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1069286

Hydrogen Generation - Global Market Outlook (2021 - 2028)

Published: | Stratistics Market Research Consulting | 200+ Pages | Delivery time: 2-3 business days

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Hydrogen Generation - Global Market Outlook (2021 - 2028)
Published: April 1, 2022
Stratistics Market Research Consulting
Content info: 200+ Pages
Delivery time: 2-3 business days
  • Description
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables

According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Hydrogen Generation Market is accounted for $5.85 billion in 2021 and is expected to reach $10.03 billion by 2028 growing at a CAGR of 8.0% during the forecast period. Hydrogen is clean, multipurpose, and effective zero emission carrier of energy. Water is a raw material used for hydrogen generation. It efficiently manufactures and transforms into electricity to fulfill need of energy. It can be produced by biological processes from microorganisms such as bacteria and algae. Hydrogen release from organic materials such as coal and biomass by thermo chemical processes uses heat and chemical reactions.

Market Dynamics:

Driver:

Increasing development of green hydrogen production technologies

Most of the hydrogen produced today is used in petroleum refineries and the manufacturing of fertilizers. Various technologies are used presently to produce hydrogen, including steam methane reforming, partial oxidation of oil, coal gasification, and water electrolysis. Ninety-nine percent of it comes from fossil fuel reforming, as it has been the most economical method. However, this does not have any real climate benefits as CO2 is emitted in the process. Electrolysis of water produces green hydrogen from renewable. energy resources, such as onshore and offshore wind and solar power. Green hydrogen has numerous applications, ranging from industrial feedstock to fuel cell vehicles and energy storage. The concept of green hydrogen is still in its early phase, and many organizations are investing in setting up new green hydrogen production plants that would help in reducing GHG emissions.

Restraint:

Lack of well-established infrastructure for electric cars

The hydrogen-powered cars are more popular in countries such as South Korea and Japan. The governments of these countries offer subsidies for these vehicles. In addition, they also provide finance for building the necessary infrastructure. In the US, incentives are offered by the California State for the use of fuel cell-powered vehicles. Although hydrogen-powered cars may be a sustainable technology in the modern world, experts believe hydrogen needs to be developed from a natural gas source, which requires the use of fossil fuels. On the other hand, electric cars rely on battery power and hence are greener than hydrogen cars. Efforts are being made to use hydrogen produced from renewable sources. Also, the infrastructure necessary for refueling the tanks is inadequate, which can act as a challenge for the market's systems.

Opportunity:

Presence of government regulations

Emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide, and methane, are responsible for the rising global temperature, which has increased by around 1° C since the last century. Greenhouse emissions are increasing globally, primarily due to the consumption of fossil fuels and industrialization. The US, European Union, Russia, and China collectively account for 65% of the global emissions. Among these, the US alone accounts for 25%. The following chart describes the share of sectors responsible for greenhouse gas emissions in the US. Sulfur levels in fuel have a direct and indirect impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Sulfur also prevents the growth activity of emission control technologies in several domains, such as fuel-efficient gasoline engine designs, traditional diesel as a fuel-efficient alternative, and advanced or hybrid diesel. Sulfur impedes the efficient functioning of certain types of catalysts, which, in turn, translates into higher methane emissions from oxidation catalysts and higher carbon dioxide emissions from more advanced technologies.

Threat:

High capital cost of hydrogen energy storage

Hydrogen can be stored in 3 ways: in high-pressure tanks as compressed gas, in liquid at -253° C, and in chemical form by either reacting or absorbing with chemicals, or metal compounds. Electricity can be stored in the form of hydrogen by using the electrolysis process. The stored hydrogen can then be used again as electricity, but the round-trip productivity, as of now, is comparatively lower than other storage technologies. Still, the interest in hydrogen energy storage is increasing rapidly owing to its higher storage capacity compared with batteries. Liquid hydrogen as an energy transporter has a higher density than gaseous hydrogen and involves liquefaction, which requires a complex mechanical plant, adding to the overall cost. Hydrogen storage provides an alternative to physical storage, wherein hydrogen is stored in solids on surfaces.

