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PUBLISHER: Future Markets, Inc. | PRODUCT CODE: 1405380

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PUBLISHER: Future Markets, Inc. | PRODUCT CODE: 1405380

The Global Market for Carbon Nanomaterials 2024-2033

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PAGES: 728 Pages, 80 Tables, 126 Figures
DELIVERY TIME: 1-2 business days
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Carbon possesses different allotropic forms (graphite and diamond) and has the capability to generate a range of nanostructures including graphene single sheets, single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, graphene quantum dots, fullerenes, and nanodiamonds. Due to their unique structural dimensions and excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and chemical properties carbon-based nanomaterials are widely utilized in many sectors.

“The Global Market for Carbon Nanomaterials 2024-2033” provides a comprehensive analysis of advanced carbon nanomaterials including graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, graphene quantum dots, and nanomaterials from carbon capture and utilization. The report examines global demand, production capacities, pricing, main producers, and applications across major end-user markets such as electronics, energy storage, membranes, coatings, polymers, biomedical devices, and sensors.

Regional demand across North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of World is forecast from 2018 to 2034 for graphene and other key nanomaterials. The report profiles over 590 leading producers, highlighting their products, production methods, capacities, pricing, and target markets.

Multiple alternative 2D materials beyond graphene are analyzed including boron nitride, MXenes, transition metal dichalcogenides, black phosphorus, graphitic carbon nitride, germanene, graphdiyne, graphane, rhenium diselenide, silicene, stanene, antimonene and indium selenide. Latest developments in carbon capture and utilization for producing carbon nanomaterials are assessed as well as progress with graphene/nanomaterial-enhanced batteries, biosensors, electronics, catalysts, polymer composites, and filters/membranes.

Report contents include:

  • Global demand forecasts for graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, nanodiamonds to 2034
  • Assessment of graphene types - production capacities, pricing, producers, applications
  • Analysis of carbon nanotube types - capacities, pricing, producers, end markets
  • Review of carbon nanofiber synthesis methods and market opportunities
  • Fullerene product analysis, pricing, demand, producers, technology readiness
  • Evaluation of nanodiamond types, production methods pricing, demand, main producers
  • Emerging opportunities in graphene quantum dots - synthesis, pricing, applications
  • Role of carbon capture in producing carbon nanomaterials
  • Profiles of 590+ leading producers/suppliers of carbon nanomaterials. Companies profiled include BeDimensional, BestGraphene, Black Swan Graphene, DexMat, Graphenest, Graphene Leaders Canada, Graphene Manufacturing Group Limited, HydroGraph Clean Power, JEIO, Kumho Petrochemical, KB Element, LG Chem, Nano Diamond Battery, Novusterra, Paragraf and Zeon Corporation.
  • Analysis of properties, production and applications of 2D materials beyond graphene - hexagonal boron nitride, MXenes, transition metal dichalcogenides, black phosphorus etc.
  • Regional demand forecasts across North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Rest of World
  • Impact of graphene and nanomaterials on batteries, electronics, membranes, coatings
  • Assessment of technology readiness levels for different nanomaterials by application

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. THE ADVANCED CARBON NANOMATERIALS MARKET

  • 1.1. Market overview
  • 1.2. Role of advanced carbon nanomaterials in the green transition

2. GRAPHENE

  • 2.1. Types of graphene
  • 2.2. Properties
  • 2.3. Graphene market challenges
  • 2.4. Graphene producers
    • 2.4.1. Production capacities
  • 2.5. Price and price drivers
    • 2.5.1. Pristine graphene flakes pricing/CVD graphene
    • 2.5.2. Few-Layer graphene pricing
    • 2.5.3. Graphene nanoplatelets pricing
    • 2.5.4. Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) pricing
    • 2.5.5. Multilayer graphene (MLG) pricing
    • 2.5.6. Graphene ink
  • 2.6. Global demand 2018-2034, tons
    • 2.6.1. Global demand by graphene material (tons)
    • 2.6.2. Global demand by end user market
    • 2.6.3. Graphene market, by region
    • 2.6.4. Global graphene revenues, by market, 2018-2034
  • 2.7 company profiles (360 company profiles)

