 7.3 VLC Channel Specifics
    • 7.3.1 General
    • 7.3.2 Communications Channel Structure
    • 7.3.3 Transmitter
    • 7.3.4 Receiver
      • 7.3.4.1 Image Sensors
      • 7.3.4.2 LED as Receiver
    • 7.3.5 Major Characteristics
      • 7.3.5.1 General
      • 7.3.5.2 Modulation
      • 7.3.5.3 VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary
      • 7.3.5.4 Emerging Areas
      • 7.3.5.5 Limiting Factors
    • 7.3.6 Major Challenges
  • 7.4 Companies and Organizations
    • Casio
    • Firefly
    • Fraunhofer IPMS
    • LVX
    • LightBee
    • Nakagawa Laboratories
    • NEC
    • Oledcomm
    • Outstanding Technology
    • PureVLC-PureLi-Fi
    • Qualcomm
    • Supreme Architecture
  • 7.5 Market
  • 7.6 5G View
    • 7.6.1 Attocell
    • 7.6.2 Cell Structures
  • 7.7 Major Applications
    • 7.7.1 Intelligent Transportation Systems
      • 7.7.1.1 Abilities
      • 7.7.1.2 Major Areas
    • 7.7.2 Optical Wireless LAN
    • 7.7.3 Healthcare
    • 7.7.4 Localization
    • 7.7.5 City Wide Wireless Network
    • 7.7.6 Underwater Communications
    • 7.7.7 Summary

8.0 5G and Small Cells Development

  • 8.1 Rational
  • 8.2 Nomenclature
    • 8.2.1 Group
  • 8.3 Background
  • 8.4 Applications
    • 8.4.1 Indoor Use Cases
    • 8.4.2 Outdoor Use Cases
    • 8.4.3 Public Safety Communications
    • 8.4.4 Summary
  • 8.5 Benefits and Issues
  • 8.6 Small Cell Market
    • 8.6.1 Market Geography
    • 8.6.2 Estimate
  • 8.7 Standardization
    • 8.7.1 Organizations
      • 8.7.1.1 Small Cell Forum
      • 8.7.1.2 3GPP
        • 8.7.1.2.1 First Standard
        • 8.7.1.2.2 Interfaces - 3GPP
        • 8.7.1.2.3 3GPP Rel.12 and SCs
      • 8.7.1.3 Other
  • 8.8 Small Cell Industry
    • Airspan
    • AirHop Communications
    • Alpha Networks
    • Argela
    • Broadcom (acquired by Avago in 2015)
    • Cavium
    • Cisco
    • CommScope
    • Contela
    • Ericsson
    • Fujitsu
    • Huawei
    • ip.access
    • Intel
    • Gilat
    • Juni
    • NEC
    • Nokia
    • Qualcomm
    • Radisys
    • Samsung
    • Spider Cloud (Corning)
    • Tektelic
    • TI
    • Xilinx
    • ZTE

9.0 Conclusions

Attachment I: Patents Survey: LTE - MIMO (2018-2022)

Attachment II: VLC - related Patents Survey (2018-2022)

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Mobile Technologies Generations
  • Figure 2: Time - Mobile Generations/Rates
  • Figure 3: OSI Layers - 4G and 5G
  • Figure 4: Global Mobile Data Traffic
  • Figure 5: ITU-R Schedule for IMT-2020
  • Figure 6: 3GPP/ITU-R - Tentative Timeline - 5G Standardization
  • Figure 7: Release 16 Schedule - Detailed
  • Figure 8: Focal Points - Release 17
  • Figure 9: Technical Specification Groups - 3GPP
  • Figure 10: Current View: Transition to 5G
  • Figure 11: 5G Spectrum
  • Figure 12: 5G Technologies Directions
  • Figure 13: 5G Use Cases-General Illustration
  • Figure 14: Use Cases - Rate of Transmission and Latency
  • Figure 15: SDR and OSI Reference Model
  • Figure 16: SDR - Structure
  • Figure 17: Estimate: Global Sales - SDR-based Equipment ($B)
  • Figure 18: SDR Market Geography (2019)
  • Figure 19: Major Antennas Configurations
  • Figure 20: MIMO Concept (2x2)
  • Figure 21: Illustration - Beamforming
  • Figure 22: MU-MIMO - Downlink
  • Figure 23: SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO
  • Figure 24: MMIMO
  • Figure 25: Company Products
  • Figure 26: 60 GHz Network Scenarios
  • Figure 27: 60 GHz Frequencies Plan
  • Figure 28: 60 GHz Spectrum Details
  • Figure 29: Signal Attenuation in 60 GHz Band
  • Figure 30: Absorption Details - 60 GHz Signal
  • Figure 31: Bands Features Comparison
  • Figure 32: WiGig Protocols/Planes
  • Figure 33: Use Cases - WiGig Alliance
  • Figure 34: Exploring IMT Spectrum
  • Figure 35: 802.11ad MAC Structure
  • Figure 36: Summary: 802.11ad Properties
  • Figure 37: Estimate: 802.11ad Chipsets Shipping - Global (Bil. Units)
  • Figure 38: Estimate: 802.11ad Chipsets Global Shipping ($B)
  • Figure 39: 802.11ay - Proposed Timeline
  • Figure 40: VLC - Comparison
  • Figure 41: Illustration-VLC Channel
  • Figure 42: VLC Market Categories
  • Figure 43: Estimate: VLC Market - Global ($B)
  • Figure 44: VLC Market Geography (2019)
  • Figure 45: mmWave Technologies Advantages
  • Figure 46: Macro vs Small BS - Shipped (Ratio)
  • Figure 47: BS: Characteristics and Classification
  • Figure 48: BS Types and Parameters
  • Figure 49: SC Use Cases Examples
  • Figure 50: Estimate: SC Global Shipments (Mil. Units)
  • Figure 51: Estimate: Global SC Shipments ($B)
  • Figure 52: 3GPP Rel. 12 SC Enhancements
  • Figure 53: Scenario 1
  • Figure 54: Scenario 2

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Major Characteristics - 5G Networks
  • Table 2: 5G Use Case Families
  • Table 3: SDR Tiers
  • Table 4: CR Features
  • Table 5: ETSI Documents
  • Table 6: SDR Market - Factors
  • Table 7: SDR Market Segments (Military vs. Commercial)
  • Table 8: MIMO - 3GPP Releases
  • Table 9: MIMO Benefits
  • Table 10: 60 GHz Radio Technologies Standardization
  • Table 11: Antenna Directivity
  • Table 12: 60 GHz Links Characteristics
  • Table 13: 802.11ad Major Features
  • Table 14: Channelization
  • Table 15: Global Picture
  • Table 16: 60 GHz Wi-Fi Usage Cases
  • Table 17: Use Cases - 802.15.7
  • Table 18: Devices and Characteristics - 802.15.7
  • Table 19: Frequency Plan - 802.15.7
  • Table 20: VLC Properties
  • Table 21: VLC, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison
  • Table 22: Locations Technologies-VLC Place