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The LED Revolution: Market Analysis And Insight On Reducing Manufacturing Costs

Abstract

The High Brightness Light Emitting Diode (HB LED) market is expected to explode as unit shipments more than double between 2009 and 2012. LEDs are creating a niche market for conventional suppliers of semiconductor processing tools. Markets for HB LEDs. backlight LEDs, and OLEDs are forecast.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chapter 2 - Recent Progress in High Brightness LED Technology and Applications

  • 2.1. LED: Theory of Operation
  • 2.2. Intellectual Property Map
  • 2.3. LED Manufacturing Technologies & Costs
  • 2.4. LED Market General Illumination

Chapter 3 - Processing Equipment

  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. MOCVD for SSL - Productivity Challenges and Solutions
  • 3.3. Low temperature Remote Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (RPCVD)
    • 3.3.1. RPCVD Process Advantages
  • 3.4. Defect Inspection and Testing
  • 3.5. Lithography
    • 3.5.1. Steppers
    • 3.5.2. Nanoimprint
    • 3.5.3. Nanopatterning of LED Wafers

Chapter 4. - Materials of Construction

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. GaN-based LED for General Lighting
    • 4.2.1. Methods to Improve White LED Efficiency
    • 4.2.2. Time-to-Market for LED substrates
  • 4.3. LED Phosphor Manufacturing Issues
    • 4.3.1. Current LED Phosphor Manufacturing
    • 4.3.2. LED Phosphor Cost

Chapter 5 - Packaging and Assembly Issues for High Brightness LEDs

  • 5.1. Packaging for HB LEDs
  • 5.2. Wafer Level Packaging HB LEDs
  • 5.3. Thermal Issues
  • 5.4. Test for HB LEDs

Chapter 6 - National Programs As Innovation Drivers

  • 6.1. DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Initiative
  • 6.2. DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Mission and Goal
  • 6.3. Major National Research Programs Pertaining to LEDs
  • 6.4. Challenges Facing SSL Manufacturing
    • 6.4.1. Inconsistent Color
    • 6.4.2. Low Light Output
    • 6.4.3. Challenges Facing Market Introduction

Chapter 7 - OLED Lighting

  • 7.1. Opportunities for Luminaire Manufacturers
  • 7.2. Critical Issues for Continued OLED Market Growth
  • 7.3. Manufacturing Options and Equipment Needs
  • 7.4. Availability of Critical Materials
  • 7.5. OLED Lighting Costs

Chapter 8 - OLED Manufacturing

  • 8.1. Deposition Equipment and Processes for OLED Lighting
  • 8.2. General OLED Manufacturing Cost Considerations
  • 8.3. Roll-to-Roll OLEDs
  • 8.4. Lithography
  • 8.5. Substrates and Encapsulation
    • 8.5.1. Substrate and Encapsulation Material Selection
    • 8.5.2. Substrate Coatings
    • 8.5.3. Transparent Electrodes
    • 8.5.4. Encapsulation
  • 8.6. Inspection and Quality Control

Chapter 9 - Outlook for the Worldwide OLED Market

  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Passive Matrix Capacity and Demand
  • 9.3. Active Matrix Capacity and Demand
  • 9.4. Cost Challenges for OLED Lighting

Chapter 10 - Outlook for the Worldwide High-Brightness LED Market

  • 10.1. HB LED Technology
  • 10.2. HB LED Market Overview and trends
    • 10.2.1. Market Drivers for SSL
    • 10.2.2. LED Backlights for Notebook PCs
    • 10.2.3. LED Backlights for LCD TVs
    • 10.2.4. LED Backlights for Other Applications
    • 10.2.5. LED Lighting Market
    • 10.2.6. LED Active Outdoor Display Market
    • 10.2.7. LED Signal Market
    • 10.2.8. LED Automotive Market
    • 10.2.9. LED Mobile Market