The captive production segment is expected to be the largest during the forecast period

The captive production segment is estimated to have a lucrative growth. Socio-economically developing regions, particularly North America and Europe, have a large-scale penetration of this technology, given the ease of adoption. Captive generation of hydrogen is defined as on-site generation that abolishes several problems linked to the conveyance and distribution of hydrogen, and therefore the market is expected to grow substantially. For small-scale industries, on-site generation of hydrogen has gained popularity owing to new technologies being offered at reasonable costs in comparison to delivered distributed channels

The blue hydrogen segment is expected to have the highest CAGR during the forecast period

The blue hydrogen segment is anticipated to witness the fastest CAGR growth during the forecast period. Blue hydrogen is derived from natural gas through steam methane reforming (SMR). SMR mixes natural gas with very hot steam in the presence of a catalyst, where a chemical reaction creates hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The carbon dioxide emissions produced are then captured and stored underground using the carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology, leaving nearly pure hydrogen. The cost of generating blue hydrogen is low.

Region with highest share:

Europe is projected to hold the largest market share during the forecast period. The nations across Europe invest heavily to boost their hydrogen production capacities and abide by the stringent carbon emission reduction targets propelling the regional landscape. Europe has observed considerable adoption of hydrogen-powered vehicles and the rise in energy demand and boost in hydrogen infrastructure development. For instance, in September 2020, the government of France unveiled its national hydrogen strategy targeting to augment the hydrogen generating capacity of 6.5 GW and create an investment of about EUR 7.2 billion by 2030.

Region with highest CAGR:

Asia Pacific is projected to have the highest CAGR over the forecast period. Asia Pacific is one of the leading markets for adopting green technologies to meet the government targets for reducing GHG emissions. Singapore, India, and Malaysia are also showing interest and have just started or are expected to start exclusive programs to promote fuel cells in regional markets. These countries are initially focusing on backup power (stationary application) fuel cells. Japan and South Korea are heavily investing in fuel cell adoption since 2009 because of the commercial deployment of Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP products. Japan is the first nation to commercialize fuel cells and is supporting the projects related to the use of fuel cells in residential and automotive applications. It aims to deploy green hydrogen on a large scale. The country plans to have 200,00 green hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and 320 hydrogen refueling stations by 2025 to meet the global carbon emission standards.

Key players in the market

Some of the key players profiled in the Hydrogen Generation Market include Ballard Power Systems, Cummins Inc, Iwatani Corporation, Linde plc, Mahler AGS GmbH, Messer Group GmbH, Parker Hannifin Corp, Praxair Inc, Showa Denko K.K, Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Teledyne Technologies Inc, Weldstar, Inc, and Xebec Adsorption Inc.

Key Developments:

In February 2021, the Air Liquide announced a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Siemens Energy to set up a large-scale electrolyzer production unit and R&D facility for advanced electrolyzer technologies. The collaboration aims to construct an industrial-scale electrolyzer facility with a 200 MW capacity to support sustainable hydrogen generation in Normandy, France.

In January 2021, Cummins and Air Liquide entered into a joint venture agreement to promote green hydrogen. Cummins has provided a 20-megawatt PEM electrolyzer system to generate green hydrogen, making it the largest in operation in the world. The electrolyzer is installed at the Air Liquide hydrogen production facility in Becancour, Quebec, and can produce over 3,000 tonnes of hydrogen annually using clean hydropower.

In July 2020, Linde constructed a state-of-the-art hydrogen and carbon monoxide facility in Clear Lake, Texas (TX), as well as a new air separation unit in LaPorte, TX. The plants will supply oxygen, nitrogen and carbon monoxide to Celanese, under a previously announced long-term agreement, and hydrogen to other customers via Linde's U.S. Gulf Coast pipeline system.

Sources Covered:

  • Green Hydrogen
  • Blue Hydrogen
  • Grey Hydrogen
  • Natural Gas
  • Oil
  • Coal

Technologies Covered:

  • Partial Oxidation
  • Electrolysis
  • Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)
  • Coal Gasification
  • Solar Hydrogen
  • Thermochemical

Generation & Delivery Modes Covered:

  • Merchant Production
  • Liquid Production
  • Captive Production
  • Gaseous Production
  • By-Product Production

Storages Covered:

  • Subterranean/Underground Storage
  • Crystalline Onboard Storage
  • Power-to-Gas Storage

Productions Covered:

  • Water
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Dissociation of Hydrocarbons
  • Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons
  • Alkaline
  • High Temperature
  • Other Productions

Electroliser Types Covered:

  • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electroliser
  • Traditional Alkaline Electroliser

Types Covered:

  • Portable
  • On-Site

Capacities Covered:

  • 3kW & Above
  • 1kW - 3kW
  • 700W - 1kW
  • 300W - 700W
  • 100W - 300W
  • 1W - 100W

Applications Covered:

  • Ammonia Production
  • Power Generation
  • Methanol Production
  • Transportation
  • Petroleum Refining & Recovery
  • Industrial Gases
  • Steel Plant
  • Photovoltaics
  • Power Plants
  • Energy Storage or Fueling for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)

