Cover Image
Market Research Report

Tin: Global Industry, Markets & Outlook - 10th Edition

Published by Roskill Information Services Product code 341858
Published Content info 249 Pages, 7 Chapters, 99 Tables, 68 Figures
Delivery time: 1-2 business days
Price
Back to Top
Tin: Global Industry, Markets & Outlook - 10th Edition
Published: June 30, 2017 Content info: 249 Pages, 7 Chapters, 99 Tables, 68 Figures
Description

In a tumultuous year for tin, after reaching a seven-year low in the beginning of 2016, prices rebounded sharply, gaining as much as 58% to December, and have continued to trade at prices well above US$19,000/t. After several years of low activity, the increase in prices offers a lifeline to the industry, which has been coping with falling production in many of the largest producing regions, and weak demand owing to falling use of tin in solders.

On the demand side, tin consumption remains dominated by uses in electronic solders. As per capita incomes continue to rise in key markets, the outlook for demand for consumer electronics appears set to soar further still. Nonetheless, demand has, thus far, failed to keep up with the pace, owing to trends towards ever-greater miniaturisation, reducing the use of solders. Such improvements in production techniques have only partially been partially offset by the substitution of tin-lead solders by lead-free, high-tin alternatives, which as of 2016 accounted for as much as 77% of worldwide solder consumption.

The greatest growth potential for tin, instead, is likely to be found in automotive battery applications. Most vehicles today include lead-acid batteries to assist with starting, lighting and ignition functions although these batteries are also used to provide motive power and in industrial applications. Historically, lead-acid batteries have relied on lead-antimony alloys, but the inclusion of tin in low-antimony grids has permitted the development of maintenance-free, valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries. As of 2016, use of tin in lead-acid batteries approached 30kt and supported by further growth in vehicles sales and the further substitution of antimony, use of tin in this application is expected to exceed 50kt by 2027.

Despite this potential upside to demand, prices have largely been supported not as much by rising consumption, as by declining production. Low prices in 2015 and early 2016 and an uncertain investment climate have meant that many producers have been unable or unwilling to invest in exploration, developing new mines or investing in existing operations.

The exception has been in Myanmar where producers have become the leading suppliers of concentrates in the world. Estimated tin-in-concentrate production in Myanmar rose from 12.8kt in 2013 to 50kt in 2016, virtually all of which is exported to neighbouring China. Exports were supported by government stocks and an investment in processing capacity, which enabled more processing of above-ground stocks. Mine production in Myanmar may have peaked because of declining grades and increasing costs as operations move underground. The import of low-cost concentrate from Myanmar was an important reason for the drop in Chinese production, estimated to have fallen from a high of 175kt in 2014 to less than 127kt in 2016, although this is expected to recover partially as shipments from Myanmar start to decline.

In Peru, production by Minsur has been in long-term decline as grades have become depleted. The company plans to change this and increase tin-in-concentrate production by 8-9ktpy in Peru by 2018, partly through a short-term ore-sorting project. The company also intends to increase production from its Pitinga operation in Brazil where output reached record levels in 2016 and is expected to rise in 2017. In the longer term, Comibol in Bolivia plans to increase concentrate production by more than 20ktpy by 2025. To some degree this depends on securing reliable supplies of water and electricity, shortages of which reduced output in 2016.

Overall, Roskill's outlook for tin suggests that prices are likely to remain volatile, as the result of the ongoing shift in demand patterns, as well as uncertainty over mine production, and delays in the restart of suspended operations in China, as well as the ramp-up of new projects yet to be commissioned. Roskill's outlook for consumption suggests moderate growth may be achieved, depending on the outcome of conflicting trends in the electronics industry, and with threats of substitution in applications such as tinplate packaging offset by increasing use lead-acid batteries.