3. CARBON NANOTUBES

  • 3.1. Properties
    • 3.1.1. Comparative properties of CNTs
  • 3.2. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)
    • 3.2.1. Applications and TRL
    • 3.2.2. Producers
      • 3.2.2.1. Production capacities
    • 3.2.3. Price and price drivers
    • 3.2.4. Global market demand
  • 3.2.5 company profiles (140 company profiles)
  • 3.3. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)
    • 3.3.1. Properties
    • 3.3.2. Applications
    • 3.3.3. Prices
    • 3.3.4. Production capacities
    • 3.3.5. Global market demand
  • 3.3.6 company profiles (16 company profiles)
  • 3.4. Other types
    • 3.4.1. Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs)
      • 3.4.1.1. Properties
      • 3.4.1.2. Applications
    • 3.4.2. Vertically aligned CNTs (VACNTs)
      • 3.4.2.1. Properties
      • 3.4.2.2. Applications
    • 3.4.3. Few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs)
      • 3.4.3.1. Properties
      • 3.4.3.2. Applications
    • 3.4.4. Carbon Nanohorns (CNHs)
      • 3.4.4.1. Properties
      • 3.4.4.2. Applications
    • 3.4.5. Carbon Onions
      • 3.4.5.1. Properties
      • 3.4.5.2. Applications
    • 3.4.6. Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs)
      • 3.4.6.1. Properties
      • 3.4.6.2. Applications
      • 3.4.6.3. Production
    • 3.4.7. Companies (6 company profiles)

4. CARBON NANOFIBERS

  • 4.1. Properties
  • 4.2. Synthesis
    • 4.2.1. Chemical vapor deposition
    • 4.2.2. Electrospinning
    • 4.2.3. Template-based
    • 4.2.4. From biomass
  • 4.3. Markets
    • 4.3.1. Batteries
    • 4.3.2. Supercapacitors
    • 4.3.3. Fuel cells
    • 4.3.4. CO2 capture
  • 4.4. Companies (10 company profiles)

5. FULLERENES

  • 5.1. Properties
  • 5.2. Products
  • 5.3. Markets and applications
  • 5.4. Technology Readiness Level (TRL)
  • 5.5. Global market demand
  • 5.6. Prices
  • 5.7. Producers (20 company profiles)

6. NANODIAMONDS

  • 6.1. Types
    • 6.1.1. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs)
  • 6.2. Applications
  • 6.3. Price and price drivers
  • 6.4. Global demand 2018-2033, tonnes
  • 6.5 company profiles (30 company profiles)

7. GRAPHENE QUANTUM DOTS

  • 7.1. Comparison to quantum dots
  • 7.2. Properties
  • 7.3. Synthesis
    • 7.3.1. Top-down method
    • 7.3.2. Bottom-up method
  • 7.4. Applications
  • 7.5. Graphene quantum dots pricing
  • 7.6. Graphene quantum dot producers (9 company profiles)

8. CARBON NANOMATERIALS FROM CARBON CAPTURE AND UTILIZATION

  • 8.1. CO2 capture from point sources
    • 8.1.1. Transportation
    • 8.1.2. Global point source CO2 capture capacities
    • 8.1.3. By source
    • 8.1.4. By endpoint
  • 8.2. Main carbon capture processes
    • 8.2.1. Materials
    • 8.2.2. Post-combustion
    • 8.2.3. Oxy-fuel combustion
    • 8.2.4. Liquid or supercritical CO2: Allam-Fetvedt Cycle
    • 8.2.5. Pre-combustion
  • 8.3. Carbon separation technologies
    • 8.3.1. Absorption capture
    • 8.3.2. Adsorption capture
    • 8.3.3. Membranes
    • 8.3.4. Liquid or supercritical CO2 (Cryogenic) capture
    • 8.3.5. Chemical Looping-Based Capture
    • 8.3.6. Calix Advanced Calciner
    • 8.3.7. Other technologies
      • 8.3.7.1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)
    • 8.3.8. Comparison of key separation technologies
    • 8.3.9. Electrochemical conversion of CO2
      • 8.3.9.1. Process overview
  • 8.4. Direct air capture (DAC)
    • 8.4.1. Description
  • 8.5. Companies (4 company profiles)

