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Rare Earths Elements In High-Tech Industries: Market Analysis And Forecasts Amid China's Trade Embargo

Abstract

Introduction

Much has been written recently about the impact of China' s rare earth element (REE) embargo. In a nutshell, China, the world' s largest rare- earths producer, cut export quotas for the minerals needed to make hybrid cars and televisions by 72 percent for the second half, raising the possibility of a trade dispute with the U.S.

Shipments will be capped at 7,976 metric tons, down from 28,417 tons for the same period a year ago, according to data from the Ministry of Commerce.

The unique chemical, magnetic, electrical, and optical properties of the REE have led to an ever increasing variety of applications. These uses range from automobile exhaust catalysts to consumer products that include phosphors in color television and flat panel displays (cell phones, portable DVDs, and laptops), to rechargeable batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles, and numerous medical devices. There are important defense applications such as jet fighter engines, missile guidance systems, antimissile defense, and space-based satellites and communication systems. Permanent magnets containing neodymium, are used in hard disk drives and wind turbines.

During the past twenty years there has been an explosion in demand for many items that require rare earth metals. Rare earth metals and alloys that contain them are used in many devices that people use every day such as: computer memory, DVD' s, rechargeable batteries, cell phones, car catalytic converters, magnets, fluorescent lighting and much morel

Other substances can be substituted for rare earth elements in their most important uses, however, these substitutes are usually much less effective and have a higher cost.

Manufacturers of a broad spectrum of high-tech products are feeling the impact of price hikes in rare earth element-based processing materials because of the Chinese embargo, according to our report “ Rare Earths Elements In High-Tech Industries: Market Analysis And Forecasts Amid China' s Trade Embargo. ”

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction

  • 1.1. Rare Earth Element Characteristics
  • 1.2. Rare Earth Element Resources
  • 1.3. Overview of Rare Earth Element Applications

Chapter 2 - Rare Earth Industry

  • 2.1. China' Rare Earth Industry
    • 2.1.1. China' s Production
    • 2.1.2. China Rare Earth Production Structure
    • 2.1.3. China Rare Earth Consumption Structure
    • 2.1.4. China Export of Rare Earths
    • 2.1.5. Recent Activities Of China' s Rare Earth Industry
      • 2.1.5.1. Consolidation Of China' s Rare Earth Industry
  • 2.2. Rest Of World' s Rare Earth Industry
    • 2.2.1. UNITED STATES
      • 2.2.1.1. Mountain Pass
      • 2.2.1.2. Utah Rare Earth Project
      • 2.2.1.3. Bear Lodge Rare-Earth Project
      • 2.2.1.4. Elk Creek
      • 2.2.1.5. Bokan-Dotson Ridge
      • 2.2.1.6. Diamond Creek
      • 2.2.1.7. Lemhi Pass
    • 2.2.2. CANADA
      • 2.2.2.1. MacLeod Lake Project
      • 2.2.2.2. Hoidas Lake
      • 2.2.2.3. Benjamin River Project
      • 2.2.2.4. Douglas River Project
      • 2.2.2.5. Nechalacho Rare Earth Element Project
      • 2.2.2.6. Archie Lake
      • 2.2.2.7. Bulstrode Rare Earth Property
      • 2.2.2.8. Mount Copeland
      • 2.2.2.9. Cross Hills Newfoundland
      • 2.2.2.10. Kipawa
      • 2.2.2.11. Strange Lake
      • 2.2.2.12. Ytterby
      • 2.2.2.13. Grevet REE
      • 2.2.2.14. Turner Falls
    • 2.2.3. SOUTH AFRICA
      • 2.2.3.1. Steenkampskraal Mine South Africa
    • 2.2.4. AUSTRALIA
      • 2.2.4.1. Nolans Bore
      • 2.2.4.2. Mount Weld
      • 2.2.4.3. Jungle Well/ Laverton
    • 2.2.5. GREENLAND
      • 2.2.5.1. Kvanefjeld Project
    • 2.2.6. ARGENTINA
      • 2.2.6.1. Cueva del Chacho
      • 2.2.6.2. Susques Property - Jujuy Province
      • 2.2.6.3. John Galt Project
    • 2.2.7. INDIA
      • 2.2.7.1. Indian Rare Earth
    • 2.2.8. RUSSIA
      • 2.2.8.1. Kutessay II
  • 2.3. Profiles of Mining Corporations