Subscription includes:

  • Analysis report with forecast to 2027
  • Further background data available on request
  • Hard copy and electronic PDF of the report
  • Quarterly updates of the main drivers within the report
  • Access to the analysts for key reports
Table of Contents
Product Code: ISBN: 978 1 910922 29 3

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Tin supply
  • 1.2. Tin demand
  • 1.3. Tin trade
  • 1.4. Tin prices and stocks
  • 1.5. Tin outlook

2. Tin flowchart

3. World production of tin

  • 3.1. Mine production
    • 3.1.1. Discrepancies between data sources
    • 3.1.2. Production by country
    • 3.1.3. Production by company and operation
    • 3.1.4. Capacity utilisation
    • 3.1.5. Mine production costs
  • 3.2. Refined production
    • 3.2.1. Discrepancies between data sources
    • 3.2.2. Production by country
    • 3.2.3. Production by company and operation
    • 3.2.4. Capacity utilisation
    • 3.2.5. Secondary tin production

4. World consumption of tin

  • 4.1. Apparent consumption by region
  • 4.2. Apparent intensity of use
  • 4.3. Estimated consumption by region
  • 4.4. Estimated intensity of use
  • 4.5. Tin use by application and industry
  • 4.6. Use of unrefined secondary tin

5. Trade in tin

  • 5.1. Trade in tin ores and concentrates
  • 5.2. Trade in wrought and unwrought refined tin
  • 5.3. Trade in tin articles
  • 5.4. Trade in tin waste and scrap
  • 5.5. Trade in tinned iron and steel waste and scrap

6. Prices of tin

  • 6.1. Metal exchanges
  • 6.2. Tin stocks
  • 6.3. Trends in refined tin metal prices
  • 6.4. Trends in tin concentrates prices
  • 6.5. Factors influencing tin prices
    • 6.5.1. Trends in production costs
    • 6.5.2. Trends in exchange rates
    • 6.5.3. Seasonality
    • 6.5.4. Macroeconomic trends
    • 6.5.5. Compositional analysis

7. Outlook for tin

  • 7.1. Outlook for demand for refined tin
  • 7.2. Outlook for supply of refined tin
    • 7.2.1. Potential production from existing mines
    • 7.2.2. Potential production from new projects
    • 7.2.3. Potential cost curve for 2027
    • 7.2.4. Potential secondary supply
  • 7.3. Outlook for supply and demand
  • 7.4. Outlook for prices

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Outlook for supply and demand to 2027
  • Table 2: Baseline outlook for tin prices, 2006-2027
  • Table 3: Estimates of tin mine production by data source, 2012-2016
  • Table 4: Tin mine production by country, 2006-2016
  • Table 5: Tin mine production by country and operation, 2012-2016
  • Table 6: Estimates of production of refined tin by data source, 2012-2016
  • Table 7: Production of refined tin by country, 2006-2016
  • Table 8: Production of refined tin by company and operation, 2012-2016
  • Table 9: Apparent consumption of tin, 2007-2016
  • Table 10: Estimates of consumption of refined tin by data source, 2012-2016
  • Table 11: Estimated consumption of tin by country, 2006-2016
  • Table 12: Exports of tin ores and concentrates, 2009-2016
  • Table 13: Exports of ores and concentrates by origin and destination, 2016
  • Table 14: LME-approved brands
  • Table 15: LME-approved warehouses
  • Table 16: Correlations between prices of selected commodities, 2005-2017
  • Table 17: Correlations between prices of tin, aluminium and steel, 2005-2015
  • Table 18: World: Outlook for tin demand, 2016-2027
  • Table 19: World: Outlook for tin production from existing mines and producers, 2016-2027
  • Table 20: Overview of tin mine projects with potential to reach first production by 2027
  • Table 21: Forecast production from new tin mine projects, 2017-2027
  • Table 22: Other tin mine projects, not expected to reach first production by 2027
  • Table 23: World: Outlook for tin supply and demand to 2027
  • Table 24: Baseline outlook for tin prices, 2006 to 2027

Index of Appendices

A1. Background

  • A1.1. Occurrence
    • A1.1.1. Placer deposits
    • A1.1.2. Hard rock deposits
  • A1.2. Resources and reserves

A2. Mining and processing of tin

  • A2.1. Mining of tin
    • A2.1.1. Placer deposits
    • A2.1.2. Hard rock mining
    • A2.1.3. Soft rock mining
  • A2.2. Concentration
    • A2.2.1. Placer concentrates
    • A2.2.2. Hard-rock concentrates
  • A2.3. Smelting and refining
    • A2.3.1. Smelting
    • A2.3.2. Refining
  • A2.4. Secondary tin