9. OTHER 2-D MATERIALS

  • 9.1. Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2D materials
  • 9.2. 2D MATERIALS PRODUCTION METHODS
    • 9.2.1. Top-down exfoliation
      • 9.2.1.1. Mechanical exfoliation method
      • 9.2.1.2. Liquid exfoliation method
    • 9.2.2. Bottom-up synthesis
      • 9.2.2.1. Chemical synthesis in solution
      • 9.2.2.2. Chemical vapor deposition
  • 9.3. TYPES OF 2D MATERIALS
    • 9.3.1. Hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN)/Boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)
      • 9.3.1.1. Properties
      • 9.3.1.2. Applications and markets
        • 9.3.1.2.1. Electronics
        • 9.3.1.2.2. Fuel cells
        • 9.3.1.2.3. Adsorbents
        • 9.3.1.2.4. Photodetectors
        • 9.3.1.2.5. Textiles
        • 9.3.1.2.6. Biomedical
    • 9.3.2. MXenes
      • 9.3.2.1. Properties
      • 9.3.2.2. Applications
        • 9.3.2.2.1. Catalysts
        • 9.3.2.2.2. Hydrogels
        • 9.3.2.2.3. Energy storage devices
          • 9.3.2.2.3.1. Supercapacitors
          • 9.3.2.2.3.2. Batteries
          • 9.3.2.2.3.3. Gas Separation
        • 9.3.2.2.4. Liquid Separation
        • 9.3.2.2.5. Antibacterials
    • 9.3.3. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD)
      • 9.3.3.1. Properties
        • 9.3.3.1.1. Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)
        • 9.3.3.1.2. Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2)
      • 9.3.3.2. Applications
        • 9.3.3.2.1. Electronics
        • 9.3.3.2.2. Optoelectronics
        • 9.3.3.2.3. Biomedical
        • 9.3.3.2.4. Piezoelectrics
        • 9.3.3.2.5. Sensors
        • 9.3.3.2.6. Filtration
        • 9.3.3.2.7. Batteries and supercapacitors
        • 9.3.3.2.8. Fiber lasers
    • 9.3.4. Borophene
      • 9.3.4.1. Properties
      • 9.3.4.2. Applications
        • 9.3.4.2.1. Energy storage
        • 9.3.4.2.2. Hydrogen storage
        • 9.3.4.2.3. Sensors
        • 9.3.4.2.4. Electronics
    • 9.3.5. Phosphorene/ Black phosphorus
      • 9.3.5.1. Properties
      • 9.3.5.2. Applications
        • 9.3.5.2.1. Electronics
        • 9.3.5.2.2. Field effect transistors
        • 9.3.5.2.3. Thermoelectrics
        • 9.3.5.2.4. Batteries
          • 9.3.5.2.4.1. Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)
          • 9.3.5.2.4.2. Sodium-ion batteries
          • 9.3.5.2.4.3. Lithium-sulfur batteries
        • 9.3.5.2.5. Supercapacitors
        • 9.3.5.2.6. Photodetectors
        • 9.3.5.2.7. Sensors
    • 9.3.6. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)
      • 9.3.6.1. Properties
      • 9.3.6.2. C2N
      • 9.3.6.3. Applications
        • 9.3.6.3.1. Electronics
        • 9.3.6.3.2. Filtration membranes
        • 9.3.6.3.3. Photocatalysts
        • 9.3.6.3.4. Batteries
        • 9.3.6.3.5. Sensors
    • 9.3.7. Germanene
      • 9.3.7.1. Properties
      • 9.3.7.2. Applications
        • 9.3.7.2.1. Electronics
        • 9.3.7.2.2. Batteries
    • 9.3.8. Graphdiyne
      • 9.3.8.1. Properties
      • 9.3.8.2. Applications
        • 9.3.8.2.1. Electronics
        • 9.3.8.2.2. Batteries
          • 9.3.8.2.2.1. Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)
          • 9.3.8.2.2.2. Sodium ion batteries
        • 9.3.8.2.3. Separation membranes
        • 9.3.8.2.4. Water filtration
        • 9.3.8.2.5. Photocatalysts
        • 9.3.8.2.6. Photovoltaics
        • 9.3.8.2.7. Gas separation
    • 9.3.9. Graphane
      • 9.3.9.1. Properties
      • 9.3.9.2. Applications
        • 9.3.9.2.1. Electronics
        • 9.3.9.2.2. Hydrogen storage
    • 9.3.10. Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)
      • 9.3.10.1. Properties
      • 9.3.10.2. Applications
    • 9.3.11. Silicene
      • 9.3.11.1. Properties
      • 9.3.11.2. Applications
        • 9.3.11.2.1. Electronics
        • 9.3.11.2.2. Thermoelectrics
        • 9.3.11.2.3. Batteries
        • 9.3.11.2.4. Sensors
        • 9.3.11.2.5. Biomedical
    • 9.3.12. Stanene/tinene
      • 9.3.12.1. Properties
      • 9.3.12.2. Applications
        • 9.3.12.2.1. Electronics
    • 9.3.13. Antimonene
      • 9.3.13.1. Properties
      • 9.3.13.2. Applications
    • 9.3.14. Indium selenide
      • 9.3.14.1. Properties
      • 9.3.14.2. Applications
        • 9.3.14.2.1. Electronics
    • 9.3.15. Layered double hydroxides (LDH)
      • 9.3.15.1. Properties
      • 9.3.15.2. Applications
        • 9.3.15.2.1. Adsorbents
        • 9.3.15.2.2. Catalyst
        • 9.3.15.2.3. Sensors
        • 9.3.15.2.4. Electrodes
        • 9.3.15.2.5. Flame Retardants
        • 9.3.15.2.6. Biosensors
        • 9.3.15.2.7. Tissue engineering
        • 9.3.15.2.8. Anti-Microbials
        • 9.3.15.2.9. Drug Delivery
  • 9.4. 2D MATERIALS PRODUCER AND SUPPLIER PROFILES (19 company profiles)

10. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 10.1. Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

11. REFERENCES

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Advanced carbon nanomaterials
  • Table 2. Properties of graphene, properties of competing materials, applications thereof
  • Table 3. Graphene market challenges
  • Table 4. Main graphene producers by country, annual production capacities, types and main markets they sell into 2023
  • Table 5. Types of graphene and typical prices
  • Table 6. Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer
  • Table 7. Few-layer graphene pricing by producer
  • Table 8. Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer
  • Table 9. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer
  • Table 10. Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer
  • Table 11. Graphene ink pricing by producer
  • Table 12. Global graphene demand by type of graphene material, 2018-2034 (tons)
  • Table 13. Global graphene demand, by region, 2018-2034 (tons)
  • Table 14. Performance criteria of energy storage devices
  • Table 15. Typical properties of SWCNT and MWCNT
  • Table 16. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials
  • Table 17. Applications of MWCNTs
  • Table 18. Annual production capacity of the key MWCNT producers in 2023 (MT)
  • Table 19. Carbon nanotubes pricing (MWCNTS, SWCNT etc.) by producer
  • Table 20. Properties of carbon nanotube paper
  • Table 21. Comparative properties of MWCNT and SWCNT
  • Table 22. Markets, benefits and applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
  • Table 23. SWCNTs pricing
  • Table 24. Annual production capacity of SWCNT producers
  • Table 25. SWCNT market demand forecast (metric tons), 2018-2033
  • Table 26. Chasm SWCNT products
  • Table 27. Thomas Swan SWCNT production
  • Table 28. Applications of Double-walled carbon nanotubes
  • Table 29. Markets and applications for Vertically aligned CNTs (VACNTs)
  • Table 30. Markets and applications for few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs)
  • Table 31. Markets and applications for carbon nanohorns
  • Table 32. Comparative properties of BNNTs and CNTs
  • Table 33. Applications of BNNTs
  • Table 34. Comparison of synthesis methods for carbon nanofibers
  • Table 35. Market overview for fullerenes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications
  • Table 36. Types of fullerenes and applications
  • Table 37. Products incorporating fullerenes
  • Table 38. Markets, benefits and applications of fullerenes
  • Table 39. Global market demand for fullerenes, 2018-2033 (tons)
  • Table 40. Example prices of fullerenes
  • Table 41. Properties of nanodiamonds
  • Table 42. Summary of types of NDS and production methods-advantages and disadvantages
  • Table 43. Markets, benefits and applications of nanodiamonds
  • Table 44. Pricing of nanodiamonds, by producer/distributor
  • Table 45. Demand for nanodiamonds (metric tonnes), 2018-2033
  • Table 46. Production methods, by main ND producers
  • Table 47. Adamas Nanotechnologies, Inc. nanodiamond product list
  • Table 48. Carbodeon Ltd. Oy nanodiamond product list
  • Table 49. Daicel nanodiamond product list
  • Table 50. FND Biotech Nanodiamond product list
  • Table 51. JSC Sinta nanodiamond product list
  • Table 52. Plasmachem product list and applications
  • Table 53. Ray-Techniques Ltd. nanodiamonds product list
  • Table 54. Comparison of ND produced by detonation and laser synthesis
  • Table 55. Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs
  • Table 56. Advantages and disadvantages of methods for preparing GQDs
  • Table 57. Applications of graphene quantum dots
  • Table 58. Prices for graphene quantum dots
  • Table 59. Point source examples
  • Table 60. Assessment of carbon capture materials
  • Table 61. Chemical solvents used in post-combustion
  • Table 62. Commercially available physical solvents for pre-combustion carbon capture
  • Table 63. Main capture processes and their separation technologies
  • Table 64. Absorption methods for CO2 capture overview
  • Table 65. Commercially available physical solvents used in CO2 absorption
  • Table 66. Adsorption methods for CO2 capture overview
  • Table 67. Membrane-based methods for CO2 capture overview
  • Table 68. Comparison of main separation technologies
  • Table 69. CO2 derived products via electrochemical conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages
  • Table 70. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC
  • Table 71. 2D materials types
  • Table 72. Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials
  • Table 73. Comparison of top-down exfoliation methods to produce 2D materials
  • Table 74. Comparison of the bottom-up synthesis methods to produce 2D materials
  • Table 75. Properties of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)
  • Table 76. Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2
  • Table 77. Properties and applications of functionalized germanene
  • Table 78. GDY-based anode materials in LIBs and SIBs
  • Table 79. Physical and electronic properties of Stanene
  • Table 80. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Examples

