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Next-Generation Power Semiconductors: Markets Materials, Technologies

Abstract

Explosive Growth in Next-Generation Power Semiconductors Expected Says The Information Network

New Tripoli, PA, November 15, 2011 . . . . Traditional silicon-based power semiconductors are reaching their theoretical limitations. Fortunately because of their superior material properties, wide-bandgap power semiconductor devices (SiC [silicon carbide] and GaN [gallium nitride]) can offer performances orders-of-magnitude better than silicon devices. As a result, they are widely expected to be the next generation power devices, according to a new report, Next-Generation Power Semiconductors: Markets Materials, Technologies recently published by The Information Network, a New Tripoli, PA market research company.

“The commercial battle for next-generation power semiconductors is evolving. As a result, many semiconductor manufacturers are attempting to enter the market”, - noted Dr. Robert Castellano, president of The Information Network. “Already it's a $50 million market, although small compared to the $14 billion silicon-based power semiconductor market”.

We see insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as the main growth drivers. We project 3.7% average annual growth of the power semiconductor market over the next three years, from $14.2 billion in 2011 (+6% y-y) to $16.7 billion in 2013. We look for strongest growth from IGBTs, although power MOSFETs had the largest market share in 2010 due to its fast switching speed, near-perfect gate impedance, fast switching speed, excellent stability, and a relatively low on-state resistance.

Because of their attractive performances, wide-bandgap power semiconductor devices have been under intense R&D. In development since the early 1990s, SiC material for power device applications has gone through the longest period and come furthest in terms of maturity and reliability.

We project the next-generation power semiconductor will exhibit a compound annual growth rate of 72% between 2010 and 2015, reaching values of more than $500 million.

Benefiting from the growth of these wide-bandgap devices will be processing equipment. Significant improvements on the technique of growing GaN material on Si substrates have enabled high quality, crack-free GaN epi layers grown on Si, overcoming the 17% crystal mismatch between the two materials crystal faces. For GaN epitaxy on Si or SiC, Veeco and Aixtron will benefit and grow strongly, utilizing their expertise in LED epitaxy.

Silicon MOSFETs use wirebonding and traditional SO or TO packages. GaN on Silicon can be bonded using flip chip. Companies benefiting would be equipment suppliers to the flip chip industry, such as NeXX Systems.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction

  • 1.1. Manufacturing Processes Are Differentiation Factors
  • 1.2. Vertical Structure Devices Differ From Usual MOS Planar Structure
  • 1.3. Super Junction Processes

Chapter 2 - Applications of Power Semiconductors

  • 2.1. Power Semiconductors in Renewable Energy
    • 2.1.1. Solar
    • 2.1.2. Wind
  • 2.2. Power Semiconductors in Hybrid & Electric Vehicles
    • 2.2.1. Automotive Megatrends
    • 2.2.2. Wide Bandgap Devices for HEVs/EVs
  • 2.3. Power Semiconductors in LED Lighting
  • 2.4. Power Semiconductors in Industrial Motor Drives
  • 2.5. Power Semiconductors in Smart Home Market

Chapter 3 - Market Analysis

  • 3.1. Position of Power Semiconductors in Semiconductor Market
  • 3.2. Growth Potential of IGBTs and Power MOSFETs
  • 3.3. End Application Markets
  • 3.4. Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Market

Chapter 4 - Next-Generation Power Semiconductors

  • 4.1. Expectations for Overcoming Silicon's Limitations
  • 4.2. Expectations Of SiC and GaN as Next-Generation Substrates
  • 4.3. Benefits of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors
  • 4.4. SiC versus GaN
    • 4.4.1. Material Properties
    • 4.4.2. Material Quality
    • 4.4.3. SiC Lateral Devices:
    • 4.4.4. SiC Vertical Devices
    • 4.4.5. GaN Lateral Devices
  • 4.5. Fabrication of SiC devices
    • 4.5.1. Bulk and Epitaxial Growth of SiC
      • 4.5.1.1. Bulk Growth
      • 4.5.1.2. Epitaxial Growth
      • 4.5.1.3. Defects
    • 4.5.2. Surface Preparation
    • 4.5.3. Etching
    • 4.5.4. Lithography
    • 4.5.5. Ion Implantation
    • 4.5.6. Surface Passivation
    • 4.5.7. Metallization
  • 4.6. Fabrication of GaN devices
    • 4.6.1. GaN Challenges
      • 4.6.1.1. Costs
      • 4.6.1.2. Reliability
      • 4.6.1.3. Component Packaging and Thermal Reliability
      • 4.6.1.4. Control
      • 4.6.1.5. Device Modeling
  • 4.7. Packaging