A3. Production of tin and tin products by country

  • A3.1. Australia
    • A3.1.1. Resources and reserves of tin in Australia
    • A3.1.2. Tin operations and projects in Australia
      • A3.1.2.1. Tin projects in New South Wales
      • A3.1.2.2. Tin projects in Queensland
      • A3.1.2.3. Tin projects in Tasmania
      • A3.1.2.4. Tin projects in other parts of Australia
  • A3.2. Belgium
    • A3.2.1. Tin operations in Belgium
  • A3.3. Bolivia
    • A3.3.1. Resources and reserves of tin in Bolivia
    • A3.3.2. Tin operations and projects in Bolivia
  • A3.4. Brazil
    • A3.4.1. Resources and reserves in Brazil
    • A3.4.2. Tin operations and projects in Brazil
  • A3.5. Burundi
  • A3.6. Cameroon
  • A3.7. Canada
    • A3.7.1. Tin projects in Canada
  • A3.8. China and Hong Kong
    • A3.8.1. Mine and refined production in China
    • A3.8.2. Resources and reserves in China
    • A3.8.3. Tin operations in China
    • A3.8.4. Tin capacity expansions in China
    • A3.8.5. Regulatory environment for tin production in China
    • A3.8.6. Tariffs on imports and exports of tin to and from China
  • A3.9. Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
    • A3.9.1. Resources and reserves of tin in Democratic Republic of Congo
    • A3.9.2. Tin operations in Democratic Republic of Congo
  • A3.10. Czech Republic
    • A3.10.1. Tin projects in Czech Republic
  • A3.11. Egypt
    • A3.11.1. Tin projects in Egypt
  • A3.12. France
  • A3.13. Germany
    • A3.13.1. Tin projects in Germany
  • A3.14. India
    • A3.14.1. Resources and reserves of tin in India
  • A3.15. Indonesia
    • A3.15.1. Tin reserves and resources in Indonesia
    • A3.15.2. Producers of mined and refined tin in Indonesia
  • A3.16. Italy
  • A3.17. Japan
    • A3.17.1. Producers of tin and tin products in Japan
  • A3.18. Kazakhstan
    • A3.18.1. Tin projects in Kazakhstan
  • A3.19. South Korea
  • A3.20. Kyrgyzstan
  • A3.21. Laos
  • A3.22. Malaysia
    • A3.22.1. Resources and reserves of tin in Malaysia
    • A3.22.2. Tin operations in Malaysia
  • A3.23. Mexico
  • A3.24. Mongolia
    • A3.24.1. Tin operations and projects in Mongolia
  • A3.25. Morocco
    • A3.25.1. Tin projects in Morocco
  • A3.26. Myanmar
    • A3.26.1. Resources and reserves of tin in Myanmar
    • A3.26.2. Tin operations in Myanmar
      • A3.26.2.1. Tin operations in Shan State
      • A3.26.2.2. Tin operations in the Tanintharyi region
      • A3.26.2.3. Tin operations in Kayah State
    • A3.26.3. Investment climate in Myanmar
    • A3.26.4. Tin investments in Myanmar
  • A3.27. Namibia
  • A3.28. Netherlands
  • A3.29. Nigeria
  • A3.30. Peru
    • A3.30.1. Reserves and resources of tin in Peru
    • A3.30.2. Tin operations in Peru
    • A3.30.3. Tin projects in Peru
  • A3.31. Poland
  • A3.32. Portugal
    • A3.32.1. Tin operations in Portugal
    • A3.32.2. Tin projects in Portugal
  • A3.33. Russia
    • A3.33.1. Tin operations in Russia
  • A3.34. Rwanda
    • A3.34.1. Tin operations in Rwanda
  • A3.35. Singapore
  • A3.36. South Africa
    • A3.36.1. Tin projects in South Africa
  • A3.37. Spain
    • A3.37.1. Tin operations and projects in Spain
  • A3.38. Taiwan
  • A3.39. Thailand
    • A3.39.1. Reserves and resources of tin in Thailand
    • A3.39.2. Tin operations in Thailand
    • A3.39.3. Tin projects in Thailand
  • A3.40. United Arab Emirates
  • A3.41. United Kingdom (UK)
    • A3.41.1. Tin operations and projects in the United Kingdom
  • A3.42. United States of America (USA)
    • A3.42.1. Reserves and resources of tin in the USA
  • A3.43. Vietnam
    • A3.43.1. Tin operations in Vietnam
  • A3.44. Zimbabwe