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene
  • Figure 2. Global graphene demand by type of graphene material, 2018-2034 (tons)
  • Figure 3. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2034 (tons)
  • Figure 4. Global graphene demand, by region, 2018-2034 (tons)
  • Figure 5. Global graphene revenues, by market, 2018-2034 (Millions USD)
  • Figure 6. Graphene heating films
  • Figure 7. Graphene flake products
  • Figure 8. AIKA Black-T
  • Figure 9. Printed graphene biosensors
  • Figure 10. Prototype of printed memory device
  • Figure 11. Brain Scientific electrode schematic
  • Figure 12. Graphene battery schematic
  • Figure 13. Dotz Nano GQD products
  • Figure 14. Graphene-based membrane dehumidification test cell
  • Figure 15. Proprietary atmospheric CVD production
  • Figure 16. Wearable sweat sensor
  • Figure 17. InP/ZnS, perovskite quantum dots and silicon resin composite under UV illumination
  • Figure 18. BioStamp nPoint
  • Figure 19. Nanotech Energy battery
  • Figure 20. Hybrid battery powered electrical motorbike concept
  • Figure 21. NAWAStitch integrated into carbon fiber composite
  • Figure 22. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production
  • Figure 23. TEM images of carbon nanobrush
  • Figure 24. Test performance after 6 weeks ACT II according to Scania STD4445
  • Figure 25. Quantag GQDs and sensor
  • Figure 26. Thermal conductive graphene film
  • Figure 27. Talcoat graphene mixed with paint
  • Figure 28. T-FORCE CARDEA ZERO
  • Figure 29. Demand for MWCNT by application in 2022
  • Figure 30. Market demand for carbon nanotubes by market, 2018-2033 (metric tons)
  • Figure 31. AWN Nanotech water harvesting prototype
  • Figure 32. Large transparent heater for LiDAR
  • Figure 33. Carbonics, Inc.'s carbon nanotube technology
  • Figure 34. Fuji carbon nanotube products
  • Figure 35. Cup Stacked Type Carbon Nano Tubes schematic
  • Figure 36. CSCNT composite dispersion
  • Figure 37. Flexible CNT CMOS integrated circuits with sub-10 nanoseconds stage delays
  • Figure 38. Koatsu Gas Kogyo Co. Ltd CNT product
  • Figure 39. NAWACap
  • Figure 40. NAWAStitch integrated into carbon fiber composite
  • Figure 41. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production
  • Figure 42. TEM images of carbon nanobrush
  • Figure 43. CNT film
  • Figure 44. Shinko Carbon Nanotube TIM product
  • Figure 45. SWCNT market demand forecast (metric tons), 2018-2033
  • Figure 46. Schematic of a fluidized bed reactor which is able to scale up the generation of SWNTs using the CoMoCAT process
  • Figure 47. Carbon nanotube paint product
  • Figure 48. MEIJO eDIPS product
  • Figure 49. HiPCO® Reactor
  • Figure 50. Smell iX16 multi-channel gas detector chip
  • Figure 51. The Smell Inspector
  • Figure 52. Toray CNF printed RFID
  • Figure 53. Double-walled carbon nanotube bundle cross-section micrograph and model
  • Figure 54. Schematic of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) membrane used for water treatment
  • Figure 55. TEM image of FWNTs
  • Figure 56. Schematic representation of carbon nanohorns
  • Figure 57. TEM image of carbon onion
  • Figure 58. Schematic of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). Alternating B and N atoms are shown in blue and red
  • Figure 59. Conceptual diagram of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) (A) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (B) showing typical dimensions of length, width, and separation distance between graphene layers in MWCNTs (Source: JNM)
  • Figure 60. Carbon nanotube adhesive sheet
  • Figure 61. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for fullerenes
  • Figure 62. Global market demand for fullerenes, 2018-2033 (tons)
  • Figure 63. Detonation Nanodiamond