Chapter 3 - Rare Earth Market Analysis

  • 3.1. Overview
  • 3.2. Rare Earth Market
    • 3.2.1. Domestic Production and Consumption
    • 3.2.2. China Production and Consumption
  • 3.3. Global Rare Earth Market Analysis

Chapter 4 - Impact on Hi-Tech Applications

  • 4.1. Semiconductors
    • 4.1.1. Technology Impacted
      • 4.1.1.1. High-k Dielectrics
      • 4.1.1.2. Polishing Powders
    • 4.1.2. Rare Earth Material Used
    • 4.1.3. Market Forecast of Impacted Semiconductor Devices/Materials - 2008 - 2013
  • 4.2. Hard Disk Drives (HDDs)
    • 4.2.1. Technology Impacted
      • 4.2.1.1. Neo Magnets for HDDs
      • 4.2.1.2. High Strength Glass Substrates
      • 4.2.1.3. Polishing Materials
    • 4.2.2. Rare Earth Material Used
    • 4.2.3. Market Forecast of Impacted HDD Devices/Materials - 2008 - 2013
  • 4.3. Displays - FPD/CRT
    • 4.3.1. Technology Impacted
      • 4.3.1.1. Polishing Materials
      • 4.3.1.2. Phosphors
    • 4.3.2. Rare Earth Material Used
    • 4.3.3. Market Forecast of Impacted CRT/FPD Devices/Materials - 2008 - 2013
  • 4.4. Mobile and Mobile Internet Devices
    • 4.4.1. Technology Impacted
    • 4.4.2. Rare Earth Material Used
    • 4.4.3. Market Forecast of Impacted Mobile Devices/Materials - 2008 - 2013
  • 4.5. Solid State Lighting - LED/CFL 4-4
    • 4.5.1. Technology Impacted
      • 4.5.1.1. Phosphors for Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
      • 4.5.1.2. Phosphors for Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)
    • 4.5.2. Rare Earth Material Used
    • 4.5.3. Market Forecast of Impacted LED Devices/Materials - 2008 - 2013
  • 4.6. Green Technology
    • 4.6.1. Technology Impacted
      • 4.6.1.1. Rare Earths for Hybrid Vehicle Batteries (NiMH)
      • 4.6.1.2. Neo Magnets for Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motors and Brakes
      • 4.6.1.3. Neo Magnets for Wind Turbines
      • 4.6.1.4. Catalytic Converter for Automobiles
    • 4.6.2. Rare Earth Material Used
    • 4.6.3. Market Forecast of Impacted Green Devices/Materials - 2008 - 2013
    • 4.6.4. Other Green Technologies

Chapter 5 - U.S Strategic Metal Perspective

  • 5.1. The Application of Rare Earth Metals in National Defense
  • 5.2. Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential
  • 5.3. Supply Chain Issues
  • 5.4. Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress
    • 5.4.1. H.R. 6160, Rare Earths And Critical Materials Revitalization Act Of 2010
    • 5.4.2. H.R. 4866, the Rare Earths Transformation Act of 2010
    • 5.4.3. S. 3521, Rare Earths Supply Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010
    • 5.4.4. H.R. 5136, the Fiscal Year 2011 National Defense Authorization Act
    • 5.4.5. P.L. 111-84, the Fiscal Year 2010 National Defense Authorization Act
  • 5.5. Possible Policy Options
    • 5.5.1. Authorize And Appropriate Funding For A USGS Assessment
    • 5.5.2. Support And Encourage Greater Exploration For REE
    • 5.5.3. Challenge China On Its Export Policy
    • 5.5.4. Establish A Stockpile

Chapter 6 - European Strategic Metal Perspective

  • 6.1. Assessing Criticality
    • 6.1.1. Geological And Technical Availability
    • 6.1.2. Key Terms And Definitions
    • 6.1.3. Geological Availability
    • 6.1.4. Technological Development
    • 6.1.5. Geopolitical-Economic Availability
  • 6.2. Results And List Of Critical Raw Materials
    • 6.2.1. Economic Importance And Supply Risks
    • 6.2.2. Future Perspectives On Raw Material Demand Implications Of Technological Change.
    • 6.2.3. Emerging technologies and raw materials

Chapter 7 - Rebuilding a U.S. Supply Chain

  • 7.1. Non-Chinese Sources of New Rare Earths
  • 7.2. Impact of Price Hikes by Application