LIST OF FIGURES

  • 2.1. Operation of LED
  • 2.2. Key Intellectual Property Relationships
  • 2.3. DOE Roadmap
  • 2.4. Relative Manufacturing Costs
  • 2.5. Pareto Analysis Of SSL Manufacturing Costs
  • 2.6. Market drivers for LED Biz and Applications
  • 2.7. SSL vs. Classical Technologies
  • 2.8. LED Performance vs. Traditional Light Sources
  • 2.9. Energy Production and Use Comparison
  • 2.10. White-LEDs for General Lighting Market Estimates in $B to 2020
  • 2.11. Wafer Needs for General Lighting (2" wafer equivalents, million units to 2020)
  • 3.1. SSL - LED manufacturing with MOCVD: Productivity and Cost Analysis
  • 3.2. Larger Wafer Size: GaN LEDs
  • 3.3. Diagram of RPCVD Reactor
  • 3.4. Comparison between MOCVD and RPCVD
  • 3.5. Nanoimprint Lithography System
  • 3.6. The Phlatlight Chip
  • 4.1. Regular LED (white) Front-End Steps
  • 4.2. Current Blocking Layer
  • 4.3. Regular LED (white) Production Costs for 100k Wafers/Year
  • 4.4. HB LED (white) Production Costs for 100k Wafers/Year
  • 4.5. LED Cost Model: Impact of Substrate Choice
  • 4.6. Main Manufacturing Steps for GaN-based LED
  • 4.7. Regular LED (white) Back-End
  • 4.8. Methods to Improve White LED Efficiency
  • 4.9. Phosphor Coating - Four Approaches
  • 5.1. Hybrid Integration Approach to HD-LED Package
  • 5.2. HB-LED with Silicon Carrier Submount
  • 5.3. Silicon interposer for MEMS / LED Applications
  • 5.4. High Brightness LED
  • 5.5. Power Conversion for White-Light Sources
  • 5.6. Packaging Changes Result in Optical Improvements
  • 5.7. Substrate Solutions for HB/HP LEDs
  • 6.1. DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy
  • 6.2. DOE Efficacy Targets
  • 6.3. Congressional Appropriations
  • 6.4. SSL R&D Project Funding
  • 6.5. Price Targets
  • 7.1. Status of Technology Towards Lighting Targets
  • 7.2. Maximizing Internal Quantum Efficiency
  • 7.3. Manufacturing Options
  • 7.4. Kodak VIST Deposition Source
  • 7.5. OLED Lighting Costs - VTE process
  • 7.6. OLED Lighting Costs: Glass Substrate
  • 8.1. Steps of OLED Production
  • 8.2. Industrial Coater Design Approaches
  • 8.3. Comparison Cluster vs. In-Line - Gen 2
  • 8.4. Comparison Cluster vs. In-Line - Gen 4/5
  • 8.5. Process Flow for OLED Stack
  • 8.6. Comparison of Deposition Sources
  • 8.7. Roll-to-Roll OLED Fabrication
  • 9.1. Schematic of PMOLED
  • 9.2. PMOLED Stack/Driving Architecture
  • 9.3. Schematic of AMOLED
  • 9.4. Passive Matrix OLED Capacity and Demand Forecast
  • 9.5. Active Matrix OLED Capacity and Demand Forecast
  • 10.1. LED Market by Sector
  • 10.2. Worldwide LED Market Forecast

LIST OF TABLES

  • 2.1. Color, Wavelength Material Of LED
  • 2.2. Light Source Comparison
  • 2.13. Comparison of LED, HB-LED, UHB-LED characteristics
  • 3.1. Epitaxy Metrics from Initial Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Roadmap
  • 3.2. Epitaxy Metrics
  • 4.1. Production Method for Various LEDs
  • 4.2. Comparison of $/klm for LED Made on Various 2" Substrates
  • 7.1. Comparison Of Lighting Technologies
  • 7.2. OLED Displays vs OLED lighting
  • 8.1. Manufacturing Roadmap for Sheet Processing of OLED Lighting Panels
  • 8.2. Manufacturing Roadmap for Web Processing of OLED Lighting Panels
  • 8.3. Projected Costs of OLED Lighting Panels (Sheet Processed) Stage
  • 8.4. Projected Costs of OLED Lighting Panels (Web Processed) Stage
  • 10.1. Forecast Of LED Backlights For Notebook PCs
  • 10.2. Forecast Of LED Backlights For LCD TVs
  • 10.3. Forecast Of LED Backlights For Other Application
  • 10.4. Forecast Of LED Lighting Market
  • 10.5. Forecast Of LED Active Outdoor Display Market
  • 10.6. Forecast Of LED Signal Market
  • 10.7. Forecast Of LED Automotive Market
  • 10.8. Forecast Of LED Mobile Market
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