A4. Tin in lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries

  • A4.1. Lead-acid batteries
  • A4.2. Lead-acid battery composition
    • A4.2.1. Trends in lead-acid batteries
    • A4.2.2. Tin use in VRLA batteries
    • A4.2.3. Use in motor vehicles
    • A4.2.4. Use in e-bikes
    • A4.2.5. Use in other applications
    • A4.2.6. Major producers of lead-acid batteries
  • A4.3. Lithium-ion batteries
  • A4.4. Outlook for tin in lead-acid batteries
    • A4.4.1. Outlook for e-bikes and other applications
    • A4.4.2. Outlook for lead-acid batteries
    • A4.4.3. Outlook for lead-calcium-tin variant
    • A4.4.4. Outlook for primary and secondary tin use

A5. Use of tin in other markets

  • A5.1. Use of tin in solders
    • A5.1.1. Tin/lead versus lead free solders
    • A5.1.2. Uses of solder
      • A5.1.2.1. Electronic uses of solder
      • A5.1.2.2. Structural and industrial uses of solder
    • A5.1.3. Consumption of tin in solders
    • A5.1.4. Outlook for tin in solders
  • A5.2. Use of tin in tinning and tinplate
    • A5.2.1. Production of tinplate
      • A5.2.1.1. ArcelorMittal
      • A5.2.1.2. US Steel
      • A5.2.1.3. Thyssenkrupp Rasselstein
      • A5.2.1.4. Nippon Steel
      • A5.2.1.5. Tata Group
      • A5.2.1.6. Chinese producers
      • A5.2.1.7. Other producers
    • A5.2.2. Uses of tinplate and tinned products
    • A5.2.3. Packaging
      • A5.2.3.1. Global can market
      • A5.2.3.2. Global beverage can market
      • A5.2.3.3. Non-beverage can market
      • A5.2.3.4. Non-packaging uses of tinplate
    • A5.2.4. Other tinning markets
    • A5.2.5. Recycling
    • A5.2.6. Outlook for tin in tinplate
  • A5.3. Use of tin in chemicals
    • A5.3.1. Organic tin compounds (organotins)
      • A5.3.1.1. PVC stabilisers
      • A5.3.1.2. Main producers of PVC
      • A5.3.1.3. Catalysts
      • A5.3.1.4. Biocides
    • A5.3.2. Inorganic tin compounds
      • A5.3.2.1. Glass applications
      • A5.3.2.2. Cement additives
      • A5.3.2.3. Ceramics industry
      • A5.3.2.4. Electroplating
      • A5.3.2.5. Brake pads
      • A5.3.2.6. Flame retardants
      • A5.3.2.7. Other uses for inorganic tin chemicals
    • A5.3.3. Outlook for tin in chemicals
  • A5.4. Use of tin in float glass
    • A5.4.1. Markets for flat glass
    • A5.4.2. Outlook for tin in float glass
  • A5.5. Use of tin in brass and bronze
  • A5.6. Use of tin in other applications
    • A5.6.1. Use of tin in high-tin alloys
    • A5.6.2. Use of tin in cast iron
    • A5.6.3. Use of tin in other alloys
      • A5.6.3.1. Fusible alloys
      • A5.6.3.2. Brazing alloys
      • A5.6.3.3. Aluminium tin
      • A5.6.3.4. Dental alloys
      • A5.6.3.5. Electrical alloys
      • A5.6.3.6. Titanium alloys
      • A5.6.3.7. Superconductors
      • A5.6.3.8. Zirconium tin
      • A5.6.3.9. Electrolytic tin-lead
      • A5.6.3.10. Tin-cobalt
      • A5.6.3.11. Terneplate and other tin alloy coatings
    • A5.6.4. Use of pure tin
      • A5.6.4.1. Wrought tin
      • A5.6.4.2. Tin powder

A6. Company profiles

  • Yunnan A6.1. Tin Group (Holding) Company Limited (YTC)
  • A6.2. PT Timah (Persero) Tbk
  • A6.3. Minsur
  • A6.4. Malaysia Smelting Corporation Berhad (MSC)
  • A6.5. Thailand Smelting and Refining (Thaisarco)
  • A6.6. Yunnan Chengfeng
  • A6.7. China Tin Group
  • A6.8. Corporación Minera de Bolivia (Comibol)
  • A6.9. Metallo Chimique