Chapter 5 - Company Profiles

  • 5.1. Power Semiconductor Companies
    • 5.1.1. Infineon
    • 5.1.2. Mitsubishi
    • 5.1.3. Toshiba
    • 5.1.4. STMicroelectronics
    • 5.1.5. Vishay
    • 5.1.6. International Rectifier
    • 5.1.7. Fairchild
    • 5.1.8. Fuji Electric
    • 5.1.9. Renesas
    • 5.1.10. Semikron
    • 5.1.11. NXP Semiconductors
  • 5.2. SiC Wafer-Related Companies
  • 5.3. GaN Wafer-Related Companies
  • 5.4. Profiles of Companies with Next-Generation Activities
    • 5.4.1. Mitsubishi Electric
    • 5.4.2. Fuji Electric Holdings
    • 5.4.3. Toshiba
    • 5.4.4. Rohm
    • 5.4.5. Sanken Electric
    • 5.4.6. Shindengen Electric
    • 5.4.7. Infineon
    • 5.4.8. Microsemi
    • 5.4.9. Cree
    • 5.4.10. GeneSiC Semiconductor
    • 5.4.11. Semisouth Laboratories
    • 5.4.12. United Silicon Carbide
    • 5.4.13. MicroGaN
    • 5.4.14. Powerex
    • 5.4.15. Fairchild
    • 5.4.16. International Rectifier
    • 5.4.17. Nitronix

LIST OF FIGURES

  • 1.1. Evolution Of IGBT Chip Structure
  • 1.2. Effects Of Miniaturization Of IGBT Chip
  • 1.3. SiC Trench-Type MOSFET And Resistance Reduction As Compared With DMOSFET
  • 1.4. Planar And Vertical (Trench) MOSFET
  • 1.5. Schematic Of A FinFET
  • 1.6. Schematic Of A MOSFET And Super Junction MOSFET
  • 1.7. Process Flow For Super Junction MOSFET
  • 2.1. Forecast Of Solar Power - 2000-2015
  • 2.2. Full Bridge IGBT Topology
  • 2.3. PV Inverter Market Distribution
  • 2.4. Block Diagram Of Microcontroller-Based Inverter
  • 2.5. Worldwide Wind Turbine Shipments 1995 - 2012
  • 2.6. Wind Power As Percent Of Electricity - 2010
  • 2.7. Bill Of Materials For A Typical 30-50kw Inverter
  • 2.8. A Simple Diagram Of A HEV Traction Drive System.
  • 2.9. A More Complex Diagram Of PEEM In A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
  • 2.10. Conducting And Switching Loses For Inverter
  • 2.11. Unit Pricing Trends In Power Semiconductors
  • 2.12. System And Component Costs For Wide Bandgap Semiconductors
  • 2.13. Vertical And Lateral HEMY
  • 2.14. GaN Lateral And GaN Vertical HEMTs In EVs
  • 2.15. Market Drivers For LED Biz And Applications
  • 2.16. SSL Vs. Classical Technologies
  • 2.17. LED Performance Vs. Traditional Light Sources
  • 2.18. Energy Production And Use Comparison
  • 2.19. Typical LED Drive Circuit
  • 2.20. Integration Of LED And LED Driver Using TSV
  • 2.21. Simple Power MOSFET Motor Controller
  • 2.22. Basic Operating Principle Of Inverter
  • 2.23. System Block Diagram Of An Air Conditioner
  • 3.1. Mitsubishi's IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) Generations
  • 3.2. Infineon's MOSFET Generations: 1990's, 1999, 2002, 2010
  • 3.3. Intel's FinFET Design
  • 3.4. Fuji's MOSFET versus Super Junction MOSFET
  • 3.5. NEC's GaN-on-Si Power Transistor
  • 3.6. Fujitsu's GaN-on-SiC HEMT Transistor
  • 3.7. Power Semiconductor Market Forecast 2007-2013
  • 3.8. Power Transistor Market Shares 2010
  • 3.9. Power Diode Market Shares 2010
  • 3.10. Worldwide IGBT Market Share 2010
  • 3.11. Market Shares For Super Junction MOSFET 2010
  • 3.12. SJ MOSFET s As An Interim Solution
  • 3.13. Power Transistor Market Share By Application 2010
  • 3.14. Power Discrete Market For Renewable Energy 2011-2014
  • 3.15. Power Discrete Market Hybrid For and Electric Vehicles 2011-2014
  • 3.16. Power Discrete Market For General LED Lighting 2011-2014
  • 3.17. Power Discrete Market For Industrial Motor Control 2011-2014
  • 3.18. Forecast of Widebandgap Semiconductor Market 2010-2015
  • 4.1. Silicon-Based Devices Reaching Maturity
  • 4.2. Enhancement Mode GaN On Si Transistor
  • 4.3. AlGaN/GaN HEMT, GaN MOSFET, MOS-HEMT
  • 4.4. GaN HEMT Material Structure On Si Substrate
  • 4.5. Power Package Integration Roadmap

LIST OF TABLES

  • 2.1. Product Families And The Principal End Uses Of Power Products
  • 2.2. Advantages And Disadvantages Of GaN Lateral HEMTs
  • 2.3. Light Source Comparison
  • 3.1. Market Shares For Japanese Companies 2001-2010
  • 4.1. Physical Properties Of Select Semiconductor Materials
  • 4.2. Wide Bandgap Material Properties
  • 4.3. Lattice Constant And CTE Of Semiconductor Starting Material
  • 4.4. GaN FET Vs Si MOSFET Characteristics
  • 4.5. Standard Chemical Solution For Surface Preparation Of SiC Substrates
  • 4.6. Interface Trap Densities For 4H-SiC Under Different Process Conditions
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