TABLES

  • 1.1. Selected Rare Earth Element Bearing Products
  • 1.2. Rare Earths Elements And Some Of Their End Uses
  • 2.1. Rare Earth Prices 2007-2010
  • 2.2. Global Capacity Of Rare Earth Oxides - 2010
  • 2.3. Global Capacity Of Rare Earth Oxides - 2014
  • 3.1. U.S. Rare Earth Statistics - 2006-2009
  • 3.2. Rare Earth Prices - 2007-2011
  • 3.3. Rare Earth Elements: World Production And Reserves - 2009
  • 3.4. Rare Earth Oxide Capacity - 2010
  • 3.5. Rare Earth Oxide Capacity - 2014
  • 3.6. Rare Earth Oxide Demand-Supply - 2010-2014
  • 3.7. Rare Earth Composition By End Use
  • 4.1. Properties Of Rare Earth Ln2O3 Oxides
  • 4.2. Forecast of CMP Slurry 2008-2013
  • 4.3. Demand of Rare Earths for Neo Magnets
  • 4.4. Market Forecast for Hard Disk Drives by Size 2008-2013
  • 4.5. Market Forecast For Ceria Slurry For Glass Disks
  • 4.6. Demand of Rare Earths for Polishing Compounts for FPD/CRT
  • 4.7. Demand of Rare Earths for Phosphors for FPD/CRT
  • 4.8. Market Forecast of FPD/CRT by Type 2008-2013
  • 4.9. Market Forecast of Mobile/MID by Type 2008-2013
  • 4.10. Demand of Rare Earths for Phosphors for CFLs
  • 4.11. Market forecast of Backlight LEDs by Application 2008-2013
  • 4.12. Demand of Rare Earths for NiMH Batteries
  • 4.13. Demand of Rare Earths for Neo Magnets
  • 4.14. Demand for Rare Earths for Automobile Catalysts
  • 5.1. Rare Earth Elements: World Production And Reserves - 2009
  • 6.1. Rare Earth Applications
  • 6.2. Global Metal Production 2009

FIGURES

  • 1.1. Periodic Table Of Rare Earth Elements
  • 1.2. Abundance Of The Rare Earth Elements
  • 1.3. Rare Earth Production Since 1950
  • 1.4. China' s Rare Earth Dominance
  • 2.1. Rare Earth Proportion And Distribution In China
  • 2.2. Production Of Rare Earth Concentrates Since 1998
  • 2.3. Production Of Smelting Separation Products Since 1999
  • 2.4. Production Of Rare Earth Metals Since 1988
  • 2.5. Production Of Rare Earth Oxides Since 1998
  • 2.6. Consumption Of Rare Earths Since 1990
  • 2.7. Consumption Structure Of China From 1988
  • 2.8. Gross Volume Of Exports From 1979
  • 2.9. Gross Value Of Exports From 1979
  • 3.1. U.S. Distribution Of Refined Rare Earth Products - 2008
  • 3.2. Rare-Earth Price Index 2002-2010
  • 3.3. Comparison Of Rare Earth Consumption .Between China And The World
  • 3.4. Global Supply-Demand Forecast
  • 3.5. ROW Supply-Demand Forecast
  • 3.6. REO Distribution By Weight - 2010
  • 3.7. REO Distribution By Revenue - 2010
  • 3.8. REO Distribution By Weight - 2014
  • 3.9. REO Distribution By Revenue - 2014
  • 3.10. REE Composition By End Use
  • 3.11. Approximate Percentage Content Of Current And Prospective Ores
  • 4.1. Illustration of MOSFET and Gate Oxide
  • 4.2. STI CMP Using Ceria
  • 4.3. HDD Drive and Neo Magnets
  • 4.4. Glass Media Drive Forecast 2008-2013
  • 4.5. Market Forecast For Neo Magnets
  • 4.6. Illustration of Phosphors in PDPs
  • 4.7. Market Forecast For Neo Magnets
  • 4.8. Traditional Design of a 5-mm white LED
  • 4.9. Scattered Photon Extraction white LED
  • 4.10. Supply Chain for Fluorescent Lighting
  • 4.11. Rare Earths Used in Hybrid Vehicles
  • 4.12. Hybrid Vehicle Battery (NiMH)
  • 4.13. Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motor and Brakes
  • 4.14. Wind Turbine Motor
  • 4.15. Supply Chain for Permanent Magnets
  • 4.16. Catalytic Converter for Automobiles
  • 4.17. Forecast of Hybrid Vehicles 2008-2013
  • 4.18. Forecast of Wind Generators 2008-2013
  • 6.1. Supply Of Strategic Metals To The European Union
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