A7. Macro economic outlook

Index of Appendices Tables

  • Table A1: World reserves and mine production of tin, 2016
  • Table A2: Australia: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A3: Australia: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A4: Belgium: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A5: Belgium: Tin operations, 2014-2016
  • Table A6: Bolivia: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A7: Bolivia: Tin reserves and resources, 2015
  • Table A8: Bolivia: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A9: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A10: Brazil: Tin reserves and resources, 2015
  • Table A11: Brazil: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A12: Canada: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A13: China: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A14: China: Tin reserves and resources, 2015
  • Table A15: China: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A16: Congo, D.R.: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A17: Czech Republic: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A18: Egypt: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A19: France: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A20: Germany: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A21: India: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A22: Indonesia: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A23: Italy: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A24: Japan: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A25: Japan: Production of tin by type 2007-2014
  • Table A26: Japan: Tin operations, 2014-2016
  • Table A27: Kazakhstan: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A28: South Korea: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A29: Laos: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A30: Malaysia: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A31: Malaysia: Tin operations, 2014-2016
  • Table A32: Mexico: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A33: Mongolia: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A34: Mongolia: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A35: Morocco: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A36: Morocco: Tin projects
  • Table A37: Myanmar: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A38: Myanmar: Details of large scale tin mines, 2017
  • Table A39: Myanmar: Details of main underground tin mines, 2017
  • Table A40: Myanmar: Details of main placer (alluvial) tin mines, 2017
  • Table A41: Netherlands: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A42: Nigeria: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A43: Peru: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A44: Minsur: Resources and reserves of tin in Peru, 2016
  • Table A45: Peru: Projects and operations, 2014-2016
  • Table A46: Poland: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A47: Portugal: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A48: Russia: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A49: Russia: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A50: Sable Tin: Resources and reserves
  • Table A51: Rwanda: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A52: Rwanda: Tin operations and projects
  • Table A53: Singapore: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A54: South Africa: Summary statistics
  • Table A55: Spain: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A56: Spain: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A57: Taiwan: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A58: Thailand: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A59: UK: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A60: UK: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A61: USA: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A62: Vietnam: Summary statistics, 2009-2016
  • Table A63: Vietnam: Tin operations and projects, 2014-2016
  • Table A64: World: Estimated use of tin in lead-acid batteries
  • Table A65: Common solder compositions
  • Table A66: Advantages and disadvantages of lead substitutes in solders
  • Table A67: Europe: Use of beverage containers by type 2015
  • Table A68: Europe: Steel beverage can manufacturing plants, 2016
  • Table A69: World: Recycling rates of packaging materials
  • Table A70: World: Regional use of PVC by product, 2015
  • Table A71: World: Forecast regional use of PVC by product, 2020
  • Table A72: Outlook for global chemical production by segment, 2011-2024
  • Table A73: Outlook for global chemistry production by region, 2011-2024
  • Table A74: World: Float glass lines by main producers, 2017
  • Table A75: Composition, properties and applications of selected tin bearing brass and bronze
  • Table A76: Typical composition, melting point and applications of fusing alloys
  • Table A77: Widely used titanium alloys containing tin
  • Table A78: Composition of Zircaloy®
  • Table A79: Yunnan Tin: Operational details
  • Table A80: PT Timah: Mining licenses
  • Table A81: PT Timah: Production and sales targets for tin ore and refined tin, 2015 and 2016
  • Table A82: Minsur: Operational details
  • Table A83: Minsur: Summary of mineral reserves (as at December 31, 2015)
  • Table A84:Minsur: Summary of mineral reserves (as at December 31, 2015)
  • Table A85: Malaysia Smelting Corporation: Operational details
  • Table A86: Malaysia Smelting Corporation: Product specifications
  • Table A87: Thaisarco: Operational details
  • Table A88: Yunnan Chengfeng: Operational details
  • Table A89: Guangxi China Tin Group: Operational details
  • Table A90: Bolivia: Comibol: Production of tin by mine, 2006-2016
  • Table A91: Comibol: Operational details
  • Table A92: Metallo Chimique: Operational details
  • Table A93: Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2015-2027
  • Table A94: Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2015-2027
  • Table A95: Forecast industrial production for top-30 economies and regions, 2016-2027
  • Table A96: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2015-2027
  • Table A97: Forecast urbanisation rate, 2015-2027
  • Table A98: Forecast median age (years), 2015-2027
  • Table A99: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices (against USD), 2015-2027