  • Figure 64. DND primary particles and properties
  • Figure 65. Functional groups of Nanodiamonds
  • Figure 66. Demand for nanodiamonds (metric tonnes), 2018-2033
  • Figure 67. NBD battery
  • Figure 68. Neomond dispersions
  • Figure 69. Visual representation of graphene oxide sheets (black layers) embedded with nanodiamonds (bright white points)
  • Figure 70. Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots
  • Figure 71. Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1-4)
  • Figure 72. Graphene quantum dots
  • Figure 73. Top-down and bottom-up methods
  • Figure 74. Dotz Nano GQD products
  • Figure 75. InP/ZnS, perovskite quantum dots and silicon resin composite under UV illumination
  • Figure 76. Quantag GQDs and sensor
  • Figure 77. CO2 capture and separation technology
  • Figure 78. Global capacity of point-source carbon capture and storage facilities
  • Figure 79. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 source, 2022
  • Figure 80. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 source, 2030
  • Figure 81. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 endpoint, 2022 and 2030
  • Figure 82. Post-combustion carbon capture process
  • Figure 83. Postcombustion CO2 Capture in a Coal-Fired Power Plant
  • Figure 84. Oxy-combustion carbon capture process
  • Figure 85. Liquid or supercritical CO2 carbon capture process
  • Figure 86. Pre-combustion carbon capture process
  • Figure 87. Amine-based absorption technology
  • Figure 88. Pressure swing absorption technology
  • Figure 89. Membrane separation technology
  • Figure 90. Liquid or supercritical CO2 (cryogenic) distillation
  • Figure 91. Process schematic of chemical looping
  • Figure 92. Calix advanced calcination reactor
  • Figure 93. Fuel Cell CO2 Capture diagram
  • Figure 94. Electrochemical CO2 reduction products
  • Figure 95. CO2 captured from air using liquid and solid sorbent DAC plants, storage, and reuse
  • Figure 96. Global CO2 capture from biomass and DAC in the Net Zero Scenario
  • Figure 97. Structures of nanomaterials based on dimensions
  • Figure 98. Schematic of 2-D materials
  • Figure 99. Diagram of the mechanical exfoliation method
  • Figure 100. Diagram of liquid exfoliation method
  • Figure 101. Structure of hexagonal boron nitride
  • Figure 102. BN nanosheet textiles application
  • Figure 103. Structure diagram of Ti3C2Tx
  • Figure 104. Types and applications of 2D TMDCs
  • Figure 105. Left: Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2). Right: Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2)
  • Figure 106. SEM image of MoS2
  • Figure 107. Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor
  • Figure 108. Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge
  • Figure 109. Borophene schematic
  • Figure 110. Black phosphorus structure
  • Figure 111. Black Phosphorus crystal
  • Figure 112. Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation
  • Figure 113: Graphitic carbon nitride
  • Figure 114. Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology
  • Figure 115. Schematic of germanene
  • Figure 116. Graphdiyne structure
  • Figure 117. Schematic of Graphane crystal
  • Figure 118. Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide
  • Figure 119. Silicene structure
  • Figure 120. Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate
  • Figure 121. Silicene transistor
  • Figure 122. Crystal structure for stanene
  • Figure 123. Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)
  • Figure 124. Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)
  • Figure 125. Application of Li-Al LDH as CO2 sensor
  • Figure 126. Graphene-based membrane dehumidification test cell
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