End Users Covered:

  • Chemical Processing
  • Metal Processing Industry
  • Refinery Industry
  • Automotive Fuels
  • Electrical & Electronics
  • Aerospace
  • Edible Fats & Oils

Regions Covered:

  • North America
    • US
    • Canada
    • Mexico
  • Europe
    • Germany
    • UK
    • Italy
    • France
    • Spain
    • Rest of Europe
  • Asia Pacific
    • Japan
    • China
    • India
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
    • South Korea
    • Rest of Asia Pacific
  • South America
    • Argentina
    • Brazil
    • Chile
    • Rest of South America
  • Middle East & Africa
    • Saudi Arabia
    • UAE
    • Qatar
    • South Africa
    • Rest of Middle East & Africa

What our report offers:

  • Market share assessments for the regional and country-level segments
  • Strategic recommendations for the new entrants
  • Covers Market data for the years 2020, 2021, 2022, 2025, and 2028
  • Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)
  • Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations
  • Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends
  • Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments
  • Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements

Free Customization Offerings:

All the customers of this report will be entitled to receive one of the following free customization options:

  • Company Profiling
    • Comprehensive profiling of additional market players (up to 3)
    • SWOT Analysis of key players (up to 3)
  • Regional Segmentation
    • Market estimations, Forecasts and CAGR of any prominent country as per the client's interest (Note: Depends on feasibility check)
  • Competitive Benchmarking
    • Benchmarking of key players based on product portfolio, geographical presence, and strategic alliances
Product Code: SMRC20936

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary

2 Preface

  • 2.1 Abstract
  • 2.2 Stake Holders
  • 2.3 Research Scope
  • 2.4 Research Methodology
    • 2.4.1 Data Mining
    • 2.4.2 Data Analysis
    • 2.4.3 Data Validation
    • 2.4.4 Research Approach
  • 2.5 Research Sources
    • 2.5.1 Primary Research Sources
    • 2.5.2 Secondary Research Sources
    • 2.5.3 Assumptions

3 Market Trend Analysis

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Drivers
  • 3.3 Restraints
  • 3.4 Opportunities
  • 3.5 Threats
  • 3.6 Technology Analysis
  • 3.7 Application Analysis
  • 3.8 End User Analysis
  • 3.9 Emerging Markets
  • 3.10 Impact of Covid-19

4 Porters Five Force Analysis

  • 4.1 Bargaining power of suppliers
  • 4.2 Bargaining power of buyers
  • 4.3 Threat of substitutes
  • 4.4 Threat of new entrants
  • 4.5 Competitive rivalry

5 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Source

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Green Hydrogen
  • 5.3 Blue Hydrogen
  • 5.4 Grey Hydrogen
  • 5.5 Natural Gas
  • 5.6 Oil
  • 5.7 Coal

6 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Technology

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Partial Oxidation
  • 6.3 Electrolysis
  • 6.4 Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)
  • 6.5 Coal Gasification
  • 6.6 Solar Hydrogen
  • 6.7 Thermochemical

7 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Generation & Delivery Mode

  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Merchant Production
  • 7.3 Liquid Production
  • 7.4 Captive Production
  • 7.5 Gaseous Production
  • 7.6 By-Product Production

8 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Storage

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Subterranean/Underground Storage
  • 8.3 Crystalline Onboard Storage
  • 8.4 Power-to-Gas Storage

9 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Production

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Water
  • 9.3 Fossil Fuels
  • 9.4 Dissociation of Hydrocarbons
  • 9.5 Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons
  • 9.6 Alkaline
  • 9.7 High Temperature
  • 9.8 Other Productions
    • 9.8.1 Bio Photolysis
    • 9.8.2 Photolysis

10 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Electroliser Type

  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electroliser
  • 10.3 Traditional Alkaline Electroliser

11 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Type

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Portable
  • 11.3 On-Site

12 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Capacity

  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 3kW & Above
  • 12.3 1kW - 3kW
  • 12.4 700W - 1kW
  • 12.5 300W - 700W
  • 12.6 100W - 300W
  • 12.7 1W - 100W

13 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Application

  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Ammonia Production
  • 13.3 Power Generation
  • 13.4 Methanol Production
  • 13.5 Transportation
  • 13.6 Petroleum Refining & Recovery
  • 13.7 Industrial Gases
  • 13.8 Steel Plant
  • 13.9 Photovoltaics
  • 13.10 Power Plants
  • 13.11 Energy Storage or Fueling for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)