Index of Appendices Figures

  • Figure A1: Mineral reserves of tin by region, 2016
  • Figure A2: Simplified tin production process
  • Figure A3: Australia: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A4: Belgium: Production of refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A5: Bolivia: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A6: Brazil: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A7: China: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A8: China: Production of mined tin by province, 2005-2016
  • Figure A9: China: Refined tin production by estimated feedstock, 2005-2016
  • Figure A10: Democratic Republic of Congo: Production of mined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A11: Indonesia: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A12: Japan: Production of refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A13: Laos: Production of mined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A14: Malaysia: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A15: Myanmar: Mined tin production, 1999-2016
  • Figure A16: Myanmar: Reported production of tin concentrates by type, 2006-2016
  • Figure A17: Peru: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A18: Poland: Production of refined tin, 2006-2016
  • Figure A19: Portugal: Production of mined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A20: Russia: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A21: Rwanda: Production of mined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A22: Thailand: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999 to 2016
  • Figure A23: Vietnam: Production of mined and refined tin, 1999-2016
  • Figure A24: Trends in the production of rechargeable batteries, 2000-2016
  • Figure A25: Trends in the production of rechargeable batteries, 2000-2016
  • Figure A26: Forecast vehicle sales, 2005-2030
  • Figure A27: Forecast lead-acid cell production, 2000-2030
  • Figure A28: Forecast lead-acid cell production, 2000-2030
  • Figure A29: Expected changes in recycling rates of lead-acid batteries, 2013-2030
  • Figure A30: Outlook for primary and secondary use of tin in lead-acid batteries, 2000-2030
  • Figure A31: Consumption of tin/lead versus lead-free solders, 2007-2016
  • Figure A32: Consumption of refined tin in solders, 2004-2016
  • Figure A33: Estimates of solder use by end use and geographic region, 2016
  • Figure A34: China: Production of printed circuit board compared to micro computers, colour TVs and mobile phones, 2005-2016
  • Figure A35: Outlook for mobile and smartphone shipments, 2000-2030
  • Figure A36: Outlook for computer shipments, 2000-2030
  • Figure A37: Outlook for wearables and other electronic devices, 2000-2030
  • Figure A38: Outlook for miscellaneous other electronic devices, 2000-2030
  • Figure A39: Outlook for tin use in electronic solders, 2000-2030
  • Figure A40: Use in refined tin in tinplate, 2004-2016
  • Figure A41: Production of tinplate by region, 2004-2016
  • Figure A42: Production of tinplate in China, 2005-2016
  • Figure A43: USA: Shipments of food cans by market, 2008-2016
  • Figure A44: Outlook for steel production by region, 2000-2030
  • Figure A45: Outlook for tin use in tinplate, 2000-2030
  • Figure A46: Tin use in chemicals by region and application, 2016
  • Figure A47: China: PVC capacity, production and operating rate, 2005-2018
  • Figure A48: World: Main producers of PVC, 2015
  • Figure A49: World: Forecast demand for PVC by region, 2016-2025
  • Figure A50: Outlook for tin use in chemicals, 2010-2027
  • Figure A51: Consumption of flat glass by type and region, 2016
  • Figure A52: Outlook for construction, 2000-2027
  • Figure A53: Outlook for tin in float glass, 2000-2027
  • Figure A54: Consumption of tin in bronze, brass and similar alloys, 2004-2016
  • Figure A55: Outlook for tin in brass and bronze, 2000-2027
  • Figure A56: USA: Use of tin in babbitt and white metal, 2004-2014
  • Figure A57: World: Production of cast iron by type, 1992-2016
  • Figure A58: Yunnan Tin: Production of tin metal, 2006-2016
  • Figure A59: PT Timah: Production of tin metal, 2006-2016
  • Figure A60: PT Koba Tin: Production of tin metal, 2006-2016
  • Figure A61: Minsur: Production of tin metal
  • Figure A62: Shareholding structure of Malaysia Smelting Corporation as of 13 March 2014
  • Figure A63: Malaysia Smelting Corporation: Production of tin metal, 2006-2016
  • Figure A64: Thaisarco: Production of tin metal, 2006-2016
  • Figure A65: Yunnan Chengfeng: Production of tin, 2006-2017
  • Figure A66: Guangxi China Tin Group: Production of tin, 2006-2016
  • Figure A67: EM Vinto (COMIBOL): Production of tin metal, 2006-2016
  • Figure A68: Metallo Chimique: Production of tin metal, 2006-2016
Back to Top