14 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By End User

  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Chemical Processing
  • 14.3 Metal Processing Industry
  • 14.4 Refinery Industry
  • 14.5 Automotive Fuels
  • 14.6 Electrical & Electronics
  • 14.7 Aerospace
  • 14.8 Edible Fats & Oils

15 Global Hydrogen Generation Market, By Geography

  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 North America
    • 15.2.1 US
    • 15.2.2 Canada
    • 15.2.3 Mexico
  • 15.3 Europe
    • 15.3.1 Germany
    • 15.3.2 UK
    • 15.3.3 Italy
    • 15.3.4 France
    • 15.3.5 Spain
    • 15.3.6 Rest of Europe
  • 15.4 Asia Pacific
    • 15.4.1 Japan
    • 15.4.2 China
    • 15.4.3 India
    • 15.4.4 Australia
    • 15.4.5 New Zealand
    • 15.4.6 South Korea
    • 15.4.7 Rest of Asia Pacific
  • 15.5 South America
    • 15.5.1 Argentina
    • 15.5.2 Brazil
    • 15.5.3 Chile
    • 15.5.4 Rest of South America
  • 15.6 Middle East & Africa
    • 15.6.1 Saudi Arabia
    • 15.6.2 UAE
    • 15.6.3 Qatar
    • 15.6.4 South Africa
    • 15.6.5 Rest of Middle East & Africa

16 Key Developments

  • 16.1 Agreements, Partnerships, Collaborations and Joint Ventures
  • 16.2 Acquisitions & Mergers
  • 16.3 New Product Launch
  • 16.4 Expansions
  • 16.5 Other Key Strategies

17 Company Profiling

  • 17.1 Air Liquide International S.A
  • 17.2 Air Products and Chemicals, Inc
  • 17.3 Ballard Power Systems
  • 17.4 Cummins Inc
  • 17.5 Iwatani Corporation
  • 17.6 Linde plc
  • 17.7 Mahler AGS GmbH
  • 17.8 Messer Group GmbH
  • 17.9 Parker Hannifin Corp
  • 17.10 Praxair Inc
  • 17.11 Showa Denko K.K
  • 17.12 Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation
  • 17.13 Teledyne Technologies Inc
  • 17.14 Weldstar, Inc
  • 17.15 Xebec Adsorption Inc

List of Tables

  • Table 1 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Region (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 2 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Source (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 3 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Green Hydrogen (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 4 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Blue Hydrogen (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 5 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Grey Hydrogen (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 6 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Natural Gas (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 7 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Oil (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 8 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Coal (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 9 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Technology (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 10 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Partial Oxidation (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 11 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Electrolysis (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 12 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 13 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Coal Gasification (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 14 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Solar Hydrogen (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 15 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Thermochemical (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 16 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Generation & Delivery Mode (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 17 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Merchant Production (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 18 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Liquid Production (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 19 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Captive Production (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 20 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Gaseous Production (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 21 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By By-Product Production (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 22 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Storage (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 23 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Subterranean/Underground Storage (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 24 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Crystalline Onboard Storage (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 25 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Power-to-Gas Storage (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 26 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Production (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 27 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Water (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 28 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Fossil Fuels (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 29 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Dissociation of Hydrocarbons (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 30 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 31 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Alkaline (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 32 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By High Temperature (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 33 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Other Productions (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 34 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Bio Photolysis (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 35 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Photolysis (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 36 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Electroliser Type (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 37 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electroliser (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 38 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Traditional Alkaline Electroliser (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 39 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Type (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 40 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Portable (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 41 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By On-Site (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 42 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Capacity (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 43 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By 3kW & Above (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 44 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By 1kW - 3kW (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 45 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By 700W - 1kW (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 46 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By 300W - 700W (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 47 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By 100W - 300W (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 48 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By 1W - 100W (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 49 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Application (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 50 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Ammonia Production (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 51 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Power Generation (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 52 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Methanol Production (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 53 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Transportation (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 54 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Petroleum Refining & Recovery (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 55 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Industrial Gases (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 56 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Steel Plant (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 57 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Photovoltaics (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 58 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Power Plants (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 59 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Energy Storage or Fueling for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 60 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By End User (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 61 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Chemical Processing (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 62 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Metal Processing Industry (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 63 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Refinery Industry (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 64 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Automotive Fuels (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 65 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Electrical & Electronics (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 66 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Aerospace (2020-2028) ($MN)
  • Table 67 Global Hydrogen Generation Market Outlook, By Edible Fats & Oils (2020-2028) ($MN)

Note: Tables for North America, Europe, APAC, South America, and Middle East & Africa Regions are also represented in the same manner as above.